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IJSTR Volume 4 - Issue 8, August 2015 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Mohamed Saad, Mohd Ali Tofigh, Farah Zaheeda, Ahmed N AL-Masri, Nordin Bin Othman, Muhammad Irsyad, Ahmad Abbas, Erhab Youssef

Abstract: The electric power utilities seek to take advantage of novel approaches to meet growing energy demand. Utilities are under pressure to evolve their classical topologies to increase the usage of distributed generation. Currently, the electrical power engineers in many regions of the world are implementing manual methods to measure power consumption for farther assessment of voltage violation. Such process proved to be time consuming, costly and inaccurate. Also, demand response is a grid management technique where retail or wholesale customers are requested either electronically or manually to reduce their load. Therefore, this paper aims to design and model an automated power system for optimal new load locations, using DPL (DIgSILENT Programming Language). This study is a diagnostic approach that assists system operator about any voltage violation cases that would happen during adding new load to the grid. The process of identifying the optimal bus bar location involves a complicated calculation of the power consumptions at each load bus As a result, the DPL program would consider all the IEEE 30 bus internal network's data then a load flow simulation will be executed. To add the new load to the first bus in the network. Therefore, the developed model will simulate the new load at each available bus bar in the network and generate three analytical reports for each case that captures the over/under voltage and the loading elements among the grid.

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1-7  



Orakwe, LC, Chukwuma, EC

Abstract: The chemometric data mining techniques using principal factor analysis (PFA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA), was employed to evaluate, and to examine the borehole characteristics of geological formations of Enugu State of Nigeria to determine the latent structure of the borehole characteristics and to classify 9 borehole parameters from 49 locations into borehole groups of similar characteristics. PFA extracted three factors which accounted for a large proportion of the variation in the data (77.305% of the variance). Out of nine parameters examined, the first PFA had the highest number of variables loading on a single factor where four borehole parameters (borehole depth, borehole casing, static water level and dynamic water level) loaded on it with positive coefficient as the most significant parameters responsible for variation in borehole characteristics in the study. The CA employed in this study to identified three clusters. The first cluster delineated stations that characterise Awgu sandstone geological formation, while the second cluster delineated Agbani sandstone geological formation. The third cluster delineated Ajali sandstone formation. The CA grouping of the borehole parameters showed similar trend with PFA hence validating the efficiency of chemometric data mining techniques in grouping of variations in the borehole characteristics in the geological zone of the study area.

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8-16  



Soyewo. L.T., Ayodele, A.E, Adeniji, K.S.

Abstract : The predominated plant genus of Jatropha were studied using the epidermal cell morphology and pollen morphology to express more reliable power to its identification aside from the normal flower and other features key arrangement, they all had paralytic stomata type with absence of stomata at the abaxial with no traces of trichomes, J. multifida is having the highest stomata length of 27.5µm with highest stomata with 17.5µm while J. curcas, J. podagrica and J. gossypifolia varies between 15.0 µm in stomata length to 12.5 µm in stomata width. They also have straight to curve anticlinal cell walls. They all possess large grain with exine pattern all croton while only J. multifida has the smallest gemmae size of 2.50 µm and its polar axis and equatorial diameter carries lower parameters of 52.1 µm and 51.6 µm respectively while it may be more affected by environmental factor and that is why the results is good but calls for more genetic expression.

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17-23  



Grace E. Iniama, Isaac Terungwa Iorkpiligh, Samson Olajire Olanrele

ABSTRACT: The Schiff base ligands, L-arginine-2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and glycine-2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and their Zn(II) complexes were prepared at room temperature. The infrared analysis proved that the ligands are bidentate and thus coordinated to the Zn (II) ion through their azomethine nitrogen atom and the oxygen atom of the carbonyl / carboxylate ion (COO-). From the UV analysis, a four coordinate tetrahedral structure was proposed for the complexes. The antimicrobial studies carried out on Escherichia coli, Staphylococus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans strains revealed that both the ligands and their complexes exhibit promising antimicrobial properties.

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24-27  



Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu, Ph.D Charles Onugu, Uchenna Ph.D

ABSTRACT: The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria, focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members, selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members’ incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age, marital status, and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies, education, cooperative marketing, credit, gender and business expertise. Also respondents depend largely on farming related activities for generation of income in the study area. Furthermore, it was found that the major challenge of the farmer-members is inadequate fund, poor education and illiteracy among most members, conflict among members and lack of access to farm input. The Nigerian government is advised to formulate policies that will incorporate information from the local level that can support planning, implementation and evaluation of programmes that can enhance farmers’ income; this however, will influence the pattern of agricultural growth in ways that can change income level of rural farmers to grow fast. The study recommends that cooperatives should intensify their education of members to gain more benefits, and that government, non-governmental organizations and international development agencies should show interest in supervising and providing development support to Farmers Cooperative Societies in rural Nigeria.

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28-35  



Samir Eid Mohammed, Mohamed H. M. Nerma

Abstract: Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a rapidly growing technology that enables transport of voice over data networks such as Ethernet Wide area networks (WANs) due to this important different codec scheme is developed to meet the QoS requirements. This thesis presents a comprehensive study about the impact of active queue management (AQM) on Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) quality of service using different codec scheme such as G711, G723, G729 and GSM using simulations tools. The evaluation is done using the OPNET Modeler, which provides a convenient and easy-to-use platform for simulating large scale networks and this also give a power to go through different levels of designing a network even with the ability to program the mechanism you want which is used here to implement two types of AQM mechanism which is not included by default in the OPNET and these two mechanisms are ARED and GRED. The performance metrics used in the study are jitter, throughput and delay. The study shows that G.711 and G729 codecs in a simulation gives a significant result for the performance of VoIP that codec G711 and G.729A has acceptable throughput and less deviation of received to transmit packet as compared to GSM and G.723 also average delay like end to end delay and Voice jitter is lesser in codec G711 and G.729 as compared to the other two referenced codecs.

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Dr. Siham Abdelwhab Alamin, Prof. Sid Ahmed Elshafia, Prof. Daoud Alzubair Ahmed

Abstract: The study aimed to evaluate the quality attributes of fresh camel meat and beef. The result showed that hunter lightness (L) values were highly significant (P< 0.001) between the types of meat. Beef recorded higher values of lightness compared to camel meat as (35.40 and 29.56) respectively. Redness (a) values was significantly (P< 0.01) between the types of meat studied, hence beef recorded the higher values than that in camel meat as (19.60 and 16.45) respectively. The yellowness (b) values were significantly (P< 0.001) different between treatments, However, beef recorded the higher values than in camel meat as (7.78 and 5.10) respectively. In general, camel meat appeared brighter red than beef. Water holding capacity (WHC) was not significantly (P> 0.05) different among the two types of meat studied. The WHC values were (3.07 and 2.67) for camel and beef respectively. Shear force, which measures muscle tenderness, was not significantly (P> 0.05) different among the two types of meat studied. However, beef recorded the lower values than in camel meat as (4.60 and 5.11) respectively. Connective tissue strength values were highly significant (P< 0.001) between the types of meat. Hence, camel meat recorded higher values than beef as (3.57 and 2.62) respectively.

