Histological Impact Of Calcium Carbonate On The Juveniles Of The Brackish River Prawn
Okogbue Blessing C., Hart A. Ibitoru., Ansa Ebinimi J., Ikpi Gabriel
Index Terms: Biodiversity, calcium carbonate, environmental remediation, M. macrobrachion, pollution, prawn culture, toxicity.
Abstract: Most agro-based inorganic chemical are heavily employed today in lots of environmental remedial activities apart from their core use in agriculture. The dangers of over use of these products have necessitated toxicological investigations using bio-indicators to assess potential impacts on aquatic life. Calcium carbonate was tested on the brackish river prawn, Macrobrachium macrobrachion in a completely randomized design to determine its long term effect on the prawns. The experiment was conducted for two weeks and afterwards the body tissues were extracted and prepared on glass slides for photomicrography. The results showed that the toxicant did not negatively impact the muscles and carapace as there were no degenerations of the cells and tissues. This revealed that the agricultural lime is non-toxic to the juvenile brackish river prawns and also showed that it is safe for use in prawn culture as source of calcium for proper growth and development. Also the correlation was significant at P< 0.05 confidence level. The water quality parameters occurred at permissible ranges for prawns and the relationships between parameters did not influence destructive impact on the test organisms. It has also created an avenue for further research on this product use as nutrient supplement in prawn culture
. Alabaster, J. S. and Lloyd, R. “Water quality criteria for fresh water fish”. Butterworth and Co. Ltd, London: pp. 12-260. 1980.
. Alan, J.A.S., Geraci, J.R. and Hodson, P.V., “Histopathological and physiological response of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri to sublethal levels of lead”, 1983. Water research 17:1115-1118.
. American Public Health Association , “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 20th ed. Washington, DC: APHA. 1998.
. Black, K.. “What is a chemical?” 2003. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a chemical.htm
. EIFAC. “European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission. Revised report on fish toxicity testing procedures”. EIFAC Technical paper no. 24 Revision 1: 37. 1983.
. FAO. Food and Agricultural Organization. “Manual of methods in aquatic environment research: Part 10- short-term static bioassays”. FAO Fishers Technical Paper, 247. 1973.
. Feliciano, D.V. “Toxics – truth and consequences”. Monitor. Journal Water Pollution Control Facility, 1980. 52, (7) : 1856.
. Lewis, R. J. “Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (9 ed.)”. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. p. 635. 1996. ISBN 0-471-37858-5
. NAS. National Academy for Sciences. “Calcium recommended doses”. National Academy for Sciences panel on calcium and related nutrients 1. 1997.
. Okogbue, B. C. “Acute toxicity and sub-lethal effects of some inorganic chemicals on the brackish river prawn, Macrobrachium macrobrachion (Herklot, 1857)”. PhD dissertation, Dept. of Animal and Environmental Biology, Univ.of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, Unpublished (Dissertation)
. Spotts, D. “Introducing Macrobrachium rosenbergii . Freshwater and Marine Aquarium”: 1981, 4 (7):32-34 & 74-75. www.miami-aquaculture.com
. Stewart, D. “Calcium. Chemicool Periodic Table”. 2012. www.chemicool.com/elements/calcium.html
. Zeng, Q. R, Sauvé, S., Allen, H. E and Hendershot, W. H. “Recycling EDTA solutions used to remediate metal-polluted soils”. Environ Pollut., 2005. 133(2):225-31.
. Zhu, X. Venosa, A. D., Suidan, M. T. and Lee, K.. “Guidelines for the bioremediation of marine shorelines and freshwater wetlands”. U. S. EPA, Cincinnati. 2001.