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IJSTR Volume 4 - Issue 4, April 2015 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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D. T. Shaahu, S. N. Carew, S. A Ikurior,

Abstract: A study was conducted to assess the effect of various techniques of processing (decortication, toasting and boiling in tap water) on proximate, anti-nutritional factor (ANF), amino acid and mineral composition of Highworth, variety of Lablab purpureus seed. Processing reduced the levels of all the ANFs evaluated in the present study. Boiling in water, was determined to be the best method, reduced tannins, alkaloids, oxalates, Trypsin inhibitors and HCN by 37, 33, 38, 100 and 89% respectively. Processing also resulted in reductions in crude protein, crude fibre, ether extracts, ash and gross energy by 8, 14, 17, 23, 10 and 8%, while NFE increased by 10%. The levels of nutrients in boiled lablab, however, compared favourably with feed grade soybean, while being likely to be much cheaper.

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1-4  



A.B. Muhammad Firdaus, R. Mohamed Yusof, A. Saharul, M.H. Nuraida

Abstract: These days, automotive has turned into a stand out amongst the most well-known modes of transportation on the grounds that a large number of Malaysians could bear to have an auto. There are numerous decisions of innovations in auto that have in the market. One of the engineering is voice controlled framework. Voice Recognition is the procedure of consequently perceiving a certain statement talked by a specific speaker focused around individual data included in discourse waves. This paper is to make an car controlled by voice of human. An essential pre-processing venture in Voice Recognition systems is to recognize the vicinity of noise. Sensitivity to speech variability, lacking recognition precision, and helplessness to mimic are among the principle specialized obstacles that keep the far reaching selection of speech-based recognition systems. Voice recognition systems work sensibly well with a quiet conditions however inadequately under loud conditions or in twisted channels. The key focus of the project is to control an electric car starter system.

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5-9  



Anudeep R., Geetha, Anudeep Ramayanam

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus a heterogeneous metabolic disorder is characterized by hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion, resistance to insulin action (or) both .Management of diabetes without any side effect is still a challenge to the medical community. Medicinal plants provide the useful source of pharmaceutical entities(or) as a dietary adjunct to existing therapies. So the concept of low glycaemic index foods are gaining interest for the effective management of diabetes mellit efforts has been accelerated in this direction to bring into light various foods of low glycaemic index. A whole wheat flour has been designed with the addition of functional food ingredient like methi seed powder, neem powder and curry leaf powder at the suitable level that do not affect the functional properties of the product. The content of protein, iron, dietary fibre, ash has been increased remarkable from (12.48-15.06,12.87-23.8,2.91-9.43,2.32-4.54) respectively. The glycaemic index of the developed unleavened bread (42.18 ) was significantly lower as compared to the glycaemic index of whole wheat flour unleavened bread(62.17). Enriched whole wheat unleavened bread can be included in the diet for the management of the diabetes more effectively and to avoid further secondary complications.

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10-12  



M.D.Nirmal, Bhandari Kalyani Chandrakant, Kadam Jayashree Pramod, Bujone Vaidehi Vilas, Shelke Swapnali Kishor

ABSTRACT: In our day to day life, yoga plays an important role to improve physical and mental health. Normal people can manage their schedule and attend yoga classes but the problem for blind people arises. We need to provide special trainer to train blind or low vision people. Due to busy schedule of today’s generation, no one can dedicate sufficient time to provide training. So here we have developed an application which can train and teach this exergame to the blind and low vision people by using kinect, developed by Microsoft, which acts as a yoga instructor, teaches yoga poses and has customized auditory-only feedback based on skeletal tracking. We found participants enjoyed the exergame and the extra auditory feedback helped in understanding each pose. The report discusses the postulates of yoga as science of mind. The yogic practices not only server as prevention and cure of mental disorder but also result in mental piece and higher psychic and spiritual attainments. In the yogic psycho-physiology of the pranic system, the body, mind and spirit work in an integrated manner. Expansion of consciousness takes place through the awakening of the of the chakras. The report reports findings based on scientific data to demonstrate the psycho-therapeutic use of yoga, and underlines some simple yogic techniques for mental health.

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13-16  



Darmenova R.A., Ashirbekova J.B., Otegenova B.N., Bakirovа L.Sh.

Abstract: The subject of investigation is a professionalism of the teacher of the vocational education as condition of improvement of quality and training of students.

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17-20  



Saravanan Govindaraj

Abstract: Gravity is a property of space-time fabric and not a universal force of attraction between two objects with mass. Considering that energy is distributed in space-time while mass replaces space-time from its place producing a denser or warped space-time around the mass, problems regarding the nature of gravity can be addressed. This paper talks about understanding the nature of gravity as a virtual force created by warped space time and also explains what gives a particle its mass. Irrespective of mass, gravity can exist anywhere in the universe, but can be experienced only by the presence of mass or by distributing of energy through it. Mass is a void in space-time, but in real world matter exists in their smallest form as sub-atomic particles, separated with a space-time. If a particle is said to have a greater energy then it has created a relatively bigger void in space-time.

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21-22  



George Hinson, Aboagye Menyeh, David Dotse Wemegah

Abstract: The study area (South western part of Volta River Basin of Ghana), covering an area of 8570 km2, which is one-eleventh the area of the Volta River basin of Ghana, has been subjected to numerous academic research works but geophysical survey works because of virtual perceptive reasons. It is now believed to overly mineral-rich geological structures, hence, the use of magnetic and gravity survey methods to bring out these mineral-rich geological structures.Geographically, it (study area) is located at the south western part of the Voltaian basin at latitudes 07o 00’ N and 08o 00’ N and longitudes 02o 00’ W and 01o 00’ W respectively. Airborne gravity and magnetic survey methods were employed in the data collection. The field data correction and error reduction were applied to the two raw data on the field after which, Geosoft Oasis Montaj 7.01, Encom Profile Analysis (P.A) 11 and 13, Model Vision 12 and ArcGIS 10.0 were used to process, enhance (e.g. reduce to pole at low latitude, first vertical derivative etc.), model the reduced and corrected airborne magnetic data, and also, to produce maps from them (data). Low-to-moderate-to-high gravity and magnetic anomalies were obtained in the complete Bouguer anomaly (CBA) and total magnetic intensity (TMI) reduced to pole at low latitude with many of these anomalies trending NE-SW by which the Birimian Metasediments and Metavolcanics can be said to be part of the causative structures of these anomalies with cross-cut NW-SE faults. From the quantitative point of view, the intrusive granitic bodies of the study area have a mean depth location of 1.7 km, while the isolated anomaly is located at a depth of 1.4 km (computed from Euler deconvolution). The NE-SW trending anomalies show the trend direction of their causative structures which are the basement rocks and the basinal intrusive bodies.