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42-44  



Bernice Victoria, Dr. Gene George, Kevin Ark Kumar

Abstract: Due to increasing concern on potential impact of materials on human health and environment, the materials used in hygienic applications should be durable, corrosion resistant, clean surface etc. Type 2205 duplex stainless steel is a preferred material for use in biomedical, pharmaceutical, nuclear pressure vessels, chemical tankers etc., it exhibits good mechanical strength and high resistance to corrosion. The strength, toughness, hardness of such materials are usually determined by destructive tests. However continuous destructive measurements are generally difficult to perform during the productive process, which creates a need for a fast and easy nondestructive method of material characterization. Microstructural changes in duplex stainless steel due to changes in annealing temperature are characterized by ultrasonic pulse –echo technique and optical microscopy. Type 2205 duplex stainless steel are heat treated at 1000 deg C, 1050 deg C, 1100 deg C, 1150 deg C and 1200 deg C for 15 min and water quenched. There is an appreciable change in the morphology of all the heat treated samples, and the ultrasonic velocity is dependent on both ferrite and austenite ratio and the grain size.

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45-49  



Mohammad Rehan Shahnawaz

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this research is to conduct an in depth preliminary investigation of the Emirati Women Entrepreneurship in the UAE in terms of the factors motivating the Emirati women to engage in the entrepreneurial activities, challenges and issues faced by them in that process, and initiatives taken by the government of UAE in overcoming those challenges and in encouraging, promoting and safeguarding their interests. Methodology: This research is an exploratory one due to the fact that the topic of the research strongly requires an in depth analysis or investigation of the underlying motivating factors, challenges and issues, and the government initiatives taken on behalf of Emirati women entrepreneurs. The research has used qualitative content analysis technique in which the existing literature (secondary data) on women and Emirati women entrepreneurship was gathered and discussed to serve the purpose of the research, such as from other published researches, internet searches and books. Discussions/Findings: The research explored an array of factors motivating the Emirati women towards entrepreneurship and the challenges and issues they come across in that process. The motivating factors were divided into positive and negative factors, with main emphasis on the positive factors. Among the positive motivating factors were the: Emiratization, change in the organizational culture and beliefs, relaxation of social and cultural structures, inde-pendence, and self-improvement and development. The negative motivating factors were the: necessity, unacceptable working conditions, inflexible work hours, wage gap between males and females and job frustrations. The major challenges and issues they usually come across are: traditions, cultural, religious and social restrictions, lack of managerial experience and basic business knowledge, low self-confidence and determination, male prejudice, stereotyping and preconception, minimal networking, gender based promotional decisions, lack of interpersonal support from the husbands and family members, family responsibilities and obligations, and difficulties in accessing capital from the banks. Some of the UAE government initiatives taken on their behalf were the UAE Women’s Organizations/Associations, Emirates Business Women Councils (EBWC), Mohammad Bin Rashid Establishment for Young Business Leaders and Dubai Women Establishment. Overall, it’s been found that the Emirati women have great potential to contribute successfully towards every profession, but just because of the gender differences, they experience innumerable challenges that restrict them to think big or develop a career for themselves in entrepreneurship or in some other field. The study will be of great significance on the behalf of Emirati women entrepreneurs as well as for the purpose of better policy formulation and initiatives.

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Stephen Wakaba Gatheru, David Nyika

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in property valuation. The study adopted descriptive research design to investigate the relationship between value of land and the factors influencing it. A population of 400 land parcels was used with a sample size of 100 parcels of land. Data collection was done by use of questionnaires. A multivariate regression model was used to link the independent variables to the dependent variable. The resultant Hedonic Pricing Model (HPM) indicated that the value of land can be predicted by using the following key attributes; land size, accessibility to bypass, accessibility to primary school. Results also showed that Hedonic Pricing Model is objective and verifiable and hence an ideal method of valuation.GIS technique has proved to be a powerful tool in ensuring that a geodatabase of all the attributes of each parcel of land is stored and retrievable at the clique of a button. The valuation map that was produced enables quick decision making, as all the values of each parcel are displayed graphically. It is recommended that the HRM and GIS be used to do property valuation.

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Barbra Ncube, Dr. Esther Waiganjo

Abstract: Participation is the cornerstone of citizen engagement. In constitution making and other public policy formulation processes, public participation typically involves preparing the public to participate through civic education and public information campaigns, as well as consulting the public on issues such as how the process should take place and the contents of the constitution itself. This study sought to examine the factors that influence women’s participation in constitution making processes, specifically relating to voting in the constitution referendum, in the case of rural women residing in ward 22 of Gutu district of Zimbabwe. Gutu District is the third largest district in Masvingo province. Ward 22 is located in the communal region of Gutu central. The people of ward 22 largely depend on subsistence farming and market gardening for their livelihoods. The objectives of the study were to ascertain to what extent media campaign and publicity; efforts by women’s civic groups; and public interaction through public meetings and hearings were able to influence the participation of Zimbabwean women in the 2013 referendum, in ward 22, Gutu district. Over and above these objectives, the study sought to document the experiences and views of rural Zimbabwean women on the constitution making process. This study adopted a descriptive case study research design. Samples of 108 women from Ward 22, Gutu District, were conveniently selected to participate in this study. Data was collected using a structured interview guide and questionnaires which were administered to the respondents. A focused group discussion was also carried out to verify the information gathered through these instruments. Findings and conclusions were derived by means of detailed comparative and inductive analysis of data. Descriptive statistics were employed in the presentation of the findings. Amongst the major findings are that rural women in ward 22 in Gutu district were in actual fact well informed on the contents of the constitution and could cite the benefits for women as provided for by the new framework. This is despite the fact that a large proportion of the respondents had not seen or read any part of the constitution. So contrary to popular perception and findings of other studies carried out post the referendum, rural women actually voted in the referendum from an informed position rather than mere acquiescence and conformity as previously suggested. The study also revealed that women understood the importance of their participation in the referendum and saw the value of constitutional reform. The bulk of the information on the referendum and the constitution making process in general was disseminated through word of mouth, wherein political parties played a major role in disseminating information and encouraging women’s participation in the referendum. The study confirmed that there was a lack of print media particularly in relation to dissemination of the actual printed copies of the draft constitution. On the basis of the conclusions drawn from the study, the following recommendations are made;There is need to continue raising awareness on the New constitution beyond merely encouraging its acceptance by word of mouth but by actually distributing copies of the constitution document to women in rural areas. Women’s wings of political parties should be supported and capacitated to continue to provide relevant information on the constitution to women at grassroots by leveraging on their competitive advantage over other civil society groups as well as their agency in influencing women’s political participation. The power in dialogue and word of mouth should be harnessed to mobilise women for action around issues that affect them, for example, through workshops and discussions.

