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IJSTR Volume 3- Issue 12, December 2014 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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BettyChepkorir, John K. Rotich, Benard C. Tonui, ReubenC. Langat

Abstract: In this paper we find intersection numbers and intersection matrices associated with each non trivial sub orbit corresponding to the action of rank 3 groups; The symmetric group S5,alternating group A5 and The dihedral group D5 on the set of unordered pairs. We showed that the column sum of the intersection matrices associated with is equal the length of the suborbit . They are also square matrices and of order 3x3.

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1-7  



Soodabeh Soleymani, Mahdi Hayatdavudi

Abstract: Economic load dispatch (ELD) problem between power plant units is formulated as a nonlinear optimization with continuous variables. The main target in this problem is optimum planning in power plant units with minimum cost while equal and non-equal constraints consisting load request and unit production capacity are followed. In this paper an effective method based on particle swarm algorithm optimization for solving economic load dispatch optimization problem is presented which has a high ability to give optimum response in a proper time. GAMS software is used for this comparison.

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8-13  



Iliycho Petkov Iliev

Abstract: The subject of investigation is a CuBr laser emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectrum (248.6, 252.9, 259.7, 260.0 and 270.3 nm). Ten operating laser characteristics and the dependent characteristics – average output laser power, are examined by applying multivariate statistical analysis (cluster, factor, and regression analysis). The relationships between the 10 independent variables and the degree of their influence on output power are established. The results are analyzed and interpreted from a physical point-of-view.

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14-20  



Madukwe, H. Y., Akinyemi, S. A., Adebayo, O. F., Ojo, A. O., Aturamu, A. O. , Afolagboye, L. O.

Abstract: Ten road - cut samples collected from five lithological sections of Lokoja sandstone formation in the Middle Niger basin were investigated using integrated granulometric, petrographic and geochemical analyses. Results of grain size analysis; standard deviation and skewness which ranges from 0.08 to -0.05 and 0.59 to -0.07 respectively suggest very well sorted to moderately well sorted sediments. Lokoja sandstone is strongly coarsely skewed and dominantly leptokurtic implying river laid sediments deposited by low energy current. The graphic mean falls between 0.1 and 1.35 suggesting mainly medium to coarse grained sediments. A mineralogical constituent includes quartz, feldspar, mica, rock fragments, clay matrix and cement fraction. The low quantities of quartz and feldspar classify the sandstone as Lithic Arenite. Heavy mineral petrographic results show that the opaque minerals constitute about 72.99% and non-opaque mineral suites of zircon, tourmaline, rutile, staurolite, sillimanite, garnet, apatite and epidote which is indicative of igneous and metamorphic sources, perhaps from the southwest and north central Basement Complex terrains. The calculated mineral maturity index (MMI) and zircon-tourmaline-rutile ratio (ZTR) indices suggest mineralogically immature to sub-mature sediments. The plot of SiO2 versus Al2O3 + K2O + Na2O reveals semi arid to arid conditions for the Lokoja sandstone with varied maturity. The geochemical datasets reveal mature lithic arenites including sub-greywacke and protoquartzites. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) and mineralogical index of alteration (MIA) values (79.37 and 58.74 respectively) implied that their source area underwent “intense” recycling but “moderate to high” degree of chemical weathering. The discriminant function plot shows that the plotted sandstones were predominantly derived from felsic igneous source. Besides, the lower ratios of Ni/Co, Cr/Ni, Cr/Th, Cr/Sc, Th/Sc, La/Co and Th/Co suggest felsic source rock. The K2O/Na2O versus SiO2 binary tectonic diagram shows source materials in the field of oceanic island arc. The Th-Co-Zr/10 and Th-Sc-Zr/10 ternary diagrams also plotted in the field of oceanic island arc.

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21-32  



Elham S. Dawood, Ibrahim S. A., Sohair A. Abdelwahab

Abstract: Four isolates of Bacillus licheniformis producing thermo-stable amylase enzymes were previously isolated from different Sudanese soils and designated as B. licheniformis SUDK1, SUDK2, SUDK4 and SUDO. The enzyme was partially purified using DEAD Sephadex A 25 gel filtration and then were identified using thin layer chromatography. Optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were determined. The effect of thermal stability was detected at two storage temperatures (-20°Cand 4 °C) for 24 weeks. The results showed that the activity of the partially purified enzymes increased up to 16 -18 folds. The amylase enzymes were found to hydrolyze starch forming various maltooligosaccharides, such as dextrins and maltose as major products so they were identified as α- amylases. Optimum temperatures for enzyme activity was obtained at 60 and 70 °C. All enzymes were stable between pH 6.0-9.0 with optimum pH 7.0 . The enzymes were stable and retained nearly all of their initial activities at -20 °C till the end of 24th week. At 4 °C they lost less than 60% of their initial activities at the 8th week. The Km values were 1.25 – 2.0 mg/ml.

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34-38  



MIRAJI, Hossein

Abstract: Anthropogenic activities had significantly distressed the availability and accessibility of reliable domestic water with sufficient quality. Yet available improved sources are scarce living city slums and urban peripherals dependents of groundwater. The role played by anthropogenic activities upon nutrients, heavy metals and organic content of groundwater was the focus in order to establish the existing water quality and its health implications. Experimental investigation revealed that overall amount of nitrate was higher, 3.361 ppm than ammonia, 0.20 ppm and nitrite, 0.0697 ppm. While 0.541 ppm being the highest recorded amount of phosphorus, 53.64 ppm was the highest amount of COD recorded. Fair amount of heavy metals including Zn, Cr, Cd and Cu observed to range between 0 to within acceptable limits, however the amount of lead from residential deep well, 0.0369 ppm was above WHO guideline. Waterborne cases like diarrhoea increased annually from 2007 to 2010 whereby cholera cases were irregularly fluctuating. Computation of Water Quality Index revealed that observed water quality rarely departed from natural levels.

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39-43  



E. H. Quaicoe, C. Amoah, M. Obodai, G. T. Odamtten

ABSTRACT: The optimum nutrient and environmental growth conditions of three strains of Lentinula edodes (Le 75, Le P and Quagu) were investigated for their ability to grow under different temperatures, on some selected natural media, at different light durations as well as different acidities. Temperatures investigated ranged from 16oC to 30 oC. Optimal temperature for the development of all the three strains of L. edodes was at 25oC. The five selected natural media were; maize, rice, millet, sorghum meal agar and potatoes dextrose agar. The best mycelial growth on natural media was recorded on sorghum meal agar. The mycelia growth rates were also investigated under light durations. The best growth of L. edodes was in constant 24 hrs darkness for all the three strains and the differences between them were significant (P≤0.05). Mycelial filaments were relatively dense when it was incubated in alternating shifts of dark/light conditions; this showed that light is an important factor in the mycelial characteristics of this fungus. This baseline data obtained on these parameters is necessary for the cultivation of Lentinula edodes in Ghana as it is being introduced into the country for the first time.

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44-50  



Christian John Etwire

Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of radiation and chemical reaction on magneto hydrodynamic stagnation point flow over a porous stretching surface with convective thermal boundary condition. The nonlinear and coupled governing differential equations were solved numerically using the fourth order Runge-Kutta shooting method. Numerical results for the skin friction coefficient, the rate of heat transfer represented by the local Nusselt number and the rate of mass transfer by the local Sherwood number were presented whilst the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles illustrated graphically and analyzed. The effects of the velocity ratio parameter, magnetic field parameter, suction parameter, Prandtl number, radiation parameter, Schmidt number, reaction rate parameter and Biot number on the flow field were discussed.

