International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 5 - Issue 12, December 2016 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
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F.K. Guedje, B. E. Houngninou, T. Adanmitonde, A.J. Adechinan

This study characterizes the dynamic state of the atmosphere on the Coast of Benin from the radiosonde data. The average monthly wind speeds were calculated. The main results of this study provide information about the dynamics of the atmosphere through the jets characteristics. Two peaks were identified respectively around 5 km and 16 km altitude. The maximum value of the speed of the horizontal wind for the first jet is recorded in September with 17.5 m/s, whereas the same value is noted in July and is 23 m/s for the second jet. The rose corresponding wind at these levels for each study month was represented. This has allowed us to identify the prevailing wind in different months concerned. Then the vertical profiles of pressure, temperature and humidity have been shown. This revealed that the air temperature and atmospheric pressure gradually decreases with altitude until the tropopause.

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Kunal Kumar, Mohammed Farik

Authentication is the process of validating the identity of a person based on certain input that the person provides. Authentication has become a major topic of research due to the increasing number of attacks on computer networks around the globe. This review paper focuses on multimodal biometric authentication systems in use today. The aim is to elicit the best combination of authentication factors for multimodal use. We study the strengths and weakness of selected biometric mechanisms and recommend novel solutions to include in multimodal biometric systems to improve on the current biometric drawbacks. We believe this paper will provide security researchers some useful insight whilst designing better biometric systems.

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Iin Arsensi, Abubakar M. Lahjie, B.D.A.S. Simarangkir, Djumali Mardji

Eucalyptus pellita is often grown in monoculture, can be susceptible to disease whether grown in the nursery or the field. Currently in the plantation of PT Surya Hutani Jaya, Sebulu is developing E. pellita, derived from seed and clonal. The results were then called family. To determine the benefits to trees, the company deliberately does not preserve this area so there will be generated trees (family) that excel in both productivity and resistance to pests and diseases. This study is aimed at determining the symptoms and signs of disease on the leaves, the microorganisms that cause disease on the leaves as well as the incidence and severity of pathogen that attacks the leaves of E. pellita. The research was conducted at PT Surya Hutani Jaya, Sebulu, Kutai Kartanegara Regency, East Kalimantan and continued with the identification of pathogens at the Laboratory of Forest Protection, Faculty of Forestry, University of Mulawarman. The object of this research was E. pellita of a 6 year old plantation, spacing of 3  2 m. The origin of E. pellita is a clone from Riau. Symptoms of the disease found at the progeny test were leaf spot and leaf blight. The pathogens were Cercospora sp., Pestalotia sp., Curvularia sp., Bipolaris sp., Marsonina sp. and Dactylaria sp. The incidence of leaf spot pathogen was 83.3% and leaf blight was 80.6% with the severity of 9.7% and 12.5%, respectively.

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R.M.D.S Rajapaksha, Roshan D. Yapa

in this paper, a thorough analysis regarding the listed companies on Colombo Stock Exchange is conducted. The main objective of this study is to determine a relationship between share price and financial ratios of the companies which are listed on the Colombo Stock Exchange for the period 2011 to 2013 using an econometric model called panel data regression. Then a group of companies are categorized by their share price using factor analysis. Finally the financial failure of companies is predicted using k-nearest neighbor discriminant analysis. The results of the study showed that there is a high positive relationship between the share price and Earnings per share (EPS). At the same time there is a moderate positive relationship between share price and Dividends per share (DPS). Also there are significant low positive associations between share price and Return on Equity (ROE), Return on Assets (ROA), Asset Turnover, Price to Book (PB) and Net profit Margin (NP margin) respectively. Using panel data regression analysis, a feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) model is fitted to determine the share price using the variables DPS, EPS, ROE, PB Ratio and NP Margin. Then using factor analysis, hidden relationships are examined by considering 10 stocks which are listed one Colombo Stock Exchange. Using the analysis, three factors are found. They are general market component, multinational company component and diversified component. Finally the financial failure of companies is predicted using k-nearest neighbor discriminant analysis. The predicted financial failure is the compared with the results that were obtained using Altman Z score. It is found that the percentage of classifying, a successful company and an unsuccessful company correctly are 65% and 95% respectively.