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Nurazlin Ahmad, Azuraida Amat, Wan Yusmawati Wan Yusoff, Nurshahidah Osman, Noor Baayah Ibrahim

Abstract: The present work reports on the modification of polarizing microscope to a magnetic domain imaging microscope based on Faraday Effect. Sample used in this research is a ferromagnetic garnet; (Bi,Tm,Na)3(Fe,Ga)5O12. The halogen lamp in the microscope is replaced by helium-neon (HeNe) laser as a light source. To reduce the laser spatial coherent effect, thin transparent plastics placed in the laser path. The plastics are rotated at certain velocity. Other factors to be considered are the plastic rotation velocity, the laser intensity and the laser alignment. Typical magnetic domain pattern is obtained with the new system.

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31-34  



Dr. L. Kannan, Dr. Praveena. P

Back ground: Class room teaching was previously pronounced as (Didactic lecture) most commonly performed in teaching and learning methods to cover a vast portion of the syllabus in medical curriculum(1). There is a need of community based approach in understanding the concepts and practice, which is a lacuna in the syllabus that has to be addressed in the curriculum (2). Hence the study is done to evaluate the effectiveness of Class room teaching (Didactic lecture) versus Community based learning among on common topics for Medical students. Methodology: A Control design to find out the effectiveness of Class room teaching versus Community based learning among Medical students. The study participants are done by block randomization in two groups conveniently to allocate the possible effectiveness of the study. Results: Out of 50 students who had participated in the study, the overall students showed good responses of 36(72%) and agreed that community based programme was useful for them to analyze the situations pertaining to understanding the disease process in the community rather from a class room teaching. Conclusion: The program encourages empathy and understanding; motivates students to learn; encourage the student to gain in confidence; and gives them a greater knowledge of professional roles and responsibilities and the illnesses they need to recognize and treat.

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Mehmet OkanErdal, Mustafa Koyuncu, İbrahim Uslu

Abstract: Sodium cobaltite (NaCo2O4) nano crystalline thermoelectric materials were obtained using electrospinning technique. Electrospunnanofibers was calcined at 800 oC and sintered at 850 oC in open air atmopshere. We have investigated the microstructure and thermoelectric properties of the sintered and unsintered samples for analysis sintering effect. The calcined sodium cobaltite crystal structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Products molded by cold pressing method, and one of the pellets were sintered at 850 oC by conventional sintering, the other not subjected to the sintering process. Thermoelectric properties of the both materials were measured by PPMS system in the temperature range 10-300 K. The dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) values at 300 K is 4×〖10〗^(-5)and 9×〖10〗^(-5) for sintered and unsintered samples respectively. Although conventional sintered technique increase thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity approximately % 50 but it 4-fold decreased electrical conductivity.

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Abu Naser Md. Ahsanul Haque, Md. Azharul Islam

Abstract: The study comprises the effect of different bleaching parameters on scoured single jersey cotton fabrics. Three different concentrations (1.8 g/L, 2.0 g/L and 2.2 g/L) taken from 5% stock solution of hydrogen peroxide were considered for the experiment. In each concentration, bleaching was performed in four individual temperatures (78°C, 88°C, 98°C and 108°C). In each of the temperatures bleaching were continued for four individual time period (20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes). The weight of sample fabric was 12.5 grams and 1:10 liquor ratio was maintained in each operation. The bleached samples were tested in a reflectance spectrophotometer (datacolor 650) and also their bursting strengths were found from an Autoburst instrument following ISO 13038-1 method. The results show that bursting strength and whiteness index have an inverse relation between themselves. For the nominated concentrations of peroxide, 88°C to 98°C temperature with 30 to 40 minutes time duration is suggested as the optimum bleaching parameter for knitted cotton fabric.

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Dr. Najm Obaid Salim Alghazali, Hala Kathem Taeh Alnealy

Abstract: In this research the experimental method by using Hydraulic modeling used to determination the flow net in order to analyses seepage flow through single- layer soil foundation underneath hydraulic structure. as well as steady the consequence of the cut-off inclination angle on exit gradient , factor of safety, uplift pressure and quantity of seepage by using seepage tank were designed in the laboratory with proper dimensions with two cutoffs . The physical model( seepage tank) was designed in two downstream cutoff angles, which are (90, and 120°) and upstream cutoff angles (90, 45, 120°). After steady state flow the flow line is constructed by dye injection in the soil from the upstream side in front view of the seepage tank, and the equipotentials line can be constructed by pizometer fixed to measure the total head. From the result It is concluded that using downstream cut-off inclined towards the downstream side with Ө equal 120º that given value of redaction (25%) is beneficial in increasing the safety factor against the piping phenomenon. using upstream cut-off inclined towards the downstream side with Ө equal 45º that given value of redaction (52%) is beneficial in decreasing uplift pressure and quantity of seepage.

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C. Sevim, O. Genc

Abstract: This study investigates the vibration of Al-7075 material during the drilling process by CNC milling machine using TIN covered drilling bit. A triaxial acceleration sensor is used for vibration tests. Drilling processes are made on same block for two different rate of feed, five different number of revolution and without cooling liquid. The same series drilling bits are used in the course of each drilling processes. Vibration values which occur during the drilling process under different conditions are investigated and optimum vibration values are determined as 100 mm/min rate of feed and 1250 rev/min.

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Nivranshu Hans, Sana Mahajan, SN Omkar

Abstract: Cluster analysis is used to classify similar objects under same group. It is one of the most important data mining methods. However, it fails to perform well for big data due to huge time complexity. For such scenarios parallelization is a better approach. Mapreduce is a popular programming model which enables parallel processing in a distributed environment. But, most of the clustering algorithms are not “naturally parallelizable” for instance Genetic Algorithms. This is so, due to the sequential nature of Genetic Algorithms. This paper introduces a technique to parallelize GA based clustering by extending hadoop mapreduce. An analysis of proposed approach to evaluate performance gains with respect to a sequential algorithm is presented. The analysis is based on a real life large data set.