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51-59  



G. C. Kharkwal, C. Pande, G. Tewari, A. Panwar, V. Pande

Abstract: The essential oil from the flowering aerial parts of Heracleum lanatum Michx. family Apiaceae was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by combination of GC (RI) and GC-MS. The chemical composition of the isolated oil is reported for the first time. Sixty five compounds were identified representing 96.95% of the total oil. The chemical composition of the isolated oil was characterised by a high proportion of monoterpene hydrocarbons (39.42%), among which β-phellandrene (14.01%), sabinene (6.75%) and (E)-β-ocimene (6.45%) were the major compounds. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (22.50%) represented the second major fraction of the oil followed by the oxygenated sesquiterpenes (21.42%). Furthermore, antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was evaluated using agar well diffusion method.

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60-64  



Christian John Etwire, Stephen B. Twum

Abstract: Power production and distribution in Ghana is ever more becoming erratic and expensive, both for the power producer and the consumer. It is in this regard that an investigation of hydrothermal power generation scheduling is undertaken for a major power producer in the country. The goal of the study was to determine an optimal power production schedule that meets daily load demands at minimum cost of production and also ascertain the marginal cost of producing electricity per day and therefore tariff rate. The problem was formulated as Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and the resulting model tested using real data obtained from a major power producer in Ghana. The test results show that daily load demands could be met at a minimum cost. Furthermore, the marginal cost of producing power obtained from the dual of the MILP model provided insight into the appropriate Tariff that is reasonable for the power producer to charge consumers.

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65-74  



Faruqe Ahmed, Ajanta Shukla Tanma

Abstract: This thesis has been performed for finding similarity solution of plane turbulent mixing layer. Considering the above situation continuity equation and momentum equation have been derived. Then, considering the momentum equation for turbulent fluid flow a third order ordinary differential equation has been derived using similarity transformations which is the governing equation. Finally numerical solution of the governing equation has been achieved by the improvisation of known boundary conditions into the initial boundary conditions. Here, MATLAB has been used to develop a computer program to solve the governing equation using fourth order Runge-Kutta method.

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75-80  



Lani A. Ilagan, Ruben P. Tablizo, Roberto B. Barba Jr., NiccaAira A. Marquez

Abstract: The study evaluates soil fertility status of rice fields in the eleven (11) municipalities of Catanduanes, Philippines. A stratified random sampling was used to cluster sampling sites into strata and come up a random proportional population size. Soil samples from each sampling site were gathered and analyzed for organic matter (OM) content, soil pH, available phosphorus and potassium following the BSWM (Bureau of Soils and Water Management) procedures with the aid of Soil Spectrophotometer and Flamephotometer (SPF-3).Soil texture and soil color of the samples were also determined using feel method and visual comparison, respectively. Results were implicated into individual fertilizer recommendation peculiar to sampling site within respective municipality. Moreover, a soil fertility map was delineated thru DIVA-GIS software by plotting local coordinates in Google Map. With reference to ideal pH for rice, six (6) towns exhibited favorable pH (5.5-7.0) range while five (5) towns were observed with strongly acidic (pH<5.0) condition. Suggested pH amendments include calcium carbonate (CaCO3) applications and or field submergence of rice fields having pH below 5.5. For Organic Matter (OM), (following the soil fertility rating of >3% - favorable; <3% - unfavorable to plant rice) six (6) towns showed favorable results for planting rice while five (5) towns registered low OM content. Ten (10) municipalities exhibited high available phosphorus>10ppm (Olsen P method) while six (6) municipalities categorically indicate high K content equivalent to≥82ppm. The overall mean results for soil pH level, OM, P and K content of majority of the rice fields in Catanduanes, Philippines werefavorable for lowland rice production, however, the ideal pH and NPK levels may be constantly checked following the recommendations given to maintain optimum possible harvests of rice.

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81-87  



Ishraque Ahmad, Prabodh Khampariya

Abstract: Fault ride-through (FRT) is necessary for large wind farm in most power systems. Fixed speed wind turbines (FSWTs) are a fading but important sector in the fast-growing wind turbine (WT) promote. State-of-art technique applied to assemble grid needs for FSWT wind farm is blade pitching and dynamic reactive power compensation (RPC). Blade pitching is controlled by the difficult mechanical loads forced on a wind turbine during quick power re-establishment. Dynamic RPC is forced by its high capital cost. These present technologies can therefore be limiting, particularly when linking to smaller power systems. A new choice equipment is projected that insert series resistance into the generation circuit. The series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) dissipates active power and boost generator voltage, potentially displacing the need for pitch control and dynamic RPC. In this project we use a delegate wind farm model to study the useful effect of SDBR. The relations between wind turbines and grid results in rising short-circuit level and fault ride-through (FRT) capacity problem throughout fault situation. In this paper, the bridge type fault current limiter (FCL) with discharge resistor is used for solve these trouble. For this FCL, a control system is planned, which use the dc reactor current as control changeable, to change the terminal voltage of induction generator (IG) without measure any parameter of scheme. In this paper, the wind energy conversion system (WECS) is a fixed-speed system able to with a squirrel-cage IG. The drive train is representing by a two-mass model. The analytical and simulation studies of the bridge-type FCL and proposed control system for restraining the fault current and recovering FRT ability are offered and compare with the force of the request of the series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR).

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88-95  



Nwadinigwe, Chukwuemeka A., Udo, Godwin J., Nwadinigwe, Alfreda O., Ubuo, Emmanuel E.

Abstract: Increase in demand for crude oil, petrochemicals and natural gas have resulted in exploration for more oil wells in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria with consequent pollution of the environment. The terrestrial ecosystem and shorelines in the oil producing communities are under continuous cultivation. Environmental pollution by the industrial and domestic activities may therefore have far reaching implication on the agricultural productivity of the area and multiplier effect on the socio-economic wellbeing of people. It is on this background that this investigation “Dry and wet season’s dynamics in concentrations of Ni, V, Cd, Pb, Mn, Fe, Co and Zn in soil samples within farmlands in Ibeno Coastal Area, were investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer Unicam 939 model was carried out. The rank profile of mean concentrations of the heavy metals in mg kg-1 in the soil samples during dry and wet seasons was : Fe (12.09±4.98) > Mn (9.66 ± 2.18) > Zn (0.50±0.26) > Co (0.27±0.27) > Pb (0.26±0.39) > Ni (0.05±0.03) > V (0.04±0.01) > Cd (0.04±0.02) and Fe (12.09±4.98) > Mn (9.66 ± 2.18) > Zn (0.50±0.26) > Co (0.27±0.27) > Pb (0.26±0.39) > Ni (0.05±0.03) > V (0.04±0.01) > Cd (0.04±0.02) respectively. The concentrations of iron ranked the highest in both seasons. The amounts of the heavy metals in soil samples were higher in dry season than wet season. The pollution consequences of investigated heavy metals as well as their attendant health hazards on humans, livestock and economic crops have been discussed based on the results obtained, international standards, controls and available related literatures. All the metals investigated showed a significant increase in concentrations when compared to control samples but within maximum permissible range as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Department of Petroleum resources (DPR) limits. This implies that the level of pollution of the soil of the studied area as regard the investigated heavy metals is insignificant. Hence, domestic animals, plants and human being are not at risk of contamination.

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96-106  



Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Mohamed E.M. Gar-elnebi, Waleed A. Almahi, Nahid M. Matar, Nagi I. Ali

Abstract: This was an experimental study deal with assessment of radiobiological sterility in Radioimmunoassay (RIA) lab. The importance of this study is to highlight the importance of the quality assurance program in nuclear medicine department.. For RIA, the laboratory was tested sterility and apyrogenicity testing determination. The sample of culture media –SCDM and FTM Anaerobic bacteria validation of sterility test with known strains of bacteria, virus and fungi. The SCDM and FTM were put for 24 hours and after that analyzed in microbiological laboratory. The results of sample were 1 colonel yeast cell, 11 colonels of gram negative Bacilli and 3 colonels of Staphococcus detected.