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Francisco Martinez Flores

Neutrino, an elementary particle so elusive, just has existence at the abstract or “inner” space that represent the isospin, which contributes to the charge produced at beta decay as the emission of electrons or positrons to the “exterior” space. The neutrino condition of being deprived of charge, mass and electromagnetic energy at the same time, prevent it from having access to that space; in this way, spin and parity can be explained without the concourse of a new particle in ordinary space. The energies of electrons or positrons emitted, which are always depending of velocity and the only measurable one, is coming as a proof of its relativistic masses; its relationship with the wavelike (frequency) and the electromagnetic characteristic, permits the analogy with the blackbody radiation graph, which requires only a purely quantum treatment. Experimental proofs are very poor and do not guarantee the existence of such particles, although the relevant literature has insisted much on it. But instead, we would have a simpler and affordable Standard Model of Particles.

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Mulumeoderhwa Balamba Ghislain Md; Ombeni Bashwira Luc Md, Bandibabone Balikubiri Janvier

In the area with stable tramission, malaria and salmonellose, cause death of many senible group (children and mather), also consomation of family badget prevision. The stady of co-infection paludisme-salmonellose, has been done since january 2014 till december 2015 at the Hospital center of Nyamugo, in bukavu city. The stady stand for to determine the prevalence of this pathological association: malaria-salmonellose in the urban environment of the East of Republic democratic of the Congo. The method consisted of deducting capular and intravenous blood and test it of all the patients who have been consulted at the hospital during that period. A total of 7515 patients have been recorded, so 1070 cases of co-infection malaria-salmonellose confirmed, so 14.23%.other diagnostics concerned only malaria confirmed with 1621, so 21.57%, and the salmonellose confirmed with 1058, so 14.07% ; Other diagnostics, may be 50.01%. The co-infection malaria-salmonellose is a reality in our town and it can cause the death any time. The clinical signes of malaria- salmonellose association are almost similar to those of malaria, due to that, the persons who are in charge of treating people should make a systematic diagnostics for well being of the patients.The above ages are concerned, and are touched by the malaria-salmonellose association, therefor a significativedifference exist among the age of 10 to 19(24.67%) and the tranch above 80(0.9%),(t=6.524, p=0.0001). The co-infection malaria-salmonellose, is a great reality for Bukavu town. Resume: Dans les zones à transmission stable, le paludisme et la salmonellose sont particulièrement redoutable chez certains groupe cibles, notamment les enfants et les femmes en ceintes. Les signes cliniques et les complications varient en fonction des conditions locales de transmission. Cette etude qui s’est effectue au Centre Hospitalier de Nyamugo /ville de bukavu, de janvier 2014 à decembre 2015, a consiste à determiner la prevalence de la co-infection en milieu urbain à l’Est de la Republique Democratique du Congo. Nous avons fait le prelèvement systematique du sang capillaire et veineux pour la goutte epaisse, le frottis sanguin et le Widal de tous les patients ayant consulte le centre Hospitalier de Nyamugo. Sur un total, de 7515 Patients enregistres au centre Hospitalier Nyamugo, nous avons trouve 1621 cas de paludisme confirme soit 21.57%, 1058 cas de salmonellose confirme soit 14,07% ; 1070 cas de co-infection paludisme-salmonellose, soit 14.23% ; et 3752 cas d’autres pathologies, soit 50.01%. Nous avons aussi constate que tous les groupes d’âges sont concernes par cette association, bien que le groupe d’âge de 10- 19 ans est beaucoup plus concernee, avec 24.67%, le groupe d’âge de plus de 80ans ete beaucoup moins concerne, avec 0.9%. La difference est très significative, (t=6.524, p=0.0001) La co-infection paludisme-salmonellose, est une menace serieuse, entrainant un coup economique important, pouvant causer des decès à n’importe quand et donc il faut prendre des mesures de prevention à tous les niveaux de responsabilite pour l’interêt de notre population. Mots cles: Association, Malaria-Fièvre Typhoïde, Sud-Kivu

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Ahmed N. El Hawary, Ayman H. Nassar

The complexity of construction projects is increasing by time all over the world. The higher the level of complexity in a construction project, the higher possibility problems may occur, which may have different negative effects on the project’s time, cost, and quality. These problems could result into construction claims being made by one of the project’s parties. Today, claims are a very common occurring issue in construction projects than any other previous time, and they are considered to be the most disruptive event of any project. Thus there has been always a great demand for finding new methods and techniques to minimize and prevent construction claims. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a relative new technology that is widely getting accepted in the construction sector, which has been having a very important role on improving different areas of construction management in which claims are a part of. This paper researches the effect of utilizing Building Information Modeling technology in construction projects on reducing or avoiding the different causes of construction claims through a questionnaire survey that was developed. The developed survey also investigated the occurrence frequency of different claim causes, and there level of contribution in creating construction claims. The effect of BIM on reducing claims was also assessed considering the project’s complexity level. The obtained results showed that using BIM technology in construction projects will have a very high effect on reducing certain construction claims causes, especially in large complicated projects. Thus decreasing the number of the construction claims occurring. However, it was also shown that some construction claims causes will not be reduced or prevented as a benefit of utilizing BIM technology in construction projects. All results of the questionnaire were validated through case study of two mega projects.