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58-62  



Rajdeepsinh Dodia, Priyanka Bhati, Kvvprasad, Anil Anisetti

Abstract: The counts of malware attacks exploiting the internet increasing day by day and has become a serious threat. The latest malware spreading out through the media players embedded using the video clip of funny in nature to lure the end users. Once it is executed and installed, then the behavior of the malware is in the malware author’s hand. The spread of the malware emulates through Internet, USB drives, sharing of the files and folders can be anything which makes presence concealed. The “funny video” named as it connected to the film celebrity where the malware variant was collected from the laptop of the terror outfit organization .It runs in the backend which it contains malicious code which steals the user sensitive information like banking credentials, username & password and send it to the remote host user called command & control. The stealed data is directed to the email encapsulated in the malicious code. The potential malware will spread through the USB and other devices .In summary, the analysis reveals the presence of malicious code in executable video file and its behavior.

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Maulida, Syahri Dani, Faisal Bukhory

Abstract: Rice-husk ash has a potential to be filler in composite. The study on rice-husk ash utilitation as afiller in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) matrix of plastic drinking bottle waste was conducted in order to find the ratio of rice-husk ask and PET matrix that would result the best tensile strength, which was characterized by using scenning electron microscopy (SEM). In this study, the PET of plastic drinking bottle waste firstly was cut into smaller pieces and was extruded with the temperature of 265 o C. Then, it was mixed with rice-husk ash on ratio of PET plastic drinking bottle waste and rice-husk ash of 95:5, 90:10 and 85:15. After that, it was extruded at temperature of 265 o C before it was pressed by hot press at temperature of 265 o C for five minutes. The highest tensile strength was achieved at 3,462 MPa with elongation at break a round 143,75 % and young’s modulus of 348,82 MPa for the ratio of 85:15.

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Syafruddin, H. Suratman Nur, Alwi, H. Baharuddin

Abstract: The existence of the bureaucracy and the device has a very important role and vital in the life of modern man. This is because the bureaucracy is interpreted as an official institution that performs the functions of service to the public needs. Internal conditions bureaucratic organization itself does not stand alone, but it has the internal and external sustainability. One of the most prominent aspect in the review of the bureaucratic organization is bureaucratic behavior. Good bureaucracy is based on bureaucratic behavior professional. Behavior embodiment bureaucracy itself can be grouped into four (4) main models, ie models autocratic, custodial models, models of supportive and collegial models. One of the flagship program of work undertaken by the Building Movement Bombana is Bombana with Ridha Allah (GLAD). In a way, this program found some key problems in the realm of bureaucratic organization studies. Some issues such as village-level bureaucrats dependence greatly to the district government, the low professionalism and competence of the bureaucratic apparatus, and the difficulty of implementation of inter-agency coordination is still a topic interesting study. The problem of bureaucratic behavior is a complex element that can be influenced by factors that are subjectively individual and that associated with the condition in which the bureaucratic organization is located. Therefore, the condition of the organization is divided into four (4) elements, namely the organizational structure, organizational culture, policies and practices of human resources, as well as the design work which are all expected to shape the behavior of bureaucracy Fun program.

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Baesara Wael, Samson Laurens

ABSTRACT: Regulations special autonomy Papua is a product policy given by the central government in an effort to promote development in various aspects of the four main program priorities for the economy, education, health and infrastructure. in the context of policy implementation, then this can be considered as one of the factors that interfere with activities especially in relation to the legal rules of the program is not yet clear. the focus of this study is: how can the implementation of special autonomy fund policies in education in Manokwari, West Papua province?. This study used a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. This study seeks to identify and analyze on the implementation of policy autonomy special funds Education in Manokwari, West Papua Province through qualitative interpretation. This study seeks to reveal how the implementation of the Special Autonomy Fund for Education in Manokwari, West Papua Province. The research concludes that the Communication External and Internal communication is not maximized. The quality of human resources is still minimal, and not understand the working procedures due to no regulation or supported by PERDASI / PERDASUS governing socialisation Education and lack of special autonomy or special autonomy funds, in terms of the form of facilities or equipment Resource inadequate facilities. In terms of the funds Resources regarding the distribution of the Special Autonomy Fund of uneven and has not touched most of the basic needs of the people of Papua, especially Papuan society itself, as well as in terms of the Resource Authority regarding the delegation of authority from supervisor to subordinate unclear because there is no standard operating Procedure (SOP). Furthermore, in terms of structure in an organizational bureaucracy that there should be a very clear organization structure to facilitate the delegation of authority and accountability.

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Osamah Nawfal Oudah

Abstract: The chemical combination of Beryllium used in the (α,n) reaction as a target materials. wherefore, Beryllium has generally been the material of select when manufacturing a neutron source. Beryllium compounds has a significant impact on the scheme and manufacture of the 238Cm-9Be neutron source. In present work the Beryllium chemical combinations were considered as a producer of neutrons with different percentage of mass, and the neutron yields were likewise determined using the outcomes of the ASTAR calculations per unit incident charge. The neutron yields of Beryllium Oxide, Beryllium Carbide, Beryllium Hydride, Beryllium Hydroxide and Beryllium Nitride were calculated as 3.1006e-005, 3.0365e-005, 2.2866e-005, 2.0464e-005 and 3.0386e-005respectively. The results show that, the Beryllium Oxide is a suitable material to use in the 238Cm-9Be neutron source.

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Duduyemi Oladejo, O.O. Shoewu, A.A. Yussouff, Hunyibo Rapheal

ABSTRACT: Electric current from organic waste of poultry droppings were generated with A Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) technology to evaluate affects of temperature (30 to 50oC), 100g/l, 300g/l and 500g/l slurry concentrations prepared with the distilled water and inoculated when introduced into the anodic chamber. A constant concentration of 50g/l of the oxidizing agent (Potassium ferricyanide) at the cathode chamber was prepared to evaluate the voltage and current generated by the set up for 7 days in each case. Higher slurry concentrations were observed to generate higher initial current and voltage than in lower concentrations. Higher slurry concentrations also demonstrated sustained power generation up to the day 6 before decline. A maximum current of 1.1V and 0.15 mA was achieved while the temperature variation was observed to have minimal effect within the range considered at low concentration. A (MFC) is a biochemical-catalyzed system, capable of generating electricity as a by-product, also providing an alternative method of waste treatment. Application: Alternative power source and waste treatment.