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107-110  



Marcela Kovalova, Lukas Turcok

Abstract: The process modelling can have a positive impact on the improvement of company performance. It is one of the ways, how to analyze, define and optimize business processes. The article focuses on the importance of the process modelling in an educational institution. How it is possible to model the processes, at what level and depth and what are the benefits of this approach to business success. To model processes of a university or faculty is relatively specific. In terms of the basic types of the processes we are talking about the service processes, thus education. This article doesn’t analyze the process of education. We identify the selected system (managerial) processes for ensuring the process of providing this service. For the business process modelling are nowadays used various software tools. In the analysis of the selected process we will use specific software QPR ProcessGuide Xpress. It is a modelling programme, which provides a comprehensive, desktop process modelling. This tool is flexible, easy to use, powerful solution for documenting, analyzing and improving business processes.

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111-117  



Gaddisa Olani Ganfure, Dr. Dida Midekso

Abstract: Introducing texts to word processing tools may result in spelling errors. Hence, text processing application software’s has spell checkers. Integrating spell checker into word processors reduces the amount of time and energy spent to find and correct the misspelled word. However, these tools are not available for Afaan Oromo, Cushitic language family spoken in Ethiopia. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a non-word Afaan Oromo spell checker. The system is designed based on a dictionary look-up with morphological analysis (i.e. morphology based spell checker). To develop morphology based spell checker, the knowledge of the language morphology is necessarily required. Accordingly, the morphological properties of Afaan Oromo have been studied. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first of its kind for Afaan Oromo. The methodology delineated in the paper can be replicated for other languages showing similar morphology with Afaan Oromo.

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118-125  



Azme Bin Khamis, Nur Khalidah Khalilah Binti Kamarudin

Abstract: This study was conducted to compare the performance between Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model and Neural Network model on estimate house prices in New York. A sample of 1047 houses is randomly selected and retrieved from the Math10 website. The factors in prediction house prices including living area, number of bedrooms, number of bathrooms, lot size and age of house. The methods used in this study are MLR and Artificial Neural Network. It was found that, the value of R2 in Neural Network model is higher than MLR model by 26.475%. The value of Mean Squared Error (MSE) in Neural Network model also lower compared to MLR model. Therefore, Neural Network model is prefered to be used as alternative model in estimating house price compared to MLR model.

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126-131  



Christopher John Alolor, El Cid John Legaspi, Pedro Legaspi II, John Lloyd Padecio, Alexander Reyes, Arjimson Santiano, Mary Regina B. Apsay, Marissa G. Chua, Florocito S. Camata

Abstract: Face recognition has been one of the most interesting and important research fields in the past two decades. The reasons come from the need of automatic recognitions and surveillance systems, the interest in human visual system on face recognition, and the design of human-computer interface, etc. The rapid development of face recognition is due to a combination of factors: active development of algorithms, the availability of large databases of facial images, and a method for evaluating the performance of face recognition algorithms. The system covers any departments, agencies or companies which require personal identification and security to their employees. The face recognition system covers multiple face photos, matching of faces, head rotations, detects 66 facial feature points (eyes, eyebrows, mouth and nose) and all data are placed in a database. Additional enrolments will be required upon various changes in registered faces. The said system only limits to personal identification which contains certain fields about the registered user, it cannot detect the skin color and age of a person and the system is not a video- based face recognition system. This system does not expect to solve all the issues in face recognition, such as extreme facial expression, wearing on the face, great age discrepancy and extreme lightning condition and without frontal face information.

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132-139  



Mukesh K Saini, Dr S. Chatterji, Dr. (Mrs.) Lini Mathew

Abstract: India is a developing country and electrical energy consumption by industries is about 60% of the total energy consumption. The industrial development in the country is progressing at a fast pace due to the increase in the number of industries, the gap between demand and supply of electricity is also increasing day by day. To minimize this gap the best solution is to conduct an energy audit of all industries on regular bases. The energy audit will determine energy wastage and losses, and provide techniques and ways to minimize the losses. The energy consumption techniques suggested by the energy audit will not only minimize the losses but also reduce monthly electricity bill. This paper suggests ways and means to conduct an energy audit in an industry.

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140-146  



A. Ndiho, K. N’wuitcha, H.A. Samah, M. Banna

Abstract: Transient mixed convective airflow in a novel Building Solar Chimney, designed in connecting together, as a single device, a Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) collector with transparent PV cells as active wall and a solar thermal flat-plate collector, has been analyzed numerically using a stream function, vorticity formulation and employing a finite difference scheme. The Photovoltaic-Thermal Building Solar Chimney could not only generate electricity but also achieve potential energy saving by the reduction of the air conditioning cooling loads when it is applied in tropical climate conditions. The results are presented in the form of streamlines, isotherm contours, local Nusselt number, mass air flow characteristics and the dimensionless temperature. The effects of Grashof and Reynolds numbers and the geometrical parameters on the performances of the Building Solar Chimney are presented and analyzed. Based on the resulting numerical prediction, it is found that the Photovoltaic/Thermal Building Solar Chimney (PV/T-BSC) model offers a good electrical efficiency while Photovoltaic/Thermal Reverse Building Solar Chimney (PV/T-RBSC) collector offers a good thermal efficiency. Finally, the results showed that no Building Solar Chimney studied can simultaneously provide good electrical and thermal efficiency.

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147-155  



Uzma Zaidi

Abstract: The current study aimed to investigate the relationship among clinical anger, affective and somatic symptoms in depressed patients. It was hypothesized that there would be significant relationship between clinical anger, affective and somatic symptoms in depressed patients. The sample of Seventy diagnosed patients was selected from different psychiatry departments of hospitals of Lahore. Clinical Anger Scale was used to assess clinical anger, affective and somatic symptoms in depressed patients. Pearson product moment correlation was calculated for data. Results showed that there is significant relationship among clinical anger, affective and somatic symptoms in depressed patients. The result can helpful for psychologist and other professionals to plan the therapeutic interventions for depressed patients.

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156-160  



Mr.Arvind Singh Bisht, Dr.Satyendra Singh, Mr.Shailesh Ranjan Kumar

Abstract: Pine trees cover large portions of the Himalayan region and are considered a hazard to cultivation and agriculture as well as the environment. This is because during the summer season, dry pine needles fall from the trees and cover the forest floor. Not only is this detrimental to cultivation, and the growth of grass needed as fodder for livestock, this is also a serious cause of uncontrolled frequent forest fires during the dry months. The focus of this study is to research alternate uses of these dry pine needles, including energy generation, which would result in an economic boost to the region. It would also greatly reduce the risk of forest fires, and therefore be of value from an environmental point of view

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161-164  



Belal Yousef, Dr. Wagdy R.Anis

Abstract: Due to the increasing demand of potable water in many locations around the world, the sea water desalination is now one of the main sources of supplying potable water. The main problem facing water desalination is the energy consumption needed by water desalination process. The depletion of the fossil fuel and its continuous increasing cost accompanied with the increasing demand of potable water, make the problem of supplying potable water more sophisticated. With the continuous decrease of the prices of the PV modules, it is becoming more attractive economically to design a Reverse Osmosis (RO) water desalination system using Photovoltaic (PV) system and it’s friendly to environment if compared to fossil fuel impact. Using RO water desalination technique for desalinate sea water with high salinity (up to 45,000 ppm) into potable water. Instead of depending on conventional fossil fuel, the proposed system depends on solar energy in supplying energy, specifically photovoltaic (PV) systems. In this work a system design and cost analysis for RO Water desalination system powered by PV system without, with storage batteries and hybrid system using diesel fuel are presented. Regarding to low efficiency and lifetime of batteries which that should be replace every four years and it’s expensive prices, the main concept is using water desalination system working during days time with a large array size without batteries storage or diesel fuel in order to reduce total system cost . Optimality criterion is the cost per M^3 of desalinated water.