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Fatimah Alzughaibi

Abstract: My research will focus on some of the more pertinent changes that need to take place on a societal level in order to better serve disabled people and allow them to participate in all facets of community life. I will argue that three of the most significant changes that must take place include: educating society on disabilities and disabled persons, creating and enforcing better laws that truly help disabled persons, and expanding the definitions of disability and disabled person to include a broader spectrum of ailments, inflictions, and handicaps. The changes, which I support, will be presented in a research-driven paper. I will highlight the current UK disability laws in place and point out some of their shortcomings. Then, I will explore the worldview of society, as a whole, as it pertains to disabled peoples, and suggest changes that need to take place and how educators can help facilitate these changes. Finally, I will explain the shortcomings of the most common definitions used for disability and disabled persons and offer alternatives that incorporate a broader range of people and ailments. My audience will be any citizen whose political jurisdiction is under the UK disability mandate, although, anyone, from any society, would benefit from reading my paper due to the universality of this topic.

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78-82  



Karwan Jacksi

Abstract: With the aim of designing and implementing a web-based article submission management system for academic research papers, several international models such as Elsevier Editorial System and ICOCI, International Conference on Computing and Informatics, are studied and analyzed. Through this analysis, an open access web-based article submission and peer review system for Journal of University of Zakho (JUOZ) is employed. This kind of systems is not only capable of solving issues such as complex manuscript management, time-delays in the process of reviewing, and loss of manuscripts that occurs often in off-line paper submission and review processes, but also is capable to build the foundation for e-journal publications. Consequently, an active and rapid scholarly communication medium can be made. The implementation and deployment of this system can improve the rank of the university and the reputation and the globalization of science and technology research journals.

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83-85  



V. Eswaramoorthi, Sony Sebastian, R. Victor Williams

Abstract: The effects of Ga doping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of sol-gel routed Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on quartz and silver coated quartz substrates have been investigated. XRD analysis indicates that the crystallite size decreases with increase in dopant concentration and the strain in the film is compressive in nature. SEM analysis reveals that the surface smoothness improves with dopant concentration. EDX analysis reveals the presence of gallium in the doped material. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease with dopant concentration whereas the tunability and figure of merit increase with dopant concentration. The UV-Vis transmission spectrum analysis shows that the transmittance and the refractive index of the film decrease with dopant concentration. The band gap of the film increases with dopant concentration.

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Peter R K Chileshe

Abstract: Rock is under greater abutment stress and strain on the sidewall periphery of an excavation than deeper in the rock, especially in the immediate aftermath of mining. If some mechanism could be actuated where a grouted rock bolt was able to transfer excess strain energy from the highly stressed section in the sidewall along its length to the deeper part, the load along its length would be balanced or equalised through friction. The result would be increased effective rock bolt anchorage length, reduced rock yield in the sidewall, and lessened grout and/or bolt failure. The paper reviews grouted rock bolts and proposes the conceptual grouted ‘Multi-jacketted Rock Bolt’, as one route that could be employed in achieving frictional load balancing along the axis of the grouted rock bolt, with six variations proposed. The ‘Jacketted Rock Bolt’, would be an assemblage of tubular steel jackets, concentrically fitted within each other. As excavations are mined and rock bolted, friction would be generated between ‘jackets’ in grouted jacketted rock bolts, in response to movement in the surrounding grout and or rock mass. This would transmit frictional energy from one jacket to the other in a frictional balancing system. This is conceptual.

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92-100  



Silwamba C, Chileshe P R K

Abstract: Mining in Chingola, Zambia, started underground in 1931, and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine (NUG) started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit (NOP) mine started in 1955, situated to the west of NUG, and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area, have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years, from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start, Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG, and many watershed divides, with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambia’s second largest river, Kafue river, and 42% of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper, the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully, stable and free from flooding, coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015, including: 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system; 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes; 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering, beneath the open pit; 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains; 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School – Golf Club area; 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping; 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls; 8. In-pit ramp side drains; 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water; and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River, Poland, was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances, although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health, safety and environmental end-of-life planning was required for the extensive district-wide infrastructure of the open pit water control system, for public safety after life of mine.

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101-107  



Anna Veronica Pont

Abstract: Law No. 36 Year 2009 on Health and the Supreme Court Regulation No. 1 Year 2008 confirm the importance of mediation in the settlement of disputes, in this case the medical dispute. But both these regulations do not explicitly emphasize the type of non-litigation mediation as the best means of medical dispute resolution. Non-litigation mediation or mediation outside of the court is capable of creating peace and restore good relations between doctors and patients.

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108-111  



Kusumaneela Bolla, Santhi Sri.K.V, K.Sara Afnan, P.Krishna Veni, M.Kusuma

Abstract: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder. Metabolism is the way the uses digested food for growth & energy. Importance of diet in diabetes can be treated back to the days of the ancient ayurvedic physician Sushreeta. Type of diabetes, age of the patient, body weight, severity of the hyperglycemia associated complications and mode of treatment being followed determine the exact allowance and type of diet. This needs to be worked out for each individual diabetic. Dietary management is the corn stone of diabetes treatment and should receive the almost consideration by the patient and by the treating physician. Objective: To assess The Nutritional Status and To Study the Effect Of Diet Counseling on Type II Diabetic Patients. Methodology: For this study from diabetic hospital in Vijayawada were selected. In this study 40 samples age 30 to 60 years. They belong to age between 30 to 60 years. Preparation of Questionnaire to collect the General information (age, sex, past history of subjects) Anthropometric data, Biochemical information, Dietary information. Conclusion: There is significant changes in the blood sugar levels after the diet counseling. Intake of the high amounts of the fiber, low glycemic foods and functional foods helps to reduce the blood sugar levels randomly.

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KusumaNeela Bolla, Santhi Sri.K.V, K.N.Varalakshmi

Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus has been known for centuries as a disease related to sweetness. even though several million people all over the world are effected with diabetes, not all are well informed about the nature of the disease. in diabetes, there is excessive glucose in blood and urine due to inadequate production of insulin or insulin resistance. diabetics can lead a normal life, provided they take prescribed durgs and make certain changes in their lifestyle, particularly in their diet and physical activity. uncontrolled diabetes leads to some of the complication so some of the home remedies also play a major role to prevent the diabetes.

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119-125  



Saurabh Chauhan

Abstract: It is estimated that 25% of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed, acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

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126-127  



Minerva I. Morales, Roberto B. Barba Jr.

Abstract: The potential of the coastal waters of the province of Catanduanes, Philippines as milkfish (Bangus: Chanos chanos) fry ground for harnessing in commercial scale was assessed. Several stations in the eleven municipalities of Catanduanes were established as fry sampling stations. The period of occurrence was the months of March to August and the volume of catch in each station established was determined. Total catch may range from 100,000 to 500,000 per group of four (4) persons per month of occurrence. Volume of catch can significantly contribute to alleviate the short supply of fry for aquaculture industry in the country. Given the technology of identifying, catching, sorting, storing and marketing of milkfish fry, the study showed that gathering of fry as a livelihood is profitable in the stations identified during peak months.