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Muluken Alemu Yehuala

Abstract: This research work has investigated the potential applicability of data mining technology to predict student success and failure cases on University students’ datasets. CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Process for Data mining) is a data mining methodology to be used by the research. Classification and prediction data mining functionalities are used to extract hidden patterns from students’ data. These patterns can be seen in relation to different variables in the students’ records. The classification rule generation process is based on the decision tree and Bayes as a classification technique and the generated rules were studied and evaluated. Data collected from MS_EXCEL files, and it has been preprocessed for model building. Models were built and tested by using a sample dataset of 11,873 regular undergraduate students. Analysis is done by using WEKA 3.7 application software. The research results offer a helpful and constructive recommendations to the academic planners in universities of learning to enhance their decision making process. This will also aid in the curriculum structure and modification in order to improve students’ academic performance. Students able to decide about their field of study before they are enrolled in specific field of study based on the previous experience taken from the research-findings. The research findings indicated that EHEECE (Ethiopian Higher Education Entrance Certificate Examination) result, Sex, Number of students in a class, number of courses given in a semester, and field of study are the major factors affecting the student performances. So, on the bases of the research findings the level of student success will increase and it is possible to prevent educational institutions from serious financial strains.

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Sri Hastati, Veni Hadju, Gemini Alam, Nusratuddin

Abstract: Indonesia is a country endowed with a variety of medicinal plants with strong potential for therapeutic application, curcuma domestica val is called kunyit is one of the most popular medicinal herbs.Its important active ingredient responsible for the biological activityofcurcuma, through the major activity is antyinflammatory. Curcuma has also been reported to possess antioxidant, antiallergic,wound healing,antibacterial,antifungal and anti tumor activity.The yellow colour of curcuma is mainly due to the presence of polyphenolic curcuminoids. This experiment was aimed to determine analysis compound of curcuminoid form analysis using HPLC,LC-10AT,Shimadzu,column C-18 VP-ODS, acetonitril:acetic acid:aquabides as mobile phase,flow rate 1 ml/min and detection at 425nm.Thus the analytical method using HPLC for curcumin were feasible for quantitative analysis. The curcuminoid content from Extract Curcuma domestica Val had the highest curcumin (16.1%) followed metoxycurcumin (3.2%) and bisdemetoxycurcumin 2.8%

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Muhammad Sawir, Rakhmat, Suryadi Lambali, Syahribulan

Abstract: This study aims to explain the effectiveness of the bureaucracy in organizing a free education system in Makassar City Department of Education. Deductive approach qualitative research through case studies. Data collected through observation, interviews, and documentation. Data were analyzed through data reduction techniques, presentation of data, conclusions, and verification. The effectiveness of the bureaucracy can be seen with the achievement of goals and objectives. Goals to be achieved, namely an increase in the quality of learners and students accepted in public schools as well as excellent schools higher education. While the targets are achieved, namely ease the cost burden of parents and educators to the addition of income and education in the implementation of free education system in Makassar City Department of Education. Based on the results of the research program of free education free education program in the Department of Education of Makassar achieve the look of; 1) the percentage of dropouts decreased, 2) continuing education enrollment rates increased, 3) grade repetition rate (learn remedial) is reduced, 4) increased student graduation rates, and 5) increased number of continuing education. With the achievement of these targets, the targets of free education in Makassar effective. In addition, the implementation of free education beneficial to the improvement of school facilities and infrastructure such as improved classrooms, leaking roofs and repair other means. Repair facilities and infrastructure for elementary school-high school showed a significant improvement.

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99-103  



Nur Jalal, Muh. Nur Sadik, Haselman, Hj. Syahribulan

Abstract: In the local government policy implementation arrangement informal sector. This study aims to describe and analyze the implementation of planning policies street vendor in the town of Merauke, as well as the obstacles encountered in the implementation of policy. This study used a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Interview data collection techniques, documentation and observation studies. Data were analyzed with data reduction techniques, presentation of data, conclusions and verification. The results of this study indicate that the implementation of planning policies street vendor in the town of Merauke is unsuccessful implementation (implementation fails). This is due faced with several problems and obstacles, such as lack of communication and coordination between the implementing organization, the lack of infrastructure support, the vendors do not support government policy Merauke.

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104-107  



Burhanudin, H. M. Arfin Hamid, Abrar Saleng, Anshori Ilyas

Abstract: This study aims to gain a deep understanding and overview of the management of zakat to reduce poverty and to analyze the implementation of the Agency in various charity and the National Zakat Institutions established by the community. The results showed that the charity is required to optimize the collection of high professionalism through several strategies give alms to the muzakki understanding, encourage mustahik for always trying to make himself into a muzakki. Zakat has dimensions of economic and social functions or equity gift of God and is also a manifestation of social solidarity, statement of humanity and justice. Law can be used as a means of overcoming the problem of poverty, the effort should be made to the coordination, consolidation and better cooperation in other fields. In the end it is said that the handling of the problem of poverty should be done in a holistic manner. Empowerment of zakat in Indonesia needs a credible zakat institutions and high transparency so that people who pay their zakat has confidence in these institutions. The new strategy is built is a triangular pattern and square pattern synergy synergy (umaro ', institutions, and regulatory and scholars) to cultivate together in the collection, management and distribution of zakat.

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108-113  



Nicole Caldas Pan, Josiane Alessandra Vignoli, Cristiani Baldo, Hanny Cristina Braga Pereira, Rui Sérgio dos Santos Ferreira da Silva, Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi

Abstract: Agroindustrial derivatives are alternative nutritional sources employed in bioprocesses that reduce costs and corroborate with social sustainability. In this study, alternative carbon (sugarcane juice, sugarcane molasses and soy molasses) and nitrogen sources (corn steep liquor, soy protein and whey protein) were evaluated for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920. The medium containing sugarcane molasses archived high yield of hyaluronic acid (0.066 g.g-1), when compared to the medium composed of glucose or sucrose. The replacement of yeast extract by soy protein was also effective for the production of the polymer resulting in 0.219 g.L-1. In general, the organic acids production was also evaluated and the results showed that the main metabolic products were lactate. In contrast, the acetate synthesis was detected only in the medium containing yeast extract. This study showed that sugarcane molasses is a promising carbon source for the hyaluronic acid production. This is the first study in which a culture media containing sugarcane molasses, a cheap substrate extensively produced in Brazil, has been successfully used for the microbial hyaluronic acid production.