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165-171  



Mahmoud Suleiman Ahmed Dahoud, Iskandar Shahrim Mustafa

Abstract: Radiation dose delivery to infected or healthy organs inside human body takes high efforts in recent studies and researches by scientists. Dosimeters took a part of their concerning to do an acceptable results due to accurate readings. TLDs is one of the most accurate and suitable dosimeters to be used in human body phantom or in mathematical computer simulation phantom used by Monte Carlo simulation program. Sensitivity, linearity, ability to reuse, fading, accuracy, dimensions, use, dose range stability, application, independency, and other properties can affect choosing suitable dosimeter in a certain application of radiation treatment.

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172-176  



Kenneth Mubea, Gunter Menz

Abstract: Urban growth modelling cellular automata has blossomed due to the advancement in geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing and computer technology. Among such urban growth models, our urban growth model (UGM), was modified from SLEUTH (Slope Land-use Transport Hill-shade) model. UGM has been integrated in the XULU modeling frame-work (eXtendable Unified Land Use Modelling Platform). In this research we evaluated a modified UGM whose transition rules were modified. In order to arrive at urban growth modelling, we used multi-temporal Landsat satellite image sets for 1987 and 2010 to map urban land-use in Nyeri. We compared our results with a normal UGM simulation. Thus, we arrived at two urban growth simulations for Nyeri in order to get a better glimpse of land-use system dynamics. Both models were calibrated and urban growth simulated until the year 2030 when Kenya plans to attain Vision 2030. Observed land-use changes in urban areas were compared to the results of both UGM models for the year 2010. The results indicate that the two models resulted in urban growth in different directions and magnitudes. This approach is useful to planners as it gives the scenarios of using different transition rules of a cellular automata model in urban growth modelling.

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177-183  



Oyelaran O.Ajani, Ocheri Cyril, Yau, Y. Tudunwada

Abstract: An investment analysis for the establishment of Spheroidal Graphite Iron (SGI) plant in Nigeria was conducted to assess the viability of setting up a plant. Spheroidal Graphite Iron outperforms grey cast iron due to possession of the following attributes: improved strength, ductility toughness and hot work ability, with grades guarantying more than 18% elongation or high strength, with tensile strength exceeding 825 MPA . The analysis was done for a manufacturing plant with an installed capacity of 300 tonnes of SGI per annum. As part of the methodology, a market analysis, the required materials, equipment, and human resource requirements are presented. The financial implication, financial and breakeven analyses were carried out. The market analysis substantiates a ready market for SGI and the required total capital investment for the plant is approximately, ₦38 million. The estimated annual profit is approximately ₦ 29 million. The financial analysis shows that the investment is a profitable venture with a good profitability ratio and rate of return. The payback period for the venture is less than 2 years.

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184-186  



S.V. Ramana Murthy, S. Kishore Kumar

Abstract: The important step in the turbine aerodynamic design is generation of blade element profiles to achieve the required flow deflection and smooth flow acceleration with minimum losses. During profile generation, in addition to aerodynamic performance, additional constraints of thermal, structural and castability requirements need to be considered. Thus profile generation is a trade-off between contradicting requirements of aerodynamic performance, thermal and structural performance. In the present study, a method for profile generation based on Bezier curves is developed to meet the above conflicting requirements. These profiles are analyzed for the flow field using a commercial 3D N-S code for design and off-design conditions. These profiles are also tested in 2D transonic cascade tunnel. The profile pressure loss coefficient, blade exit angle and blade surface isentropic mach numbers are compared between CFD and test results.

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187-192  



Massimo Marchiori

Abstract: The Web is an incredible informative media, but its same success has turned it into a two-sided phenomenon. On the one side, it has got plenty of information, a richness of contributions and data that is unprecedented in the history of humanity. On the other side, the sheer size of the information present in the Web make it hard to access and to use at all levels, humans and computer-based. In this paper we present a high level perspective on this two-sided nature of web information, by introducing the general concept of Trust Scenario and see its implications by defining major axes of information, and the corresponding directions they can lead to in the future of the Web.

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193-196  



M. Y. Zak, L. M. Pasiyeshvili, M. Y. Knysh

Abstract: 122 patients with osteoarthrosis, who had verified chronic gastritis in the anamnesis (50 males and 72 females), aged from 42 to 64, were examined. Control group included 40 patients with osteoarthrosis without gastroduodenal zone pathology in the anamnesis. For arthralgia relief, patients were prescribed to intake meloxicam (average dose — 12.5±1.39 mg/day) or nimesulide (average dose — 150±14.91 mg/day). As a result of this research, it was determined that prescription of selective NSAIDs (meloxicam and nimesulide) raised the risk of NSAIDs gastropathy/dyspepsia in 2.9 times (P<0.03) in patients with chronic gastritis in the anamnesis than in patients without associated gastroduodenal zone pathology. Atrophy of gastric mucous membrane was associated with higher risks (P>0.05) of erosive gastropathy. With the purpose of gastropathy prevention upon taking NSAIDs, patients with chronic gastritis in the anamnesis are recommended to undergo gastroprotective therapy.

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197-199  



Fadugba Sunday Emmanuel, Ogunrinde Roseline Bosede

Abstract: This paper presents Black-Scholes partial differential equation in the Mellin transform domain. The Mellin transform method is one of the most popular methods for solving diffusion equations in many areas of science and technology. This method is a powerful tool used in the valuation of options. We extend the Mellin transform method proposed by Panini and Srivastav [7] to derive the price of European power put options with dividend yield. We also derive the fundamental valuation formula known as the Black-Scholes model using the convolution property of the Mellin transform method. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: 44A15, 60H30, 91G99

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200-206  



Mbachu, Victor M. , Onyechi, Pius C., Ogunoh, Victor A.

Abstract: Customers queue up at the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) mega stations to purchase the Premium Motor Spirit (PMS), Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK) and Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) popularly called petrol, kerosene and diesel respectively in the country. The PMS usually has the highest demand due to its various uses, and the queue for the product at NNPC Mega station during period of scarcity (referred to here as peak periods) has varying average arrival rate at various time of the day. The waiting situation is exasperating to the customers and the management. Thus an operational plan module for determining basically the optimum number of active servers to salve the queue problem in the Stations, while attending to vehicles with minimum demand of 10 litres of PMS was developed. The following optimal active servers were obtained and recommended for the corresponded arrival rate of 1 car per minute to 4 cars per minute, at 72- 80% system utilization rate, a known average service rate of 0.457 cars per minute and average waiting time of 2.6954 minutes to 0.9737 minutes. Simulation of the system was done generating a model which suggests optimum number of server given arrival rates and average service rate.

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207-210  



Kapriani, Muh. Yunus Zain, Osman Lewangka, Sanusi Fattah

Abstract: The purpose of research is analyze influence of religious values, social factor and service quality in psychology, trust and customer individual decision using Murabahah Financial on Islamic Bank in Indonesia. The research was used survey methods with the number of sample 180 person. Analysis data were used Structural Equation Model (SEM). The result was showed that religious values has significant influence to psychology factor and trust, but the religious value indirect influence to customer decision. The religious values has indirect influence through psychology factor and trust. Social factor has significant influence to psychology factor, trust and customer decision. Then service quality has significant influence to psychology factor, trust and customer decision. Psychology factor has a significant influence to trust but indirect influence to customer decision. Trust has a Significant influence to individual customer decision using Murabahah Financial from Islamic Bank in Indonesia.

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211-214  



Md. Mahbub Alam Prodip

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore the status of women’s empowerment through reserved seats at the lower level of decentralized body, especially Union Parishad (here after UP) in Bangladesh. The paper also tries to find out major challenges towards women empowerment in UP. At the same time, there will be an attempt to provide some suggestions to overcome those challenges. The study is based on secondary literature including books, journal’s articles and conference papers. The study revealed that women are not empowered socially through reserved seats although the successive governments have implemented reserved seats through decentralization process over the years.