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128-131  



Asst. Prof. Abdul Ridah Saleh Al-Fatlawi, Hayder Ali Abed

Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of reinforced concrete slabs with openings and strengthened with (CFRP) sheets, all slabs tested under uniformly distributed load with simply supports on the four edges by using high strength concrete. The experimental work includes testing of sixteen reinforced concrete slab specimens with dimensions (1050x1050) mm and (80) mm depth, as well as a series of tests carried out on construction materials. These slabs were arranged in group (1 to 6), where specimen group (1) is slab without openings and without strengthening, all other remaining groups contained three specimens with opening in the middle strip, one specimen was unstrengthened and the others were strengthened with CFRP sheets using two different schemes. The experimental work also includes studying the existence of a square opening in the center of slab (group (2)) and comparing the division of one square opening into two square opening, so the total area of them was equal to the area of one square opening in group (2). These opening were placed within the middle strip of slab, group (3) was central converging opening (center of the middle strip) and group (4) was central diverging opening (on the side of the middle strip), but group (5) and (6) are represented slabs with two opening in the middle strip converging and diverging respectively. Experimental results showed that the presence of the openings, the unstrengthened specimens showed a decrease in ultimate load capacity between (20.3% - 29.6 %) with respect to the control solid slab especially slabs with two converging opening showed a significant decrease in ultimate load capacity. On the other hand, the test results clearly demonstrated that the use of CFRP depends on the strengthening scheme which leads to a significant improvements by (33.3% - 87.5%) in the cracking load and (26.2% - 55.1%) in the ultimate load compared with unstrengthened slab with opening. The experimental tests also showed the slab specimen with two diagonal diverging opening and strengthening with CFRP by second scheme leading to the best results in cracking load by (36.4%) and ultimate load (21.8%) as compared with the control solid slab.

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132-146  



MuthuPavithran. S, Pavithran. S,

ABSTRACT: In the emerging world of electronics the wireless devices are used by millions of people in their day to day life. Every person is constantly in contact with the cyberspace. Thus, ensuring the proper encryption facility is a major undertaking to offer dependable communication. The aim of this paper is to transmit a wireless penetration test and compares the encrypted key of a wireless network with a file that contains the captured packets as alphanumeric letters with the help of Kali Linux. This paper shows penetration tests in WEP and WPA/WPA2 protocols, and also the methods to develop these protocols using various attacks and to supply tools that separate the vulnerable access point protocol for the web administrators to protect their networks.

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147-152  



Emiri, Ogochukwu T.

Abstract: Libraries all over the world have been faced with the evolving technological advancement, globalization, and digitization of information. These have led to library automation, digital and virtual libraries. This paper discussed the contemporary digital literacy skills (DLS) among librarians in university libraries the 21st century in Edo and Delta States of Southern Nigeria. The study was guided by six objectives and research questions and one hypothesis. The design of the study is descriptive survey and the population consists of all librarians from university libraries in the aforementioned states in Nigeria. The instrument used to generate data is the questionnaire and the date generated was analyzed using simple percentages and frequency count for research questions and SPSS version 14.0. The findings show that electronic mailing, social networking, use of PDAs, mobile phones and internet surfing are the major DLS amongst librarians. It was also discovered that librarians acquired DLS through colleague’s assistance, trial and error, IT programmes and formal education while librarian’s level of use of DLS is low amongst other findings. Researcher recommends that management of university libraries should provide training for librarians so as to help update their knowledge in application of digital skills and digital skill competence should be giving more attention during recruitment of librarians amongst others.

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153-159  



Alfred L.K. Kuwornu, Kwasi Obiri-Danso

ABSTRACT: The study evaluated concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in male and female urine stored over six months and its potential as a fertilizing agent in agriculture. Urinals were constructed to allow for easy collection of male and female urine and then stored in transparent bottles for six months in a greenhouse. Monthly triplicate analysis of male and female urine was done for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, temperature, pH and colour change. Bray P1 and Flame photometry methods were used in the determination of phosphorus and potassium contents and Kjedahl digestion and non-digestion (direct) methods for nitrogen content. Temperature, pH and colour were determined using mercury thermometer, temperature/pH meter and a colour chart. Results showed that nitrogen in female urine was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in male urine after 2 to 5 months of storage. However, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) with respect to the direct method. Contrastingly, phosphorus in male urine was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in female urine after 2 to 3 months of storage but there were no significant differences in potassium content for all male and female urine samples. Generally, NPK yields in both urine sources peaked four months after storage. There was a moderate positive correlation between the direct female urine Nitrogen, and storage time. The phosphorus levels also correlated positively with storage time and temperature but weakly negative with pH. Generally, urine nitrogen strongly correlated positively with potassium but moderately with temperature and pH. Colour of matured urine (after six months storage) was yellow for females and brown for males. NPK contents in both male (30.4(3.4*)-1-43.7) and female (34.4(6.5*)-1-62.8) urine were comparable to those of chemical fertilizers, such as 21% N ammonia. However, the nitrogen content of digested female urine was significantly higher than that of male urine. Phosphorus concentration was higher in male urine than in female urine during the 2nd and 3rd months of storage. Ecosan urinals (a designed urinal that seeks to separately collect urine to optimize its usefulness) should be designed to separately collect urine for specific NPK requirements for crop production. Results of this study suggest that concentration of NPK in human urine is comparable to commercial chemical fertilizers. Human urine in agriculture should progressively be promoted by governments and other agencies.

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160-168  



Marlinda, Ramli, Muh. Irwan

Abstract: The use of heterogeneous catalysts in the production of biodiesel provides many advantages due to heterogeneous catalysts can be easily separated from the product so that it can be reused. This research using heterogeneous catalysts derived from natural materials, namely banana stem ash and coal fly ash containing alkali and alkaline earth elements. The preparation of catalyst from banana stem ash and coal fly ash used activator KOH 1.9 N and impregnation with KNO3 15 % and then heated to a temperature of 550 0C for 3 hours. Results of preparation, banana stem ash contains potassium of 36.52 % and surface area of 41.901 m2/g. This work presents the effect of ultrasonic assisted of waste cooking oil with methanol as solvent using banana stem ash and coal fly ash as catalyst. The diameter of catalyst particles of banana stem ash and coal fly ash varied at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mesh. The transesterification reaction was performed in the presence of ultrasonic operating frequency constant at 40 kHz, methanol molar ratio to oil of 9 : 1 and reaction time of 30 minutes. The methyl ester (biodiesel) content of product was 93.26 % of banana stems ash and 57 % of coal fly ash respectively. The physical property was compared with the National Indonesia Standard (SNI) 2006 with a density, viscosity, cloud point, flash point and cetane number.

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169-172  



Sudarlan

Abstract: The development of a country usually determined by the human development index (HDI). Per capita income, education and health are the three most important components of human development index. The purpose of this research is to understand the relationship among human development index to income per capita growth and poverty alleviation in Indonesia with cross-section data from 30 provinces period 2002 – 2011 year. The result of this research were (a) income per capita growth was not significant effected to poverty headcount, poverty gap dan poverty severity, (b) income per capita has a negative effect and statiscally significant on poverty headcount, poverty gap and poverty severity, (c) inflation has positive effect and statistically significant on poverty headcount but did not have any effect on poverty gap and poverty severity, (d) education has a positive effect on poverty headcount, poverty gap and poverty severity, and (e) health only has a positive effect on poverty severity but did not have any effect on poverty headcount and poverty gap.

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173-178  



Otoo, H., Takyi Appiah, S., Wiah, E. N.

