Dry And Wet Seasons’ Dynamics In Concentrations Of Ni, V, Cd, Pb, Mn, Fe, Co And Zn In Soil Samples Within Farm Lands In Ibeno Coastal Area, Akwa Ibom State, Niger Delta, Nigeria.
Nwadinigwe, Chukwuemeka A., Udo, Godwin J., Nwadinigwe, Alfreda O., Ubuo, Emmanuel E.
Key words: heavy metals; pollution; soil; variation; environment.
Abstract: Increase in demand for crude oil, petrochemicals and natural gas have resulted in exploration for more oil wells in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria with consequent pollution of the environment. The terrestrial ecosystem and shorelines in the oil producing communities are under continuous cultivation. Environmental pollution by the industrial and domestic activities may therefore have far reaching implication on the agricultural productivity of the area and multiplier effect on the socio-economic wellbeing of people. It is on this background that this investigation “Dry and wet season’s dynamics in concentrations of Ni, V, Cd, Pb, Mn, Fe, Co and Zn in soil samples within farmlands in Ibeno Coastal Area, were investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer Unicam 939 model was carried out. The rank profile of mean concentrations of the heavy metals in mg kg-1 in the soil samples during dry and wet seasons was : Fe (12.09±4.98) > Mn (9.66 ± 2.18) > Zn (0.50±0.26) > Co (0.27±0.27) > Pb (0.26±0.39) > Ni (0.05±0.03) > V (0.04±0.01) > Cd (0.04±0.02) and Fe (12.09±4.98) > Mn (9.66 ± 2.18) > Zn (0.50±0.26) > Co (0.27±0.27) > Pb (0.26±0.39) > Ni (0.05±0.03) > V (0.04±0.01) > Cd (0.04±0.02) respectively. The concentrations of iron ranked the highest in both seasons. The amounts of the heavy metals in soil samples were higher in dry season than wet season. The pollution consequences of investigated heavy metals as well as their attendant health hazards on humans, livestock and economic crops have been discussed based on the results obtained, international standards, controls and available related literatures. All the metals investigated showed a significant increase in concentrations when compared to control samples but within maximum permissible range as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Department of Petroleum resources (DPR) limits. This implies that the level of pollution of the soil of the studied area as regard the investigated heavy metals is insignificant. Hence, domestic animals, plants and human being are not at risk of contamination.
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