International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 3- Issue 12, December 2014 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Dry And Wet Seasons’ Dynamics In Concentrations Of Ni, V, Cd, Pb, Mn, Fe, Co And Zn In Soil Samples Within Farm Lands In Ibeno Coastal Area, Akwa Ibom State, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

[Full Text]



Nwadinigwe, Chukwuemeka A., Udo, Godwin J., Nwadinigwe, Alfreda O., Ubuo, Emmanuel E.



Key words: heavy metals; pollution; soil; variation; environment.



Abstract: Increase in demand for crude oil, petrochemicals and natural gas have resulted in exploration for more oil wells in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria with consequent pollution of the environment. The terrestrial ecosystem and shorelines in the oil producing communities are under continuous cultivation. Environmental pollution by the industrial and domestic activities may therefore have far reaching implication on the agricultural productivity of the area and multiplier effect on the socio-economic wellbeing of people. It is on this background that this investigation “Dry and wet season’s dynamics in concentrations of Ni, V, Cd, Pb, Mn, Fe, Co and Zn in soil samples within farmlands in Ibeno Coastal Area, were investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer Unicam 939 model was carried out. The rank profile of mean concentrations of the heavy metals in mg kg-1 in the soil samples during dry and wet seasons was : Fe (12.09±4.98) > Mn (9.66 ± 2.18) > Zn (0.50±0.26) > Co (0.27±0.27) > Pb (0.26±0.39) > Ni (0.05±0.03) > V (0.04±0.01) > Cd (0.04±0.02) and Fe (12.09±4.98) > Mn (9.66 ± 2.18) > Zn (0.50±0.26) > Co (0.27±0.27) > Pb (0.26±0.39) > Ni (0.05±0.03) > V (0.04±0.01) > Cd (0.04±0.02) respectively. The concentrations of iron ranked the highest in both seasons. The amounts of the heavy metals in soil samples were higher in dry season than wet season. The pollution consequences of investigated heavy metals as well as their attendant health hazards on humans, livestock and economic crops have been discussed based on the results obtained, international standards, controls and available related literatures. All the metals investigated showed a significant increase in concentrations when compared to control samples but within maximum permissible range as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Department of Petroleum resources (DPR) limits. This implies that the level of pollution of the soil of the studied area as regard the investigated heavy metals is insignificant. Hence, domestic animals, plants and human being are not at risk of contamination.



[1] Bhaskar, R. Lena, Q. Tolerance of Heavy Metals in Vascular Plants; Arsenic Hyper Accumulation by Chines ebraker fern (pterzs vzttatal) .Pteridology in the new millennium. Kluwer Academic publisher, Netherlands. 2005; p 397-420

[2] Udosen, ED, Awak-Ama, JJ. The Concentration of some Toxic Metals ions in a Tropical Ultisol from coastal plain area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Global Journal of pure and Applied Sciences. 2005; 7 (3), 427-431.

[3] Essien, JP, Benson, NU. Trend in Heavy Metals and Total Hydrocarbon Burdens in Sub creek, a Tributary of Qua Iboe Estuary, Nigeria. Trends in Applied Science Research. 2012; 2: 312 – 319.

[4] Osuyi, CL, Chukwunedum, MO. The Ebocha-8 oil spillage fate of Associated Heavy Metals six months after. Petroleum chemistry research group, Department of industrial and pure chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 2001; 1-9

[5] Essiett, UA, Effiong, GS, Ogbenudia, FO, Bruno, E.J. .Heavy metal concentrations in plants growing in crude oil contaminated soil in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010;4 (7), 466-470.

[6] Vwioko, DE. Anoliefo, GO. Fashemi, SD. Metal concentration in plant Tissues of Ricinus Comnismu L. (castor oil plant) Grown in soil contaminated with spent lubricating oil. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2006; 10 (30), 127-134.

[7] Edema, NE. Obadoni, BO, Erhani, H, Osakwumi, UE Eco-phytichemical studies of plants in a crude oil polluted terrestrial Habitant located at Iwhreken, Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State. Nature and Science 7(9) (2009) 78-79.

[8] Ud, GJ. Determination of heavy metals (Ni, V, Cd , Pb) in soil and colocasia spp in oil polluted Qua Iboe River Coastal Area. M.Sc Research Project. Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 2006; pp 20-45

[9] Unilag Consult. Environmental Impact Assessment for the Proposed QIT 750TBD (crude) expansion project, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, Onshore Facilities, Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited, Lagos Nigeria. 1997; 12-13.

[10] University of Calabar Consultancy Services (Unical Cons) Draft Final Report of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the Proposed Iko-Atabrikang – Akata – Okpolom - Ikot-Inwang – Okoritip – Iwoachange Road Project by NDDC. 2003; 2 – 5.

[11] Radojvic, M. Bashkin, VN. Practical Environmental Analysis. The Royal Society of chemistry. Thomas Graham Honse, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge UK. 1999; pp 405-500.

[12] Iwegbue, CM, Egobuez, FE, Opuene, K. Preliminary assessment of heavy metals levels of soils of an oil field in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2006; 3(2). 167-172.

[13] Adefemi, O, Olaofe, O, Asaolu, SS. Seasonal Variation in Heavy Metal Distribution in the Sediment of Major Dams in Ekiti-State. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2007; 6(6): 705-707.

[14] Myung, CJ. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Factors Affecting Metal Uptake by Plants in the Vicinity of a Korean Cu-W Mine. Sensors. 8 (2008) 2413-2423.

[15] Ideriah, TJ, Ikpe, K, Nwanjoku, FN. Distribution and Speciation of Heavy Metals in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils from Niger Delta, Nigeria. World Environment. 2013; 3(1): 18-28.

[16] Alloway, BJ. Processes and the behavior of heavy metals Heavy in soil. Blackie and son Limited. Bishop Briggs, Glasgow. 1999; PP 43-56.

[17] Asia, IO, Jegede, SI, Jegede, DA, Ize-Iyamu, OK, Akpasubi, EB. The effects of petroleum exploration and production operations on the heavy metals contents of soil and groundwater in the Niger Delta. International Journal of Physical Sciences. 2007; 2(10): 271-275.

[18] Raymond, AW, Felix, EO. Metals in Contaminated Soils: A Review of Sources, Chemistry, Risks and Best Available Strategies for Remediation. Ecology. 2012; 3:9-18

[19] Onwerenmadu, EU, Duruigbo, OI. Assessment of Cd concentration of crude oil polluted arable soil. International journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2007; 4(3): 409-412.

[20] Udosen, DE, Ukpong, ME, Etim, EE. Concentration of heavy metals in soil samples within Mkpanak in Ibeno coastal Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. International Journal of Modern Chemistry. 2012; 3(2):74 – 81.

[21] Nwajei, GE, Okwagi, P, Nwaje, RI, Obi-Iyeke, GE. Analytical Assessment of Trace Elements in Soils, Tomato Leaves and Fruits in the Vicinity of Paint Industry, Nigeria. Research Journal o.f Recent Sciences. 2012; 1(4): 22- 26.