Abstract: Lending in the form of loans is a principal business activity for banks, credit unions and other financial institutions. This forms a substantial amount of the bank’s assets. However, when these loans are defaulted, it tends to have serious effects on the financial institutions. This study sought to determine the trend and forecast loan default at Minescho CreditUnion, Tarkwa. A secondary data from the Credit Union was analyzed using Regression Analysis and the Box-Jenkins method of Time Series. From the Regression Analysis, there was a moderately strong relationship between the amount of loan default and time. Also the amount of loan default had an increasing trend. The two years forecast of the amount of loan default oscillated initially and remained constant from 2016 onwards.

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188-195  



Fatima Abdeen Farah Edris, Dr. Ashraf Gasim Elsid, Dr. Mohamed. H. M. Nerma

Abstract: This paper will be a study of two types of channel estimation techniques (LS & MMSE) that based on comb pilot insertion arrangement in fast fading channels environment which is consist of two types Rayleigh & Rician channel models, and a comparison between the two techniques will be done depending on different parameter and implement these into a simulation program which will be here MATLAB.

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196-203  



M. Nikrah

Abstract- In this paper we expend a theory of high gradient laser excited electron accelerator by the use of an inverse free-electron laser (IFEL), but with using new structure and design. The wiggler used in our scheme, that is to say Paul wiggler, is obtainedby segmented cylindrical electrodes with applied oscillatory voltagesV_osc (t)over 90-degrees segments. The inverse free-electron laser interaction can be demonstrated by the equations that govern the electron motion in the composed fields of both laser pulse and Paul wiggler field. A numerical research of electron energy and electron trajectories has been made using fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The results show that the electron gains the maximum energy at a short distance for high wiggler amplitude intensities a_0w. In addition, it is discovered that the electron energy gains various peaks for different initial axial velocities. It is seen that aappropriate small initial axial velocity of e-beam produces remarkably high energy gain. According to the transverse limitation of the electron beam in a Paul wiggler, there is no applied axial guide magnetic field in this devise.

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204-206  



Qomariyatus Sholihah, Aprizal Satria Hanafi, Atikah Rahayu, Fauzie Rahman,Fahrini Yulidasari

Abstract: Agricultural sector is one of the types of jobs that have a high risk to cause fatigue. Many things affect the level of fatigue on the farmers, among which is the workload. Majority causes impact of workload is the behavior of workers who less attention to ergonomic principles. The purpose of this study is to explain the influence of socialization ergonomic work to work knowledge of farmers in the Akar Bagantung Village of Banjar District South Kalimantan. This research method is done by analyzing the situation to find out the problem, then do the experiment by providing ergonomic working socialization of knowledge ergonomic work on the farmers. The population in this study is a farmer in the Akar Bagantung Village as many as 60 people as well as a sample. Wilcoxon test results show a significant difference of farmer knowledge before and after sosialization activities with a p value 0.000. Before the activities knowledge average of participants was 56.50 and after the activities knowledge average increased to 75.00.

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207-209  



Francisco Martínez Flores

ABSTRACT: It is shown, making use of Special Relativity and applying Doppler Effect, thatthe motion of galaxies is not radial but transversal. Linking relativistic energy with Doppler Effect, we may explain that the Cosmic Background Radiation is produced by a sufficientely large number of distant galaxies located in accordance with the requirement of homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe. The existence of dark matter can be understood by distinguishing between a real or inertial mass, responsible for newtonian Mechanics and Gravitation and a virtual and electromagnetic relativistic mass, which it is acceptable by Quantum Theory. The so-called black holes and cosmic scale factor are not following from a correct interpretation through the Schwarzschild and Robertson-Walker metrics, respectively, which together with the inability to quantize Gravitation, introduce more than reasonable doubts about the reliability of the General Theory. The Universe does not expand, butis in a steady state, which can only be explained in the context of Quantum Theory.

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210-215  



Dedy Siswadi

Abstract: This research reviews the legal framework of human rights crime as an extraordinary crime as an approach in the settlement of criminal cases. The outcomes of the research indicate that modern human rights law developed out of customs and theories that established the rights of the individual in relation to the state. Disagreements regarding human rights violations which can only be done by the state and its agents or can also be done by non-government units still exist at the moment. As it turns out in practice, however, it has certain weaknesses, particularly in legislation concerning serious crimes of human rights, both as ‘ius constituendum’ and ‘ius constitutum’, still needs to be improved, especially in the implementation of human rights on judiciary system. Therefore, serious crimes against human rights are included as an extraordinary crime. The handling of the cases was incredible and special has become a logical consequence to be included as an extraordinary crime.

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216-218  



FLt Lt Dinesh Kumar Gupta (Retd.)

Abstract: This study examines the case where market demand exceeds the company’s capacity to manufacture. Manufacturing companies often function in situations where internal production resources constrain their throughput. Such situations are characterized as the problem of finite capacity scheduling. Management policy is to meet all demand in order to prevent competitor from entering the field. Now, if management needs to decide what quantities of each product to manufacture and what quantities to buy from external contractors. In this study we have described two methodologies based on LP analysis to solve production outsourcing problem using latest version of MATLAB. We choose the best methodology which gives us maximum profits.

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219-221  



Wallace Agyei

Abstract: Completing a project on time and within budget is not an easy task. Project planning and scheduling plays a central role in predicting both the time and cost aspects of a project. This study is aimed at finding trade-off between the cost and minimum expected time that will be required to complete the building project. The data on the cost and duration of activities involved were obtained Angel Estates and Construction Ltd., a construction company based in Ashanti region, Ghana. Both critical path method (CPM) and project evaluation and review technique (PERT) were used for the analysis. The activities underwent crashing of both the time and cost using linear programming, this paved way for the determination of critical path. Further analysis revealed that the shortest possible time for the completion of the analyzed building project is 40 days instead of the expected duration of 79 days. This means that through proper scheduling of activities, the expected completion time was reduced by 39 days. The additional cost associated with the reduction in timing is GH¢1,887.22 which increases the initial expected cost required to complete the project from GH¢57,156.35 to GH¢59,043.57.

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222-227  



Wisnu Baroto, Muhadar, Said Karim, Mustafa Bola

Abstract: The contempt of court basically is one of criminal offenses against the administration of justice, which as a whole deals with the criminal justice system. The contempt of court cases that occurred in Indonesia, but the enforcement of the law against the contempt of court is an issue that is never-ending. The provisions of contempt of court are necessary to ensure the position, trust authority and integrity of the court in the judicial process, including all matters relating to the judicial process. Guarantee that once the public interest to take action against any violation as an endorsement of the judicial process, the rights of the public to ensure a fair trial, and protecting privacy. On the other hand, there is also a public interest that can’t be ignored in any democratic society, namely the right to freedom of speech and expression. A manifestation of contempt of court is a speech, writing, pictures or other expressions that can be categorized as a contempt of court. In other words, contempt of court is a restriction of the right to freedom of speech, opinion and expression. How to limit the collision of the purposes of enforcing the provisions of contempt of court with the right to freedom of speech, freedom of opinion and expression. Preparation of deeds category and procedures for enforcement of contempt of court must be specifically and carefully.