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215-223  



Pirmakhanov Saken

Abstract: This study observes an empirical correlation of energy utilization and economy increase in Kazakhstan using time fraction from 1993 to 2011. To specify, utilization of electricity and the electricity that is produced from oil and gas sources correlation had been observed as well. Co-integration method and Granger causality of Hsiao were applied in order to come up with unidirectional causes of economic growth on total energy consumption. The economic growth facilitates raise in gas energy production as well. For the energy conservation policy it suggests to remove energy saving policy from gas-energy sector to oil sector as we reject any causality correlation of increase in economy and production of oil and energy. Furthermore, policy makers should sustain technological innovations in electronic sectors, which will increase consumption of the electricity by the population and this will finally cause economic growth.

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224-229  



Md. Mahfujur Rahman, Mohammad Abdullah Al Mamun

Abstract: This is an empirical analysis which depicts the preference significance of private commercial banks to establish the importance of various criteria that attracts the young customers. In here, this study segregates the different criteria which are significantly more important in inspiring selection over time and those which have been considerably less important. For this study, sample size was 1200 consumers aged 18-30 years of different university students, young entrepreneurs & professionals in Bangladesh. Mean, Std. Deviation and ANOVA have been used for the detail analysis of the data set. The important features of determining their bank selection are: Availability of ATM in several locations, bank’s reputation, paying highest interest rates on savings accounts, friendliness of bank personnel, low services charges and confidence in bank management. Gender differences do not play the vital role for the selection attitudes of bank and bank services as well. In particular, findings advocate that male and female customers as distinctive segments with various precedence may be important for their bank selection process. Commercial banks should take the appropriate marketing strategy for attracting the new customers specially the young generation which will motivate them to select bank as their potential service provider.

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230-236  



Eusebe Devalon Mpane Guiekisse, Xiaodong Liu, Romeo Ekoungoulou

Abstract: this research presents firstly the forest activity in Congo and secondly, some forest certification schemes exerted in Africa and in Congo, and explain how the Congolese government and these systems work together for a sustainable management of forest ecosystems in Congo. To do that we put the action on the involvement and the role of the Congolese government in this relationship. Congo is one of the countries that have always shown their will to sustainably manage their forest resources. The first forest management in Congo started in the early 1970s with the development of management plans focused on annual timber harvesting In 1974, the new Forest Code (Law No. 004/74 of 4 January 1974) transformed the Congolese forest legislation. Considered at the time of its promulgation as one of the most modern forest code in Central Africa, it defined the forest management unit (UFA), the maximum annual cut (VMA), the promotion of local processing, Atlas Forestier Interactif du Congo[2]. At present, the use of the forest domain is governed by Law No. 16/2000 of 20 November 2000 on the Forest Code [4].It takes into consideration that, go one hand, developments related to forest management and conservation of the environment occurred in recent years at the international level and, on the other hand, the new socio-political context of the Congo. The Forest Code confirms the policy of sustainable management of forest ecosystems, which guarantees sustained forest products production and ensures the conservation of biological diversity. In addition, the law stipulates that the transformation of the country's production should reach 85 percent Despite those efforts granted by the Congolese government, Congo still lacks sufficient operational schemes certification, so it is still an exclusive business to northern markets. The Congolese government has the merit to generate debate involving in the forest sector regarding the certification.

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237-241  



Razeen Ridhwan, Mohamed Alshaleeh, Arunvinthan S

Abstract: In the “Aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blade by using high lifting device” described that different velocity flow of air is passing through the wind turbine blade model and analyze through a numerical simulation that the pressure variation occur at that surface of the model. Before we built wind turbine blade in any strong wind blowing region the aerodynamic flow analysis is must for withstand the strong wind affects. In this chapter, basic nature of winds and types, wind affects through the wind turbine blade, formation of internal pressure and atmospheric boundary layer. This project could be done with the help of so many research papers were taken and followed in the literature review. The main tool we used in the project is CFD, so we gave some introduction about the CFD and how it could be used. Then we compared the results at the different models in different angles having with and without flap in 2D and 3D. We didn’t do any practical oriented models just we design the model in Gambit and analyze in the Fluent.

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242-269  



Salman Afaq, Salman Qadri, Shabir Ahmad, Abu Buker Siddique, Muhammad Perbat Baloch, Anam Ayoub

Abstract: Research on the major risk factors for traditional projects is abundant; however, despite research citing increased communication and trust issues in virtual environments, research on the major risks for projects conducted in virtual environments is scarce. This paper addresses that void by reporting on a research study of virtual project risk that culminated in a survey of 107 virtual project management practitioners from throughout the United States. Prior literature, in-person interviews and a focus group were used to develop a comprehensive list of fifty-five potential risk factors. Survey participants were asked to rate each of these potential risks, by considering the degree of impact it had on the successful completion of a recent virtual project in which they participated. Similar to past surveys focused on traditional software development projects, the goal of this research was to identify a set of major virtual project risks, those risks most likely to have the greatest impact on the successful completion of a virtual software development project. The results of this study will benefit project management practitioners in managing risk in a virtual project environment.

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270-274  



Md. Anwarul Haque, Ashish Kumar Sarker, Alpana Khatun, Mohammad Sayful Islam¬, Md. Anwar Ul Islam, Abu Syed Md. Anisuzzaman

ABSTRACT: The methanol extract of an edible mushroom, Pleurotus highking with its whole parts, cap and stipe individually were subjected for the evaluation of antimicrobial activities against a series of pathogenic microorganisms. Three Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Agrobacterium), three Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae) and three pathogenic fungus (Aspergillus niger, Saccharromyces cerevaceae and Candida albicans) were used as test pathogen. Disc diffusion assay method was employed for our experimental purpose. All the tested Gram positive strains were sensitive to 200μg of extracts/disc while there was no sensitive to Gram negative strain, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae. A tested Gram negative strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa also sensitive to the extracts at a concentration of 200μg/disc. Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were susceptible to methanol extract of Pleurotus highking while Saccharromyces cerevaceae was resistant to it. However, the susceptibility of the extracts from different parts was varied. The extract from cap showed prominent antimicrobial activity as compared to whole mushroom and stipe.

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275-278  



Mahesh T. Kanojiya

Abstract: The defects in the drawing operation have to be minimised for the better product or the good quality of the product. This work emphasis in the improvement of the drawing operation, so that the product has to be made easily and within less time. The product which has to be produced is analysed and checked on software so that the product can be safe while manufacturing.

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279-281  



Shreekant Saraf, Kartiki Saraf

Abstract: Drive, engagement, and passion are more important than one’s talent for professional success. This is how David Maister sees the idea of professionalism. In his article “Are You Having Fun Yet?” (Maister, 2007) the author practically worships the idea of importance of loving what you do instead of forcing yourself to do it. He also finds the difference between the job and career. This is, to David Maister’s opinion, the starting point for changing tiresome and exhaustion from work into satisfaction. Nowadays, we live in the globalized world of information and technology where the competition is intense and there is an ever-growing pressure on organizations and workforces to deliver continuous improvement in products, systems and processes. In this constantly demanding world, it is really questionable whether a persistent employee motivation is possible at all, and whether one may ever enjoy what he is doing. More intriguing part is that employee motivation does not directly relate to any single aspect of the job viz. job type, income, position or industry. Highly paid lawyers and investment bankers seem to be no happier than dustmen or orderlies. As the job satisfaction numbers are in consistent decline during the past two decades (Gibbons, 2010), employers in today’s world are facing a clear and present issue – what can the administrative leadership do to keep employees motivated, engaged and happy.