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114-118  



Prateek Sharma

Abstract: Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So, this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.

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136-140  



Patrick Sipalo Maliselo, Glasswell K. Nkonde

Abstract: Chickens deaminate excess amino acids and excrete the derived nitrogen in the urine mainly as uric acid, which is readily converted to ammonia. This gas has adverse effects on the health of chickens and air quality. Production of ammonia and its effect on the growth of chickens was monitored at a poultry house of House Number 5743, Mukuba Road in Riverside, Kitwe from 21st August, 2013 to 6th June, 2014. Two batches of fifty day old hybrid broiler chicks were bred in house A and B (5 m x 7 m) under the same management system in three phases. House A chicks were fed on Novatek feed only, while those in house B were fed on Novatek feed blended with 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.9% (w/w) bamboo charcoal of ≤600µm particle size. Weekly mass recording by the use of a weighing scale provided a measure of growth rate while analysis of the excreta using Kjeldahl method at the Copperbelt University and Nkana Water and Sewerage Company laboratories in Kitwe provided a means of monitoring the amount of ammonia generated. Chickens in house B showed a slightly faster growth rate from 28 to 42 days than those in house A. The f-test results from the study showed that there was a significant effect of ammonia concentration on chicken growth rate (P<0.05). The results obtained from excreta-litter mixture analysis showed a significant adsorption of ammonia by bamboo charcoal (P<0.05). The study further indicated a direct dependency of ammonia concentration in excreta on chicken age, moisture content and pH.

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141-145  



Sukhamrit Kaur, Sandeep Kaur

Abstract: Genomics is study of genome which provides large amount of data for which large storage and computation power is needed. These issues are solved by cloud computing that provides various cloud platforms for genomics. These platforms provides many services to user like easy access to data, easy sharing and transfer, providing storage in hundreds of terabytes, more computational power. Some cloud platforms are Google genomics, DNAnexus and Globus genomics. Various features of cloud computing to genomics are like easy access and sharing of data, security of data, less cost to pay for resources but still there are some demerits like large time needed to transfer data, less network bandwidth.

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146-148  



Dr. Mohammed Nassif S. Dissomimba, Dr. Ahmed Abdul Malik, Fahad Hamed Sulaiyam AL Sawafi

Abstract: Attempt to identify the effectiveness of training in the development of human resources province phenomenon and come up with recommendations is working to develop training programs for the benefit of the individual Directorate Omani society.

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149-153  



Deepak Gothwal, Abhijit Dhumal, Anand Gang, Siddharth Gavali, Sandip Shinde

Abstract: Clean water is a basic need of every individual. Today in numerous cities of India large number of waste water is produced. Such waste water is polluting natural water bodies like rivers, lakes etc. Hence waste water filtration & waters final purification is need of hour. In conventional type of filters, when strainer gets clogged we have to manually clean it, which takes time & filtration processes stops during cleaning process. While in ‘Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer’ when strainer gets clogged, a pressure difference is created between inlet & outlet nozzle, which is sensed by the differential pressure gauges. A differential pressure gauge activates backwash assembly which automatically cleans the strainer. Hence ‘Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer’ is used to save cleaning time & it automates the filtering process.

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154-156  



Shaahu, D.T., Kaankuka, F.G., Okpanachi, U

Abstract: Proximate chemical, amino acid, anti- nutritional factors (ANF) and mineral composition of Highworth, Rongai White and Rongai Brown varieties of Lablab purpureus seed were determined. Lablab purpureus seed irrespective of the variety was lower in crude protein but higher in crude fibre than FFSB. The three varieties of lablab seed analyzed in the present study contained between 7.22-9.23% of crude fibre while the crude protein content ranged between 24.88-34.33g/100g. The ether extract (EE) content (2.99-5.87%) of lablab seed is low compare to other legume seeds such as soyabeans and groundnuts. Due to this low oil content, lablab seed may not be suitable as a commercial source of oil, reducing the competition for lablab seed from vegetable oil industries. The natural limiting amino acid lysine in cereals is satisfactorily high (mean value is above FAO reference pattern) in lablab seed. The mean values of the essential amino acids (lysine, histidine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine) in lablab seed are higher than the values reported for FFSB. This suggests that lablab seed can be exploited in feed formulation as an excellent source of amino acid. The aniti-nutritional factors identified in lablab seed are trypsin inhibitors, hydrogen cyanide, phytate, tannin, oxalates, alkaloids, saponin and haemagglutinins which must be deactivated to improve seed utilization. Lablab seed contained 0.3-5.3g/100g of major and 14.9-54.5mg/kg of minor minerals assayed, and this is also low compared to soyabean and groundnut.

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157-161  



Okiiya Andrew Sande, Kisiangani Benson Walela, Oparanya Wamukoya

ABSTRACT: The current focus on change management practices in the Public sector has been significantly induced by new public management paradigm shift that places heavy emphasis on managing for results. This is an emerging issue particularly in public secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to relate public secondary schools with the practice of generally established change management best practices. The specific objectives of the study were to establish change management practices adopted by Public Secondary Schools in Siaya Sub County. The study population consisted of all the 38 Public Secondary Schools in Siaya Sub County which necessitated the adoption of a descriptive cross-sectional survey design and the school managers were to respond to questionnaire items designed to address aspects of best change management practices. The researcher wanted to find out the extent to which the schools practiced these virtues. The school managers stated that they moderately practiced aspects of planning, committed leadership, workforce alignment, stakeholder involvement and had defined governance structures in their institutions. However, the extents were varying from one school to the next. Multiple regressions were run using the change management practices dimensions established against performance dimensions of student enrolment, participation in co-curricular activities, KCSE achievement, financial management, and provision of teaching and learning resources and development of school infrastructure. The study found out that change management practices adopted by the institutions significantly influenced performance. The study recommends that there is need to break from status quo and bureaucratic inefficiency associated with public institutions and be ready to implement comprehensive change management practices to maximize on resource utilization our public educational institutions. The study would contribute towards broadening the knowledge base of various education sector stakeholders towards embracing change management best practices which are result based. Further research could be conducted to establish how other change management practices other than the ones mentioned could influence performance. A larger target population could also be studied to make the findings more representative.