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228-230  



Jayant. V. Madan, Oshan. M. Sirse

Abstract: In this experimental study, the active solar water heating direct circulation systems the thermo siphon solar flat plate collector has been tested at Government medical college, (21.15ºN, 79.09ºE), Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. The various data needed are collected from Indian metrological department and during months from November to January i.e. during the winter season, the responses from the system has been studied and analyzed. The maximum temperature was obtained was around 70ºc and the minimum ambient temperature was 18ºc. The objective of the present work is to evaluate efficiency of flat plate collector in Nagpur region considering these aspects of the flat plate collector both theoretically and experimentally. A test setup is fabricated and experiments conducted to study these aspects.

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231-234  



Durairaj M, Revathi V

Abstract: Diagnosing the presence of heart disease is actually tedious process,as it requires depth knowledge and rich experience. In general, the prediction of heart disease lies upon the traditional way of examining medical report such as ECG (The Electrocardiogram), MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), Blood Pressure, Stress tests by a medical practitioner. Now days, a large volume of medical data is available in medical industry and acts as a great source of predicting useful and hidden facts in almost all medical problems. These facts would really in turn, help the practitioners to make accurate predictions. The novel techniques of Artificial Neural Network concepts have also been contributing themselves in yielding highest prediction accuracy over medical data. This paper aims to predict the existence of heart disease using Back Propagation MLP (Multilayer Perceptron) of Artificial Nerual Network. The results are compared with the existing works carried out in the same domain.

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235-239  



Eng. Sameh. M.El –Sayed, Dr. Wagdy R. Anis, Dr. Ismail M.Hafez

Abstract: The sun is the world’s sole source of energy. In fact, all of the energy being used on the earth today is driven from solar energy. Because of the increase in world energy demand and the threat of global warming; there is a pressing need for the development of reliable, cost-effective sources of renewable energy. Renewable energy sources include indirect solar energy such as hydro, wind and direct solar energy conversion through thermal receivers or photovoltaic. This paper discusses the parameters that affects on the cell temperature under concentration. Comparison between fixed modules and solar cells operating under concentration to get the optimum solution. By increasing the concentration factor one minimizes the area of the cell .System uses special cell (Fresnel lens and multilayer cells).This cell has large efficiency and bear high temperature. The economic studies are necessary to calculate the cost of 1kwh for each case.

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240-246  



Josner Simanjuntak

Abstract: The Legal Institution of the General Election in Indonesia has an important role in the process of elections to realize the sovereignty of the people. The legal institution is independent as mandated of the Indonesian constitution (The 1945 Constitution). In the Election organizers as a chapter of the 1945 Constitution, stating that the Election Commission shall be independent and impartial toward participating in the election and political party. However in practice this task is not easy and can be run smoothly it is difficult to maintain a balanced relationship between the participant election commissions. This research is a descriptive analytic one using juridical normative approach to study the legal principles, legal synchronization. The technique being used to gather data is librarian research supported by field research using interview and questionnaire technique. The data being gathered are analyzed qualitatively. The result of the research shows that the legal institution the general election in undertaking has not been independent as expected, because for institutional and administrative for has not been independence and not impartiality and not professionalism. The rules in the process of elections is it not the election system and achievement of justice.

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247-251  



Danai Tavonga Zhou, Vitaris Kodogo, Munyaradzi Dzafitita, Olav Øktedalen, Rudo Muswe, Babill Stray-Pedersen

Abstract: Life-expectancy among HIV-infected patients has risen due to use of antiretroviral drugs. However there are new concerns as accompanying metabolic and morphologic changes predispose HIV-infected individuals to cardiovascular disease. Progression of cardiovascular disease is a slow process marked by both changes in lipid levels and low grade systemic inflammation, assessed using highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients using lipids and hs-CRP levels. Serum and plasma samples were collected from HIV-infected adults who were antiretroviral therapy-experienced (n=87) or antiretroviral therapy-naïve (n=10). Samples were analysed using Siemens® Dimension Xpand analyser. Mean hs-CRP for all participants suggested that they had some risk of cardiovascular disease in spite of antiretroviral therapy history. Of all 97 participants, 57.7% had elevated hs-CRP levels (>3mg/dL) suggesting high risk, 26.8% had levels between 1 and 3mg/dL (average risk) and 34% had levels below 1mg/dL (low risk). Lipid levels were normal in all participants and there was no correlation between hs-CRP and lipid levels. There was no significant difference in hs-CRP levels by sex, age and antiretroviral therapy history. Elevated hs-CRP levels of participants suggest that HIV-infected patients may be at risk of cardiovascular disease through low-grade inflammation.

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252-257  



Erianto N, Muhadar, Said K, Slamet S

Abstract: This research reviews the essence of compensation concept as an additional penalty in the Indonesian criminal system as well as the extent of their impact on the effectiveness of financial indemnification of the state, and aims to provide an overview of the construction of the compensation concept in criminal law reform. The outcomes of the research indicate that there are the difference between perspective and point of view of the demands of the public prosecutor and the judge's decision concerning additional penalty for the compensation. The intention of the law makers to include additional criminal threats that everything is the same, namely in an effort to restore the country's financial losses arising out of the corruption cases. As it turns out in practice, however, it has certain weaknesses, particularly in view of the forming of criminal law which has no sticking to the principle, that adds to other criminal types on the types of crime that have been specified in the Indonesian Criminal Code it is forbidden. Therefore, to realize the main purpose of law enforcement concerning corruption case in order to save as much as possible the financial loss of the state, criminal compensation payments should be made as a "main penalty" not an "additional penalty". Based on such view, the compensation concept appears to be the ideal approach to be applied in the settlement of corruption cases.

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258-262  



Anwar Fuadi, S.M. Noor, Badriyah Rifai, Farida Pattitingi

Abstract: In the socio-political life, the press has become an integral part in democratic life. The press has become one of the means for citizens to bring their thoughts and opinions. Nowadays, there is a tendency to increase the quantity of press publications sharp, but not accompanied by a statement of the quality of journalism. The objective of this research is to understand the essence of the infotainment liability as a mass media, in order to construct a freedom of the press principle which has legitimacy within the legal system of the press in Indonesia. The type of research used in this paper is normative research or also known as doctrinal research by reviewing the legal protection to the infotainment as a mass media in Indonesia. The outcomes of the research indicate that the role of infotainment in the legal system of the press in Indonesia refers to the legal construction of institutional and infotainment organizers itself. Legal liability of Infotainment essentially, can be seen from the press obligations stipulated in the Law No. 40 of 1999 regarding the Press, Law No. 32 of 2002 regarding Broadcasting, as well as the Journalists' Code of Ethics which support freedom of the press and expression.