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282-286  



Yusuf Salim, Haselman, Muhammad Yunus, Muhammad Akmal Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: The relationship between local government or the Intergovernmental Relations (IGR) in a bid to realize the regional administration on that is effective, efficient, and able to act collectively. One form of IGR is intergovernmental cooperation (Cooperation Intergovermental-IGC). Then Cooperation between governments (IGC) using three approaches, namely law and administrative, community politics, and inter organizational politics for the purpose of public welfare. This objective can be achieved by using intergovernmental management (IGM) as function of the IGR with the aim of building a strong network of government through a system of solid tissue. This study aims to formulate a model of cooperation among local governments with the province of West Papua Raja Ampat, West Papua Province in Respect Program. This study used a qualitative approach with an explanatory research as a method of solving problems of this study. This study uses in depth interview techniques, observation and documents. Data were analyzed through the stages of data reduction, data presentation, deduction and verification. The results of this study indicate that the form of cooperation between the two levels of government made the sharing of funds directed to the five program activities, namely education, health, economy, infrastructure, and affirmative action. Output achieved during a period of Respect program can be implemented successfully concluded not because increasingly showing increasing levels of poverty in the district of Raja Ampat. The approach used by both levels of government in terms of the relations of cooperation in order to address poverty in Raja Ampat is the approach of the political community (Community of politics). The model used by the cooperative relationship between the two levels of government is a model of a Joint Service Agreement

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287-290  



Muhammad Nur, Sangkala, Tahir Haning, Badu Ahmad

Abstract: This study aims to describe and analyze the level of public service innovation field permits held by local governments at the district Pinrang, South-Sulawesi province of Indonesia. The approach used is a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches to case study research strategy. Informant is an element of local government, community leaders, and the user community. While the respondent is the user community and the experts/ expert. Data were obtained through observation, interviews, questionnaires, and tracking documents. Quantitative data analysis techniques using interval scale (Scale Likert) and processed using SPSS software, while the qualitative data analysis techniques using an interactive model which consists of four activities namely data collection, data reduction, data presentation and conclusion. The results showed that (1) Level of innovation of the eight dimensions of best practices; impact, sustainability partnerships, leadership, community development, transfer programs, local context, and gender equality as a whole to obtain an average value high. (2) some aspects that need to be improved so that innovations are being implemented can be the best practices that can be applied in other areas is to improve website performance and user empowerment, and adequate budgetary support (3) The commitment of all members of the organization in carrying out minimum service standards and standard operating procedures, transparency and accountability to be key to the success of service innovation field permits Local Government held in Pinrang.

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291-294  



O.A.F. Wokoma

Abstract: Thetrace metal burden in surface water, sub-tidal sediment and edible crab – Callinectes in the lower (brackish/ sea water) reaches of the Sombreiro River was studied over a three month period. Sediments had a higher concentration of metals than water, with the concentration ranging from 0.022±0.006 – 340.66±106.21mg/kg and 0.002±0.001 – 0.99±0.104 mg/l respectively. It was revealed that Callinectes from the study area bioaccumulates all the heavy metals investigated from water and Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from sediment. The concentration of all the heavy metals under investigation- Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb and Zn were below their stated limits in water and sediment, however, the metal body load of Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in the tissue of Callinectes were above their stated limits, as such its consumption poses a health risk to consumers.

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295-299  



Muhammad Akhmedov & Dinara Nazarova

Abstract: A native of Tashkent Sheikh UbaydullahKhodjaAkhrorVali is well known as one of the most influential dignitaries and statesmen of the XV century. Being among the most prominent public leaders KhodjaAkhror had his land possessions reaching Egypt.

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300-303  



Ajuru, Mercy Gospel, Friday, Upadhi

Abstract: The problem of impact of particulate matter on vegetation is quite complex. Relatively little attention is given to the effect of particulate matter on different tropical plants, compared to the effect on tropical animals. A comparative study aimed at showing the effect of asphalt particulate matter on the anatomical characteristics of some tropical plants was carried out. Samples from three plant species namely: Manihot esculentus Crantz (Cassava), family Euphorbiaceae; Musa paradisiaca L. (Plantain), family Musaceae; and Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. & Thonn.) Mull. Arg. (Christmas bush), family Euphorbiaceae, were collected from two sites designated as non-polluted site (Site 1), and asphalt polluted site (Site 2). Plant materials were fixed in FAA (Formalin: Acetic acid: alcohol) solution immediately after collection. For anatomical studies, free hand sectioning method was used, and photomicrographs of good sections taken with a Leitz Diaplan photomicroscope fitted with Leica WILD MPS 52 camera. The results showed that there was significant increase in the number of vascular bundles from plant samples collected at the polluted site. Possibly, this may be one of the adaptive features by these plants to reduce damage caused by asphalt particulate matter. However, the cortex, the epidermis, and pith tissues were unaffected and seem to be resistant to asphalt particulate matter. From the present study, it is apparent that the vascular bundles are more affected compared to other tissue systems. In other words, they are more sensitive to pollutants than other tissues. The different tissues of the same plant species differ in their responses to the same pollutant. This is a clear indication that particulate matter exercised a decisive influence on the different anatomical plant features

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304-308  



Devendran Indiran, Nurfadhlina Abdul Halim, Wan Muhamad Amir W. Ahmad

Abstract: Rational speculative bubble can be defined as transient upward movements of stock prices above fundamental value due to speculative investors. The Generalised Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (GJLS) model have been developed as a flexible tool to identify the size of rational speculative bubble. This model is combines the economic theory of rational expectation bubbles with finite-time singular crash hazard rates, behavioural finance on imitation and herding of investors and traders as well as mathematical statistical physics of bifurcations and phase transitions. It has been employed successfully to a large variety of stock bubbles in many different markets. The purpose of this study is to prediction bubble size of DJIA during economic crisis 1997.

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309-314  



Nurbaya Busthanul, M.Saleh S.Ali, M.Arifin Sallatang, Sitti Bulkis

Abstract: Culture and beliefs of a society has been proven and is believed to affect the nutritional status of a community. The uniqueness of the local tradition Cikoang Maudu ritual 'every year which is the collection and distribution of food and food ingredients (even clothing and money) in relatively large quantities and is run by all citizens without exception may affect the system of production, distribution, processing and consumption of food, even the livelihood of the wider impact on public nutrition. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of the community of maudu practitioners and non-practititoners. The method used is a combination of cross sectional quantitative paradigm. Research strategy is conducted by survey method. The results indicate that, maudu’ ritual is mandatory for every follower of Maudu' Cikoang in the form of a minimum amount of offerings of rice, chicken, coconut and eggs, which are then distributed by Pa'rate'. Existence of Maudu rituals' has the potential to be developed to improve the nutritional status of the community. Eventhough the nutritional status of Maudu practitioners is no better than non-practitioners.

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315-318  



Syahril Ramadhan

Abstract: This research involves a wide range of concepts, theories and models, especially models of public sector innovation and proactive planning model of educational innovation. This study aims to identify the empirical model of planning educational innovations in Baubau City. Specifically, the purpose of this study is to find and to know the strategies of educational innovation in the city Baubau. This research was conducted in the Baubau city using a qualitative approach. The data collection technique used is the approach utilizing the available data (the data existing approach) in the form of statistical data, as well as general data that already exists, a variety of official documents, data reporting, other specific data provided by government agencies. Interviews and observations. Data analysis techniques performed interactively. The results showed that Educational Innovation Strategy in Baubau City is through government the Department of Education, Youth and Sports in Baubau, in general create educational innovation strategy is characterized by: Strategic-systematic; collaborative and synergistic by the stakeholders; capacity building, and sustainable.