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162-174  



N.P. Patil, A.S. Kadale, G.S.Mhetre

Abstract: The study area is Karwadi-Nandapur watershed is a micro watershed which falls in the Kayadhu river watershed in Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Using the remotely sensed images of the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite P6 (IRS P6), Linear Imaging Self Scanner III(LISS III) images captured in October 2010 and November 2011 having resolution of 23.5m X 23.5m and images from Google Earth Pro of study area were used and cartosat satellites. Map of India with scale 1:15,00,000 and soil maps of India were used for the experimental study. The thematic maps like drainage map, land use and land cover map, soil maps and contour map were prepared adopting the PCI Geomatica10.0 software. The geographical information systems (GIS) analysis was made for the said themes using the Arc GIS –ArcMap10.0. The Karwadi- Nandapur watershed was found to be the third order basin. The present study aims to assess the morphometric characteristics of the watershed basin and it has been assessed by applying GIS techniques. Strahler’s method has been employed to assess the fluvial characteristics of the study watershed. Each morphometric characteristic is considered as a single parameter and knowledge based weight age has been assigned by considering its role in soil erosion. The morphometric properties determined for this watershed as a whole and for each watershed will be useful for the efficient planning of water harvesting and groundwater projects on watershed basis.

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175-179  



R. S. Agrahari, P.A. Dangle, K.V.Chandratre

Abstract: 5S is a basic foundation of Lean Manufacturing systems. It is a tool for cleaning, sorting, organizing and providing the necessary groundwork for workpiece improvement. This paper dealt with the implementation of 5S methodology in the small scale industry. By following the 5S methodology, it shows significant improvements to safety, productivity, efficiency and housekeeping. The improvements before and after 5S implementation is shown by pictures in the paper. It also intends to build a stronger work ethic within the management and workers who would be expected to continue the good practices.

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180-187  



Sofyan Indris, Ina Primiana

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of internal and external environment analysis on the performance of small and medium industries (SMEs) in Indonesia. The theoretical results showed that internal and external environment analysis have a significant effect on the performance of small and medium industries (SMEs) in Indonesia.

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188-196  



Sigit Sukmono

Abstract: Background This study is based on a statement of the value of the company determined the quality of financial reporting and financial reporting quality monitoring board determined Commissioner in implementing corporate governance. This study was to examine the effect of the commissioners on firm value. Hypothesis no significant effect on the value of the company board of directors through quality financial pelporan. The results showed a significant positive effect commissioners through the quality of financial reporting.

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197-205  



Endraria

Abstract: The purpose of the study in which the researcher is interested in conducting research by taking the title "The Effect of Commitment Against Lecturer - Lecturer in Accounting Accounting Profession Development (Empirical Study of Accounting Lecturer Faculty of Economics, University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang in 2013 )". This research was conducted at the Faculty of Economics, University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang is located at Independence Pioneer Road I No.33 Cikokol Tangerang City. The experiment was conducted at the research site easily accessible for the author. The method used in this research is descriptive quantitative methods, which aim to describe the descriptive method of data distribution of each variable.There are significant accounting lecturers commitment to the development of the accounting profession ( Empirical Study of Accounting Lecturer Faculty of Economics, University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang in 2013), this is evidenced by the results of hypothesis testing that has been done obtained tcount ttable value 5.7193 and with a significance level of 5% and df = n - 2 = 40-2 = 38 is equal to 1.686 with the statement concluded that t count > t table. Thus Ha Ho accepted and rejected. The conclusion was that there are significant accounting lecturers commitment to the development of the accounting profession (Empirical Study of Accounting Lecturer Faculty of Economics, University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang in 2013). As for advice to be conveyed in this study is the government as a regulator should be able to evaluate the development of the accounting profession, especially in Indonesia, with the influence of commitment accounting lecturers are expected to improve and develop the accounting profession, especially in the Faculty of Economics, University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang.

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206-213  



Tanko, I.Y., Adam, M., Dambring, P.D

Abstract: The Keffi area of North Central Nigeria hosts numerous pegmatite bodies which are related to the surrounding granitic intrusions islocated about 45 km east of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria. Petrological investigation of the pegmatites and surrounding host rocks aimed at characterising and understanding field relations and mode of emplacement of the rocks with a view to assess their mineralisation potentials were carried out. From the field observations the pegmatites were characterised into: (1) Pelitic schist-amphibolite hosted pegmatites and (2) Granitoids (orthogneisses) hosted pegmatites, and the granites into (1) the Bakin Ayini (biotite) granites, (2) the Angwan Madugu (biotite-muscovite) granites and (3) the Sabongida (biotite-muscovite) granites. It is clear that those discordantly emplaced in pelitic schists varied in shape and size with length and width ranging from (400-2000m) and (2-20m) respectively, some are huge, isolated, sill-like and flat-lying, whilst those hosted in orthogneisses are narrow, ranging in length (40-1000m) and width (1-4m), crosscutting and vertically oriented along shear zones, which suggest passive emplacement

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214-229  



Muhammad Aqsa, Dwi Kartini

ABSTRACT: The rapid development of technology today makes Internet users continues to increase. This is supported by the ease of internet users access the internet either through a PC, laptop, mobile phones, tablets and other media. The increase in Internet users this makes the internet into a proper promotion using online advertising. With a wide reach and touch the various layers of the Internet media communities may be appropriate advice for company promotion. However, an increasing number of Internet users, especially in the city of Makassar is not accompanied by an increase in the number of online purchases. Based on that it is necessary to examine how the effect of online advertising on consumer buying behavior and online, as well as how to control the behavior and subjective norms influence the attitudes and interests of consumers buy online. This study aims to analyze and test the effect of online advertising on consumer attitudes and purchase interest online, a survey conducted on students of Internet users in the city of Makassar. The study was conducted on students of public and private universities in the city of Makassar. The method used was a quantitative analysis using the technique of purposive sampling method with a sample of 340 people. Testing this hypothesis using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that online advertising has an influence on consumer buying behavior and online. Dimensions interactivity of online advertising provides the highest influence on the attitudes and interests of consumers purchasing online.