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Seyhmus Yilmaz, Sultan Zavrak, Fatih Kayaalp

Today, in many parts of the world, it is becoming more and more widespread for users to be tracked by mobile smart phone platforms. An apparent motive for this is that numerous advertising companies are utilizing smart phone platforms more than they did some time ago. This is a significant area of this study as most users think that being tracked is a big disadvantage in life while others take a different view. Smart phone technologies provide a massive amount of practical features to individuals but at the same time they extremely influence confidentiality of the users. On the other hand, smart phones technologies are not efficient in appropriately communicating confidentiality threats to individuals. Moreover, widespread confidentiality threat communication techniques in smart phone application ecosystems do not consider the real data access behavior of user applications in their threat evaluations. The purpose of this paper is to present some of arguments and considers whether, on balance, it is truly a disadvantage to be tracked by smart phone platforms.

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Rahul Upadhyay, Suprakash Gupta

Effective and efficient inventory management is the key to the economic sustainability of capital intensive modern industries. Inventory grows exponentially with complexity and size of the equipment fleet. Substantial amount of capital is required for maintaining an inventory and therefore its optimization is beneficial for smooth operation of the project at minimum cost of inventory. The size and hence the cost of the inventory is influenced by a large no of factors. This makes the optimization problem complex. This work presents a model to solve the problem of optimization of spare parts inventory. The novelty of this study lies with the fact that the developed method could tackle not only the artificial test case but also a real-world industrial problem. Various investigators developed several methods and semi-analytical tools for obtaining optimum solutions for this problem. In this study, non-traditional optimization tool namely genetic algorithms (GA) are utilized. Apart from this, Cox's regression analysis is also used to incorporate the effect of some environmental factors on the demand of spares. It shows the efficacy of the applicability of non-traditional optimization tool like GA to solve these problems. This research illustrates the proposed model with the analysis of data taken from a fleet of dumper operated in a large surface coal mine. The optimum time schedules so suggested by this GA-based model are found to be cost effective. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted for this industrial problem. Objective function is developed and the factors like the effect of season and production pressure overloading towards financial year-ending is included in the equations. Statistical analysis of the collected operational and performance data were carried out with the help of Easy-Fit Ver-5.5.The analysis gives the shape and scale parameter of theoretical Weibull distribution. The Cox's regression coefficient corresponding to excessive loading and rainfall was obtained in IBM-SPSS Ver-23. The objective function so developed is programmed in MATLAB-2013 and run in Genetic Algorithm environment to obtain the minimum total cost of the inventory. And finally the sensitivity analysis is carried out for this industrial case study problem to find out which component of the cost has greater impact on the total cost of inventory.

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Purbawati, Muchlisrachmat, Yosep Ruslim, B.D.A.S.Simarangkir

Purbawati, Rachmat M, Ruslim Y, B.D.A.S.Simarangkir. 2016. The Effect of resting time to work produktivity to the activity of Seedling Eucalyptus Pellitawith mini cutting.Productivity is the ratio between the output and the input. Rated productivity indicates how effectively the production process has been empowered to increase the output and how efficiently are also sources of input has been successfully saved. Many factors can affect productivity example is the resting time factor. In this study, which examined is how the influence of rest periods of the Productivity and how much the standard output produced by the female labor force.Research conducted on women workers who are working at the cutting shoots (cutting house).Nurseries with mini cutting process is done by cutting the ¾ of the leaves on each leaf so that the remaining 2 to 3 pairs of strands shoots that have undergone a process of cutting in its leaves called ready plant bud (shoot). Ready plant bud is the output of this research, while the input is the time used to do the cutting. This study aims to determine the influence of rest periods of the productivity of female workers and to determine the standard output produced by the female labor force. Data processing method used is the partial productivity measurement methods and measurement methods of working time. The results stated that the amount of labor productivity of women without giving time off is 0.0911 shoots second -1 ; whereas labor productivity by granting time off for 5 minutes every hour (C1), by granting a 10 minute break every two hours (C2), by granting time off for 30 minutes per one working day (C3), by granting time off for 60 minutes per one working day (C4), and the provision of rest periods combined / mixed, which is 5 minutes every hour and 60 minutes per one working day (C5) respectively is 0,0908 shoots second -1; 0.0761 shoots second-1 ; 0.0972 shoots second-1; 0.0857 shoots second-1 and 0.0860 shoots second -1. The calculation output standard as many as 277 shoots hour-1 and the average output produced by the female labor force amounted to 299 shoots hour -1. The results of this study could be the basis for the company to give workers time off to the woman for 30 minutes scheduled for 12.00 to 12:30 pm and as a basis for granting incentives to workers who are able to generate an output of more than output standard.