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319-323  



Nuraeni, Elkawakib Syam’un, Nadira R. Sennang, Kaimuddin

Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effect of various varieties and packages of fertilization (inorganic and biological) either singly or interactions of the results and the carbohydrate and protein content of grain. The study was conducted from March to October 2012, at the screen house, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Hasanuddin. The design used was a randomized block design group (RAK) two-factor factorial. The first factor is the rice variety, consisted of four types, namely: Pandan Putri varieties, Invari Sidenuk, Ciliwung, and Ciherang. The second factor is five packets fertilization, namely: 5.0 L Azospirillum sp., ˝ dose recommendation of urea + 2.5 L Azotobacter sp.,1/2 dose of recommendation of urea + 5.0 L Azotobacter sp., 5.0 L Azotobacter sp. And ˝ dose recommendation of urea + 2.5 L Azospirillum sp. + 2.5 L Azotobacter sp .. The results showed that the varieties of Invari Sidenuk gave the highest grain yield per panicle is 71.64 g, followed by Ciherang, 65.31 g, Ciliwung varieties, 65.25 g, and the last varieties of Pandan Putri amount of 60.99 g. Ciherang varities that given 1/2 dose of recommendation of urea + 5.0 L Azotobacter sp. resulted in the highest of carbohydrate content of 72.59 and the highest grain protein content was obtained from the treatment of Pandan Putri varieties inoculated with 5.0 L Azospirillum sp . It was concluded that the combination of a half dose of recommendation of urea and biological fertilizer Azotobacter sp. increased rice yield and grain carbohydrates and grain protein is given a 5.0 L Azospirillum sp. at the study site.

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324-327  



Supriyadi, Ratna Ekawati

Abstract: As one of the largest contributors to export manufacturing in the province of West Java - Indonesia, the garment industry needs more attention. Todays many garment company established a strategic partnership with various parties. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of strategic partnerships on innovation capabilities and performance of the business of garment enterprises in the province of West Java - Indonesia. A total of 250 garment companies studied as a sample. Data were collected by questionnaires, where the respondent is head of the company with manager-level positions. Data were analyzed with multiple regression. The results showed that the strategic partnership provides a positive and significant impact on innovation capabilities. Directly, strategic partnerships are also have a positive and significant effect on innovation capabilities. Innovation capability is also have a positive and significant impact on business performance.

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328-336  



Mahmoud Suleiman Ahmed Dahoud, Iskandar Shahrim Mustafa

Abstract: Efforts nowadays are looking for the tumor itself and organs surrounding it to give high doses to tumor itself with low doses to adjacent organs. The researchers found that the use of a new technology uses x ray techniques can offer some of what they are looking for. It can be used in cases of small distance between the breast skin and the edge of the lumpectomy cavity. The low energy used by x-ray source is an advantage for sparing sensitive organs around the tumor cavity.

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337-341  



Hamka Hakim, Haselman, Juanda Nawawi, Atta Irene Allorante

ABSTRACT: The paradigm of government still has not undergone a fundamental change, which the old paradigm is still evolving. It is characterized by the behavior of state officials in the bureaucracy that still sees himself to be served rather than to serve. This condition is exacerbated by the fact that the capacity of Government officials in the public service (public service) is almost always problematic. It looks at the process of delivery that does not comply with the commitments, which are not standard services, the uncertainty of the time, not transparent, covered up, convoluted, heavy handed, less responsive, impractical, inefficient, and financing that does not make sense (unreasonable). All it seemed to have become a phenomenon which is too attached to the apparatus whose job it is serving the community. The phenomenon of bureaucratic behavior can be examined by using a behavioral approach to bureaucracy according to Weber, namely transparency, professionalism, responsiveness, and impersonality. This study aimed to describe the behavior of the bureaucracy in the service of the issuance of location permit (SITU), Trading License (License), Building Permit (IMB) at the Office of Licensing Services Parepare. This study used a qualitative approach with descriptive qualitative research as a method of solving problems of this study. This study uses in depth interview techniques, observation and documents. Data were analyzed through the stages of data reduction, data presentation, deduction and verification. The results of this study indicate that the licensing service in the City of Pare-Pare is determined by the role of the bureaucracy which includes officials and organizations within the scope of the government bureaucracy and authority. Bureaucracy that appears in the license service if viewed from the aspect of transparency, responsiveness, professionalism, and impersonal still not optimal.

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342-346  



Andi Abriana, Eva Johannes

ABSTRACT: One of the natural antioxidant sources is turmeric olant from zingiberaceae family that contains curcumin. Curcumin is an important component isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa), that is used as traditional medicines and food additive substance. This study was aimed to examine the use of turmeric as an antioxidant in repeatedly used cooking oil and to find out the mechanism by which the turmeric extract inhibits the formation of trans fatty acid in repeateadly used cooking oil. This study was an experimental study in which the turmeric extract was obtained by maceration. The obtained turmeric extract was then added into cooking oil that will be used later to fry repeatedly for 10 times. Frying treatments consisted of frying without turmeric extract addition (control) and frying with turmeric extract addition at concentrations of 0.02%, 0.03%, and 0.04%. The samples of the used cooked oil were collected at frying 1, frying 5, and frying 10 and analyzed for their trans fatty acid content by gas chromatography. Study findings indicate that turmeric extract addition into cooking oil reduced the formation of trans fatty acid and extended the use time of cooking oil. According to trans fatty acid content analysis, the best treatment was the addition of turmeric extract at concentration of 0.03%.

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347-350  



O.A.F Wokoma

Abstract: To ascertain the level of total hydrocarbon content (THC) in the Kua/Kinabere Creek, in Ogoni land – an estuary of the Bonny River, sub- surface seawater and surface sediment were collected from five sampling stations between March and August, 2012, for laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, standard analytical methods were adopted for the analysis of water and sediment samples. Concentration of THC in water and sediment varied from 15.6±1.86 – 23.4±2.55mg/l and 1,403±80.61 –3,755±113.14mg/kg respectively, The observed concentration of THC is far above the established permissible levels of 10mg/l in water and 30mg/kg in sediment and therefore poses a serious threat to the survival of marine organisms as well as other legitimate uses of the environment.

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351-354  



Bamidele, F.A., Ogundipe, F.O., Shogeyinbo,U.A

Abstract: The antibacterial activity of three plants extract Abrus precatorius, Croton penduliflorus (Seeds) and Nauclea latifolia (Root) were evaluated in an in vitro test on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterococcus faecalis. Twelve extracts consisting of hot ethanol, cold ethanol, hot water and cold water were prepared. They were tested using the agar diffusion method. Efficacy was assessed by measuring the diameter of zone of inhibition around the colonies on Muller Hilton agar medium. E.coli showed the highest susceptibility to all plant extracts this was followed by E. faecalis. K. pneumonia showed the least susceptibility to all the extracts. Across board, the cold ethanol extracts of the plants showed the highest susceptibility while the other extracts exhibited variable antibacterial activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the eight most active extracts ranged between 3.025mg/ml to 50mg/ml while minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 6.25mg/ml - 25mg/ml. Commonly used antibiotics such as Augmentin and Amoxillin showed low sensitivity as compared to the extracts with varying inhibition zone of 0-4mm Phytochemical screening of these extracts showed that flavonoid was detected in only A. precatorius, Glycoside was found in all extract except in C. penduliflorus extracts. Alkaloid, saponin and Tannin were found in all the plant extracts. This invitro study demonstrated that folk medicine in addition to being cheaper could be effective as modern medicine in combating pathogenic microorganisms.