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230-236  



M.A. Bashir, M.I. Dawelbeit, M.O. Eltom, H. Tanakamaru

Abstract: Tillage practices have often been considered as limited factor to crop production in heavy clay soil. Experiments were conducted for two seasons (1998 and 1999) to investigate the effects of six tillage methods on sorghum and maize establishment and yield, weeds control and some soil physical properties. The technical performance of chisel plow and disc harrow was also investigated. Tillage methods comprehend chisel plow, disc harrow, disc plow and minimum tillage. Minimum tillage was significantly higher in all weed parameters compared to other methods. No significant differences were observed for crop establishment, plant population, total dry biomass, thousand seed weight and grain yield for both crops. Increasing the depth of chiseling and harrowing from 10 cm to 20 cm significantly (P<0.01) increased draft and drawbar power. Travel reduction under harrowing to 20 cm resulted in highly significant differences (P 0.01) compared to other treatments. The effective field capacity, field efficiency and fuel consumption rates of chisel and harrowing at different depths of operation showed no significant differences. However, minimum tillage (ridging only) was the lease in fuel consumption and cost, 3.5 l ha-1 and 2 US$ ha-1, respectively. The above findings indicate that although all tillage methods gave fairly similar results in all tested parameters, minimum tillage could be recommended and adopted for sorghum and maize production in Gezira Vertisols as it was less expensive implement.

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237-242  



Sri Anjar Lasmini, Zaenal Kusuma, Mudji Santoso, Abdul Latif Abadi

ABSTRACT: The study aims to assess changes in soil fertility and determine the type of organic fertilizer and the optimal dose of inorganic fertilizers in increasing the quantity and quality of bulb yield on dry land. A split plot design with two factors was used in this research: the first factor as the main plot is a combination of mulch and organic matter consists of two levels, namely: O1= straw mulch+cow manure, O2= straw mulch+Gliricidia leaves. The second factor as the subplot is inorganic fertilizer consisting of four levels, namely: A0= Without Fertilizers, A1= 50kg urea, 100kg SP-36, 75kg KCl, 100kg ZA, A2= 100kg urea, 100kg SP-36, 150kg KCl, 150kg ZA and A3= 150kg urea, 200kg SP-36,125kg KCl, 200kg ZA. Of the two factors obtained 8 combined treatment with 3 replications, so there were 24 experimental units. The results showed that treatment of organic fertilizer gliricidia leaves (5t ha-1) and inorganic fertilizer treatment at a dose of 50kg urea, 100kg SP-36, 75kg KCl, 100kg ZA increase the quantity and quality of shallot bulbs compared with other treatments. The results of the soil analysis showed that an increase of soil fertility indicated by enhancement of C-organic level from 0.89% to 2.43%. Improved yield quality and quantity indicated by an increase of total soluble solid bulbs and shallot yield from 6.5t ha-1 into 13.91t ha-1.

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243-246  



Ghazal. A. Ghazal, Salwa. A. Hegazy

ABSTRACT: This paper presents the review for the Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equation (SUR) or system model involved several individual relationships that related by their disturbances terms are correlated. This model appears in the beginning of the sixties of the last century, initially introduced by Zellner (1962, 1963), and followed many author .the model has been applied in many fields such as econometric, analysis of economic phenomenon such as, investment, income, consumption, demand functions. We review comprehensively the estimators for (SUR) equation models whereas there are many author write about this model and some properties of the estimators.

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247-253  



Muslim A Djalil, Ernie Tisnawati Sule, Raja Masbar

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find solutions for problems related to performance of islamic financial institutions when connected with industry environment adaptation. This study was theoretical review, especially about the effect of with industry environment adaptation on performance of islamic financial institutions. The results showed that industry environment adaptation have a significant effect on performance of islamic financial institutions. Furthermore it was found that industry environment adaptation has implication for performance of islamic financial institutions.

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254-265  



N. G. Jaiswal, D. W. Pande

Abstract: The paper presents the numerical studies for damage detection in beam structure with mode shape curvatures and its spatial wavelet transform. A small simulated perturbation in the form of transverse slots to be treated as damage in beams and a three stage damage detection process for amplifying the discontinuityis proposed here. Vibration data obtained from the perturbed system is processed for mode shapes which are converted into mode shape curvatures and subsequently fed to the wavelet transform. The study revealsthat the proposed transformation is better in sensitizing damage-induced features than the classical approach based alone on bare modal data. It is observed that the decomposition of the spatial signal into wavelet details can identify the damage position in beam like structure by showing relatively larger peaks at the position of the damage.

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266-272  



Ibama Brown, Eyenghe Tari

ABSTRACT: The exploration and production of petroleum and its subsequent transportation and distribution in the Niger Delta have led to pollution of aquatic habitats with serious threats to associated flora and fauna. Consequently, most studies have concentrated on the effects of crude oil and its products on aquatic flora and fauna, with little emphasis on the socio-economic environment. Evaluation of the effects of petroleum exploration and production activities on the social environment in Ogoni land of Rivers State is the main focus of this study. Therefore, in order to fill this gap, there is the need to investigate the effects of crude oil spills on the socio-economic environment, including the livelihoods of people. This is done by; examining the impact of intensive resource exploitation on the social environment of the oil producing communities in Ogoni land which has further degraded the environment to the peril of the inhabitants. Also to examine how the Oil and Gas Multinational Companies have contributed to the management of the environment in these selected communities. The target population comprised 478 respondents across 4 major Oil fields of Ogoni land which is a 5% probability sample. The study employed two sampling techniques: Multi-stage Sampling technique and simple random sampling technique. The study revealed that the hazards and effects associated with crude oil spill are enormous and conspicuous. It was also found out that, there is no proper mechanism for the dissemination of information about the environmental hazards associated with spills on the environment. The study proffered recommendations appropriate workable Environmental Management Programme (EMP) which will help mitigate and enhance the environmental quality of the Ogoni land through baseline studies of the environment and carrying out full Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) to understand the ecology of coastal environment for sustainable development to be achieved.