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271-274  



Eng. Mohammed Fawzy, Dr. WagdyR.Anis, Dr. Ismail M. Hafez

Abstract: Due to the increasing demand of electrical energy in Egypt and also in many neighboring countries around the world, the main problem facing electrical energy production using classical methods such steam power stations is the depletion of fossil fuels. The gap between the electrical energy demand and the continuous increase on the fossil fuel cost make the problem of electricity generation more sophisticated. With the continuous decrease of the photovoltaic (PV) technologies cost, it doesn’t make sense neglecting the importance of electricity production using solar photovoltaic (PV) especially, that the annual average daily energy received is about 6 k〖wh/m〗^2/day in Cairo, Egypt (30°N).In this work, a detailed simulation model including photovoltaic (PV) module characteristics, and climatic conditions of Cairo Egypt is developed. The model compares fixed PV systems electrical energy output with photovoltaic (PV) system using concentrators and double axis tracker systems. The comparison includes, the energy generated, area required as well as the cost per kwh generated. The optimality criterion is the cost per kwh generated. The system that gives the minimum cost per kwh is the optimum system. To verify the developed model, the simulation results of fixed PV modules and CPV using tracking system obtained by the model are compared with practical measurements of 40KW peak station erected in Cairo Egypt (30°N).Very good agreement between measured values and results obtained from detailed simulation model. For fixed PV system, the detailed economic analysis showed that it gives minimum cost perkwh generated Comparisons among these systems are presented. For Cairo results showed that a cost of about (6 to 9) US cents/kwh is attainable.

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275-283  



Otolo Patience Uzezi (Ph.D)

Abstract: The study investigated the information needs and seeking behavior of migrant fishermen in Isoko Riverine community of Delta State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprises of 160 migrant fishermen from six (6) Riverine villages in Isoko which constitute the sample of the study. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. A total of four (4) research questions were formulated to guide the study, while frequency counts and percentages were used to answer the research questions. Findings revealed that migrant fishermen needed information mostly on how to obtain credit/loan facility, that migrant fishermen sources of seeking information included personal experiences, neighbours/friends etc.; that the purpose of using and seeking information included better methods of fishing, how to obtain and use storage facility, modern methods of fish harvesting et. The study revealed that problems encountered while seeking information included lack of good roads to Riverine communities, lack of visit by extension officers etc. It was recommended that government should construct good roads to Riverine villages to enhance easy movement of migrant fishermen. Boat libraries should be established in Riverine communities to enhance flow of information dissemination.

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284-288  



Bahir ahmad

ABSTRACT: It is pertinent to mention that radicalism is not intrinsic to Islam and radical interpretations of the religion or for that matter may occur within any way of life and religion (Saikal, 2003), and yet, the question remains as to why Muslims in certain geographical regions have more radical approaches towards their religion and also that what are the causes of such radicalization. Becoming a radical Muslim is not even a matter of a day nor is it a sudden process. There are several reasons behind making a person radical, peaceful, angry, smiling or tolerant. For knowing the reason behind radicalization or radicals persons, one has to understand the causes. Tracing these causes is one of the ways to eliminate such behavior. The first step in the elimination of the radical sentiments in a person is to develop peace in his personality, (Fair, Malhotra, & Shapiro, 2010). The chapter, which has been addressed here, is going to shed light on the roots and symptoms of the radicalism. There will be a brief discussion on how the roots of radicalism can be traced and can be eliminated. The assessment and discussion will be conducted on the parameters of the economy, media, politics, and theology from social cultural point of view. According to the analysis of Ahrari, (2000), political factor is one of the major and direct factors which have resulted in causing of the radicalism. These factors however intertwine with one another. Radical actions cannot take place only because of the political factors.

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289-294  



Eugene N. Onyeike, Ernest A.Anyalogbu, Michael O. Monanu.

ABSTRACT: The effects of heat processing on the proximate composition and energy values of the seed kernel flours of African walnut (AW)and pulps of African elemi (AE) used as traditional snacks in most parts of Nigeria were investigated. In the AW, values of moisture, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate decreased from raw to heat treated samples, while those of crude protein and crude fat generally increased. The increase or decrease in these values was not significant at the 5% level. For instance, ash decreased from 6.05±1.71 in AWraw to 5.45±0.86 in AW135. Crude fat was highest in AW45 (52.8±2.70) followed by AW90 (51.7±1.61) and was lowest in AWraw (49.8±1.08), while calorific value was highest in AW45 (612.2±11.7) followed by AW90 (609.3±6.23) and lowest in AWraw (593.4±6.75). Similar trends were observed in proximate composition of raw and macerated African elemi pulp flour, and values between raw and heat processed samples did not generally differ significantly (P˃0.05). In AWrawthe percentage crude protein, crude fat and then energy value in kcal 100g-1 sample were 26.2, 49.8 and 593.4 respectively, while in AEraw values were 14.6, 41.9 and 568.6 respectively. It can be concluded that both AW and AE are oil-rich seeds and pulps, good nutrient sources that could contribute to the total protein, ash and energy requirements of humans.

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295-301  



Osama Ali Abdelgadir , Amin Babiker A.Nabi Mustafa , Ashraf Gasim Elsid Abdallah

Abstract: Changing the location of mobile node during transmission or receiving of data always caused changing of the address of the mobile node which results in packet loss as well as delay in time taken to locate the new address of the Mobile Node , therefore delay of data receiving is caused, this problem was known as micro-mobility issue. To resolve this problem, and ascurrently, mobile IP is the most promising solution for mobility management in the Internet. Several IP micro mobility approaches have been proposed to enhance the performance of mobile IP which supports quality of service, minimum packet loss, limited handoff delay and scalability and power conservation but they are not scalable for macro mobility. A practical solution would therefore require integration of mobile IP and micro mobility protocols where mobile IP handles macro mobility and HMIP, cellular IP, HAWAII handles micro mobility. In this paper an integrated mobility management protocol for IP based wireless networks is proposed and analyzed.HIERARCHICAL MICRO MOBILITY PROTOCOL is used. To identify the impact of micro-mobility in IP based Wireless Network, to implement selected micro-mobility model of Hierarchal Micro Mobility Protocol in network simulator, and for more analysis and measurements results and for the purpose of performance comparison between both Macro and Micro mobility Protocol Management.. Simulation results presented in this paper are based on ns 2

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302-308  



Mohamed Almontasir A. M. Mohamed, Abdelhafeez A. M. Yeddi, Mohammed Abdelkreim

Abstract: The study was conducted over a two years period of 2012 and 2013 at three sites of Alfashir locality (Ummarahik 25km north of Alfashir, Fashar in eastern part of Alfashir about 5km and Berka 30km west of Alfashir), Western Sudan in semi-arid zone. The aim of this study was to assess rangeland attributes. Measurements of plant density, vegetation cover, range production and carrying capacity were assessed. Results showed that total forage production was low and inadequate to satisfy requirements of livestock for inhabiting the area, average range production all over the area was found to be 50.68 kg/ha and 59.21 kg/ha for the seasons 2012 and 2013 respectively. The average ground cover was about 34.71% and 42.41% for two seasons. The average plant density for the first season was 27.1 plant/m2, while the average plant density for the second season was 29.4 plant/m2. The study concluded that unwise utilization and exploitation of the rangelands particularly by man causes range deterioration and serious reduction in range production in both quantity and quality, so, the study suggested that improvement and rehabilitation such lands rangelands should be done. Further research work is needed to assess rangeland attributes across different ecological zones in North Darfur State.