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355-360  



Christiana Nyarko, Christine Unson, Martin Koduah, Peter Nyarko, Jack Galley

ABSTRACT: The paper seeks to identify risk factors associated with STIs and its prevalence in western Ghana. This study explored the relationship between STI diagnosis and demographic factors as well as contraceptive use in a mining community in western Ghana. Selected hospitals in the district were surveyed. The sample consisted of 117 males and 253 female patients attending outpatient clinics. 92% of 400 individuals approached agreed to complete a questionnaire. The majority (72%) of the respondents was between 20-39 years; 14% were adolescents; 94% had some form of education, of which 43% had completed middle school; 50% of males and about 80% of females were married. Use of contraceptives by married and never married was 57% and 43%, respectively. The vast majority of males were engaged in small scale mining; 42% of the women were into trading. About 11% had gonorrhea, 27% had candidiasis and only 1 had chlamydia. Of the 150 respondents who had STIs, 84% were females. The odds of an STI diagnosis significantly increased when respondents were female (odds ratio (OR) = 3.0) compared to males and younger respondents (19-24 years) compared to older ones (OR = 3.68). Odds decreased with use of contraceptives (OR = 0.56) compared to non-users and with marital status (OR = 0.42) compared to never-married. The overall logistic model was statistically significant (χ2 (8, N=370) = 56.19, p < .001). Females, younger individuals, never-married and contraceptive non-users are at relatively high risk for STIs in a mining district in western Ghana.

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361-370  



Antonius Maria Laot Kian

Abstract: Credit/ debit card fraud is a cyber-criminal offense which frequency of occurrences has increased significantly in Indonesia. This type of criminal offense is regulated in the Law No. 11 Year 2008 on Electronic Information and Transactions, and the Criminal Code (KUHP), previously. Although this type of criminal offense has been set as lex specialis, this regulation is only accommodated according to its modus operandi, and does not directly touch the core material of the criminal offense, i.e. computer-related fraud, as defined in Article 8 of the Convention on Cybercrime.

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371-376  



Praswasti PDK Wulan, Asep Handaya Saputra, Widodo Wahyu Purwanto

Abstract: Composite materials (also called composition materials or shortened to composites) are materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties, that when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. Fruit bunch palm oil is a palm oil plantation wastes containing cellulose fibers can be used as the building blocks of the composite. Natural fiber composites with epoxy matrix is known to have good chemical resistance. The addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in composites is known by many studies can improve the mechanical properties. In this study, the addition of carbon nanotubes in the composite fiber of fruit bunch palm oil with epoxy matrix as much as 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% of the weight matrix is used. Fruit bunch palm oil fiber obtained by chemical retting methods. To improve compatibility, and functionalization of CNT and fruit bunch palm oil fiber conducted using mild acid oxidation and silane coupling agent and proven not to damage the structure and size of the CNT. The addition of CNT increases the tensile strength of fruit bunch palm oil fiber with epoxy matrix of 10.03%, 4.75%, and 7.75%. The increase in buckling strength occurs at 51.64%, 65.8%, and 105.9% respectively.

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377-382  



Ibrahim A. Kadhim Al-Ashour, Diaa K. Abd-Ali, Mansour A. Fallah, Iman Q. Kteo

Abstract: Exposure of workers to waste anaesthetic gases in the operating and recovery rooms of hospitals is of concern because of the reported adverse effects of such gases on the health of personnel in this occupational group. Objectives To determine the effect of inhaled anesthetics gases on health staff health status (headache and dizziness). And to find out the association between the effects of inhaled anesthetics gases on health staff health status and their demographic data and job related data. Methodology, A Case-Control study is carried out in Al-Najaf Health Directorate / Al-Sadder medical city, from June 1st, 2013 to September 1st, 2013. A probability stratified sample of (29) from health staff personnel working in the operative rooms selected as a study group, and (13) from health staff personnel working in the other hospital wards selected as a control group, were included in the study. The data are collected through the use of semi-structured questionnaire, which consists of three parts including, demographic and job related data, data about headache characteristics, and data about the dizziness characteristics. Results and Conclusions The study results indicate that the health staff in operative rooms are more prone to have a headache and dizziness than those who working in other wards. And that there is a significant effect of the work place and the job title on the suffering of headache and dizziness among operative room health staff. Recommendations, The researchers recommend a further studies should be employed to involve a large number of health staff with a national level. An education programs should be focusing on how to manage these gases to reduce its effects on health staff health status.

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383-388  



Friday, Upadhi, Ajuru, Mercy Gospel

Abstract: A comparative study was carried out to show the effect of particulate matter generated from asphalt on the phytochemical content of plant species in the environment. Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It is primarily used in road construction and also for bituminous waterproofing products. Samples from the following species: Manihot esculentus Crantz (Cassava),family Euphorbiaceae, Musa paradisiaca L. (Plantain), family Musaceae, and Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. & Thonn.) Mull. Arg. (Christmas bush), family Euphorbiaceae, were collected from asphalt polluted and unpolluted environment. For localization of calcium oxalate crystals and silicon, fresh stems, leaves and petioles of plant specimens were fixed in FAA (formalin, acetic acid and absolute ethanol) solution in the ratio 1:1:18 respectively. Specimens were rinsed in several changes of water and hand-sectioning method was used. For calcium oxalate crystals, sections were stained with an equal mixture of 5% silver nitrate and 30% hydrogen peroxide under an intense light which was supplied with a 60-watt electric bulb kept at a distance of about 20cm from the slides. The staining took place for about 30 minutes at 10 minutes interval. For Silicon localization, sections were covered with methylene blue and sufficient heat was provided, and then cleared with clove oil and mounted in glycerin. Tannin localization was carried out using the fixative stain method. Specimens were placed in a fixative stain containing a solution of 20ml of 10% ferrous sulphate with 100ml of 4% formaldehyde. They were rinsed in several changes of distilled water and free-hand sectioning method was used. A reduction in the content of tannin, calcium oxalate crystal, and silicon in the highly polluted site as compared to the unpolluted site was recorded. Growth of plants in the polluted site was found to be affected by asphalt particulate matter, which might be due to the presence of different toxic pollutants in asphalt dust. The plants are exposed to both biotic and abiotic stresses which are detrimental to plant health and metabolism.

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389-393  



B. Osundare

Abstract: Empirical evidence from many parts of the world indicates that, intercropping, on a long – term basis, results in depletion of soil fertility and attendant reduced crop yields. Thus, the need arises to critically assess changes in nutrient status of soil under intercropping, in order to be able to fashion out an adequate fertilizer package, involving addition of organic and/or inorganic fertilizers to replenish the lost nutrients, hence, making intercropping sustainable. To partly meet the need, a two – year study was designed to evaluate the influence of yam – based intercropping on changes in fertility status of an Alfisol, tuber yield and yield components of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir). The experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, during 2012 and 2013 cropping seasons. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The yam – based intercropping included: sole cropped yam (SCY), which served as the control; yam/cowpea (YC); yam/maize (YM); yam/cassava (YCa); and yam/maize/cassava (YMCa). The results obtained indicated existence of significant (P = 0.05) differences among the yam – based intercropping systems as regards their effects on chemical properties of Alfisol and yam tuber yield and yield components. At the end of 2012 cropping season, yam – based intercropping resulted in significant (P = 0.05) decreases in soil organic carbon (SOC) from 0.68 g kg-1 for SCY to 0.58, 0.52, 0.46 and 0.39 g kg-1 for YC, YM,YCa and YMCa, respectively. Similarly, at the end of 2013 cropping season, yam – based intercropping resulted in significant decreases in SOC from 0.64 g kg-1 for SCY to 0.55,0.48, 0.42, and 0.35 g kg-1 for YC, YM, YCa and YMCa, respectively. At the end of 2012 cropping season, yam – based intercropping significantly decreased total nitrogen from 0.50 g kg-1 for SCY to 0.55, 0.38, 0.44and 0.32 g kg-1 for YC, YM, YCa and YMCa, respectively. At the end of 2013 cropping season, yam – based intercropping significantly decreased total nitrogen from 0.47 g kg-1 for SCY to 0.52, 0.34, 0.40 and 0.27 g kg-1 for the respective YC, YM, YCa and YMCa. Across the two years of experimentation, mean values of yam tuber yield, adduced to yam – based intercropping systems were 7.00, 7.16, 5.94, 5.46 and 4.12 t ha-1 for the respective SCY, YC, YM, YCa and YMCa

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394-398  



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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - March 2017 - Volume 6 Issue 3