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273-282  



Ridwan Ibrahim, Ina Primiana

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find solutions for problems related to the organization performance when connected with business environment. This study was theoretical review, especially about the effect of business environment on the organization performance. The results showed that business environment have a significant effect on organizatio performance. Furthermore it was found that business environment has implication for organization performance.

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283-293  



Sohotden Christopher Daniel, Vivan, Ezra Lekwot, Ali Andesikuteb Yakubu, Shehu Bako Makarau

Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the landscape segments suitable for agricultural purpose in a volcanic land catena of Kerang Area on the Jos Plateau. A reconnaissance survey of the study area was carried out and three different slope segments were identified, a total of 41 surface soil samples were taken from the three segments using a stratified systematic sampling. These soils were then analyzed for the physical and chemical properties. The result of the analyses revealed that the organic matter, total nitrogen, soil PH and exchangeable (Ca Mg) decline down slope, however, potassium (K) and sodium (Na) increase down slope. Co-efficient of variation of the soil properties for the three different slope segments showed low variability for the upper slope (crest and shoulder), exception being that phosphorus (43.10%) and potassium (41.10%) exhibited moderate variability. At the middle slope, the co-efficient of variation exhibited by soil properties is predominantly moderate, exception being that sodium (75%) varies at high proportion at this slope segment. At the lower slope, majority of the soil properties exhibited low variability. On the other hand, total nitrogen: available phosphorous and potassium have values of co-efficient of variation 23.10%, 65.60% and 23.10% respectively. This indicates that available phosphorus exhibited high variability while total nitrogen and exchangeable potassium have intermediate variability. The between or over all co-efficient or variation for the soil properties are predominantly moderate for most variable except PHH2O (11.80%) and PH Cad2 (10.60%) that have low variability and phosphorous (78%) has high variability. Differences in the degree of variation of soil variables from one segment to another can be attributed to soil erosion as affected by slope, nature of soil parent materials and soil management technique. The study also revealed that some of the properties determining soil fertility (total Nitrogen, Available Phosphorus, organic matter, soil PH and exchangeable cation) decreased from the upper part to the lower part of the landscape, with the exception of potassium, (K) and sodium (Na). Recommendations were put forward on how best to use the landscape of the study for agricultural production.

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294-298  



Saban Yilmaz, Hasan Riza Ozcalik, Erdal Kilic, Mustafa Aksu

Abstract: The fact that a PV-thermal energy system can supply energy for hot water and heating in a building is of vital importance for the proliferation of renewable energy sources. Central heating boilers are used in case of insufficient solar energy. This study mainly focuses on the planning of a PV-thermal power system for optimal energy supply in a building and a simulated performance analysis.

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299-303  



Samel W. Ririhena, H. Suratman, Alwi, Gita Susanti

Abstract: Reforms are demands to improve services, especially health services to the community in Merauke. The purpose of writing is to analyze the theory of agency in order to verify the health care bureaucracy reformas Merauke district, which includes reform of the bureaucracy, adverse selection and moral hazard. This study used a qualitative approach and data collection is done by using interviews and intervieuw based on interactive model of Milles and Huberman. The results showed that the reform of health care bureaucracy in Merauke not running optimally, and the problem of adverse selection and moral hazard is still happening in the agency relationship between the Department of Health and the Health Center.

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304-306  



Jangga, Rosdiana Natsir, Suryani As’ad , Agussalim Bukhari

Abstract: When this has been developed medicines from natural ingredients to control diabetes mellitus, most of these materials have been studied and shown to be effective as an alternative therapy. This study aimed to determine the effect of polyphenols Klika ongkea (Mezzetia parviflora Becc.) To decrease blood glucose levels induced streptozotosin wistar rats (STZ) and to determine the concentration of how the effect is not significantly different from the control group of drugs. In this study used Wistar rats were 120 tails are divided into six treatment groups, the first group of healthy controls were given Na. CMC 1%, group II were given pain control STZ 40 mg / kg body weight of mice, group III was given the drug control galvus (vildagliptin), group IV, V and VI are given polyphenols Klika ongkea each 100mg / kg and 300mg / kg for 21 day. The results showed that administration of polyphenols Klika ongkea 300mg / kg body weight of rats and 300 mg / kg body weight of mice as a protective effect on the decreased levels of blood glucose Wistar rats induced by STZ and giving polyphenols Klika ongkea 300mg / kg body weight of rats and 300 mg / kg rat as protective effect was not significantly different the effect of galvus (vildagliptin) 0.9 mg / 200 gBW mice.

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307-312  



Rosmarlinasiah, Daud Malamassam, Sampe Paembonan, Yusran Yusuf

Abstract: Honey Bees feed in the form of nectar, pollen and water, the bees used to build nests, and establish colonies. A hexagonal honeycomb as a store of honey, pollen and seedlings. If feed honey bees (flower plants) are abundantly available continuously, then the always active bees build nests, and fill each cell nest of honey, pollen, eggs, and other products. The purpose of research is to determine the types of flowering plants as a potential feed honey bees (nectar and pollen). The experiment was conducted at Mount Tinanggo Kolaka Southeast Sulawesi Province which lasted from March 2013 until March 2014. Determined by purposive sample observations based on the location of the nearest and farthest honey, using the method of terraced paths. Samples were placed systematically with the withdrawal of the central point on the tree path beehive, a radius of 700 meters from the center of the North, East, South, and West. Data type of plant, plant density and stem diameter were analyzed to determine the importance value index and diversity index type at the tree level, trees, saplings, and seedlings. Based on the results of the enumeration on the collected research sites by 591 plant specimens were clustered on the tree level 152, level 102 poles, 178 degree and 159 degree stake seedlings. Levels of tree species diversity and relatively abundant mast high, and the level of saplings and seedlings are relatively abundant. The dominant species on the tree level Meranti (Shorea sp) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), levels Holea pole (Cleistantus laevis Hook f) and Kuma (Palaquium obovatum Engl), the level of saplings and seedlings levels Holea (Cleistantus laevis Hook f) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum). There are 237 types of flowering plants, averaging 19.75 per month flowering plants and flowering peak was in September.

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313-318  



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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - December 2017 - Volume 6 Issue 12