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309-312  



A.M. Crinnion, S. Karim, A. Ratzan, S. Young

Abstract- Pneumonia accounts for over 500,000 (19%) of deaths in children under 5 in the Southeast Asian Region, which is higher than notoriously deadly diseases such as malaria, measles, and HIV/AIDS (Rudan et al., 2008). By examining the challenges this region could have with the implementation of preventative methods (i.e. widespread vaccinations and educating natives), in combination with practices of non-profit organizations in other regions and with other diseases (i.e. GAVI Alliance, Expanded Program on Immunization), this research will aid in finding a cost-effective introduction of pneumonia vaccinations and other methods of combat with this disease in Southeast Asia.

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313-318  



Sunday Iliya, Eric Goodyer, Mario Gongora, John Gow

Abstract: With spectrum becoming an ever scarcer resource, it is critical that new communication systems utilize all the available frequency bands as efficiently as possible in time, frequency and spatial domain. rHowever, spectrum allocation policies most of the licensed spectrums grossly underutilized while the unlicensed spectrums are overcrowded. Hence, all future wireless communication devices beequipped with cognitive capability to maximize quality of service (QoS); require a lot of time and energartificial intelligence and machine learning in cognitive radio deliver optimum performance. In this paper, we proposed a novel way of spectrum holes prediction using artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN was trained to adapt to the radio spectrum traffic of 20 channels and the trained network was used for prediction of future spectrum holes. The input of the neural network consist of a time domain vector of length six i.e. minute, hour, date, day, week and month. The output is a vector of length 20 each representing the probability of the channel being idle. The channels are ranked in order of decreasing probability of being idleminimizing We assumed that all the channels have the same noise and quality of service; and only one vacant channel is needed for communication. The result of the spectrum holes search using ANN was compared with that of blind linear and blind stochastic search and was found to be superior. The performance of the ANN that was trained to predict the probability of the channels being idle outperformed the ANN that will predict the exact channel states (busy or idle). In the ANN that was trained to predict the exact channels states, all channels predicted to be idle are randomly searched until the first spectrum hole was found; no information about search direction regarding which channel should be sensed first.

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319-325  



Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science (Hon) in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customer’s information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET, and the programming language used to develop this project is C# and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

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326-343  



Joel, Jerry A., Dr. Iravo, Mike A.

ABSTRACT: In recently world creating opportunities under appropriate circumstances for people to manipulate decisions that affect them will increase the sense of ownership and care that is why participation has become a question of concern for any public and private project development and sustainability. The purpose of this study was to assessing the challenges affecting participation in provision of public services in Arusha city council. The specific objective of this study was to find out the challenges affecting public consultations and involvement in provision of public services at Arusha city council. The researcher use survey design technique in studying 150 samples from 416,442 which included public citizens, mayor, councilors and employees at the Arusha city council office. The sample was selected through non- probability sampling techniques which was purposive and convenience. The data was collected through questionnaire and structured interview schedule and data was qualitatively analyzed where the factual and logical interpretation was explained through using of table and percentages. From the findings of the study, provision of effective public services in Arusha city council is less effective and unsatisfactory because of insufficient number of staff, poor technology, conservatism, bureaucracy, culture, relationship, politics and poor communication. In order to address the issues, the researcher recommends that the governance is weak and it needed to be reviewed in order to enhance the effectiveness of the entire process in provision of effective public services.

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344-347  



Odewo, S.A., Ajani, B. A., Soyewo. L.T, Omiyale O. A.

Abstract: Geographical distribution and morphological features of the genus Crotalaria were studied. Methods follow conventional practice as reported by previous studies. Thirty six species of the genus Crotalaria were shown to be distributed in Nigeria. The genera were allopathic in nature. The species such as C. bongensis, C. atrorubens , C. cleomifolia , C. anthyllopsis, C. cuspidata, C. bamendul, C. calycina, C. hyssopifolia, C. incana, C. graminicola and C. macrocalyx were prominent in savannah zones while C. acervata, C. cylindrical, C. cephalotes, C. comosa, C. retusa, C.doniana, C. glauca, C. falcata , C. goreensis among others were common in cultivated areas in forest zone of Nigeria. Qualitative leaf morphological features of selected crotalaria species in Nigeria were also revealed. It shows that the leaf margin, leaf surface and leaf base are similar in features except in leaf shape that vary from lanceolate (C. comosa and C. bongensis), oblanceolate (C. retusa, C. goreensis, C. ononoidea and C. lachnosema) to obovate (C. mucronata and C. naragutensis). This implies that most of the genus Crotalaria displays similar characteristic and the features among them shows overlap.

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348-355  



Alexander P. Tjilen, Sulaiman Asang, Muhammad Rusdi, Syahribulan

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine how the preconditions of policy implementation to support policy implementation Respect Program, and how communication between organizations, resources, executive attitudes and bureaucratic structures that occur in the implementation of policy in the Respect program Sota District Merauke. The method used is descriptive qualitative research. Source of data obtained are from interviews, observation and documentation of research focusing on the implementation of the Respect in Sota District. The results showed precondition Respect program delivery policy implementation in general fall into the category of pretty, but still so many things that need to be addressed. Dissemination activities have been carried out but implementation at the village level results are not optimal. Community participation is still passive and complementary. Communication between organizations constrained limits of authority between provincial and district governments, resources available adequate but are constrained by the rules of the rules that limit. The attitude of the implementing agencies in accordance with the requirements and have high motivation, fragmentation does not cause bottlenecks in policy. Bureaucratic structure has been prepared in accordance with the PTO, but is still constrained in the monitoring and evaluation system is not running properly.

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356-360  



Likewati, W.O., Kartini,D., Ariawati, R.,Sari, D.

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explain the marketing performance of stars hotel in Bandung city– Indonesia through variables marketing environment audit (Kotler et.al 1977) in which their effects are mediated through variable services marketing audit known as Index of Services Marketing Excellence/ISME, (Berry,Conant and Parasuraman, 1991). The Population in this study consist of 73 hotels with various stars i.e 3 star hotels, 4 and 5 in the city hotel in Bandung. From this population 30 stars hotels ware collected ramdomly in which 15 of them are 3- stars hotel, 11 are 4- stars hotel and 5 are 5- stars hotels. Other than that, some informan were interviewed to formed a qualitative aspect of this study, one informan from each stars hotel and one from hotel organization in Bandung. To analyzed the quantitative data we used Partial Least Squares, using SmartPLS-2 and Maxqda-11 to anlyzed the qualitative data. The results of the study show that the influence of marketing audit services (ISME) to the hotel's marketing performance is not significant, both variable in marketing environment audit significanly affect the marketing performance, but Macro Environment audit is not significantly affect the ISME, whereas task environment audit significantly affect the ISME. Thus there is no indirect effect of Marketing Environment to the marketing Performance. Our finding give a special case of ISME aplication to hotel industry proposed by Berry 1991which is used in services industry in general. The model proposed in this paper related to the work of Wu (2011) in that we use ISME in addition to enviromental variables. Other benefit from this study implied that hotels must conduct a regular evaluation of their marketing activities and strategies comprehensively, sistematicaly, periodicaly and objectively.

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CURRENT PUBLICATIONS
ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - June 2017 - Volume 6 Issue 6