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Saeful Nurdin, Wawan Setiawan

This study was aim to investigate the improvement of students’ cognitive abilities and creative thinking skills who was taught using an exelearning-assisted problem based learning model. A quasi-experimental method was used to engage 48 ninth-grade science students of an Islamic Senior High School at Bandung. Data were collected by using a cognitive test and creative thinking skills test that administered at the beginning and the end of the instruction, analyzed by using the normalized gain. Students who had an exelearning-assisted project based learning model demonstrated significantly higher average normalized gain on cognitive test and creative thinking skills test than those who did not have. Correlation coefficient between the experimental group students’ cognitive abilities and creative thinking skill was rxy = 0,55 with determination coefficient R=30.67%. The findings showed statistically significant differences between the improvement of the experimental group compare to the control group. Most students responded excited and motivated when they was taught using an exelearning-assisted problem based learning model.

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Tristan Jay P. Calaguas, Menchita F. Dumlao

Traffic on National Capital Region of the Philippines is going as one of many problems facing by the local government and Filipino citizen who are residing in Metro Manila. In addition, a Filipino citizen that is working in Metro Manila is experiencing a waste of Twenty – Eight Thousand hours in traffic which results unproductivity. Due to traffic that causes long commutes it take away an individual from exercise activities that results fatigue in their health. In relation with this, due to lack of exercise that causing by the traffic, each year, One Hundred Seventy Thousand Filipinos die from cardiovascular diseases up from Eighty Five Thousand more than Twenty years ago, according to 2009 study by the Department of Health (DOH). Population increase is one of many causes of traffic in Metro Manila. As population is growing, the more car riders and commuters volume will be in the road including delivery trucks, Pedi cabs, jeeps, and provincial buses that signify that there is a high employment rate in the country that causes traffic. However, to sustain the public needs, MMDA is the government agency that provides public services to Filipino citizens through providing updated public traffic information. For past years, MMDA used Telephony lines and Television Broadcasting for traffic information dissemination, which is very costly in maintenance that made them to adopt Twitter to post Traffic updates and advisories to the public .Since, this government agency uses Twitter in disseminating information through posting tweet, there is a need for a methodology on how these tweets will analyze so that citizens will have an insight in decision making to avoid specific time of traffic in metro manila. From this condition, the researcher will adopt the use of MMDA tweets as the primary data source and apply the CRISP as the knowledge discovery standard processes that to be used in building methodology for descriptive analytics. In this experimental research several processes were used to convert the semi structured MMDA tweets into structured data matrix. SQL was used for storing, retrieving and pattern matching, while PHP string functions were used to tokenize the tweet and transform it into array so that the tokens can store in database using iterative structure. After loading all token to its specific table we abled to have a data matrix that comprised of time, routed roads, traffic status and day information that was used in data mining to discover knowledge. Lastly we used J48 Classification Algorithm to classify the time usually the traffic happens in many routed roads from NCR. As the result we discovered that from Eight O’clock to Nine Forty One in the morning the commuters are experiencing a traffic and from One O ’Clock in the afternoon to Eight O’Clock in the evening the commuters are also experiencing a traffic in C5 North Bound to South Bound and Edsa North Bound to South Bound every Tuesday and Friday with the accuracy of 75.72%.

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Walid Nassar, Yasser Shaban

The solar power system decreases carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions which are the lead cause of global warming. This paper presented a novel way to design a commercial solar photovoltaic (PV) farm to provide electricity for 10% of the Edinburgh domestic car fleet. The design is used for sizing of the solar system based on an excel spreadsheets. The results show that the proposed solar system reduces the CO2 emissions with around 95% less than the conventional energy system. Around 0.5TWh of electrical energy is required to meet Edinburgh domestic car fleet whenever converted to electrical vehicles. The PV solar panels at the investigated site has a capacity factor of around 12%. The dynamic tilt angle is estimated for the investigated site while the fixed tilt angle is determined to be 49°. Depending on dynamic solar panels leads to harvesting more solar energy than depending on fixed tilt angle, around 14% higher energy. The meter square of land in Edinburgh receive some 950KWh per year based on the dynamic tilt angle. Around 218,000 of solar panels are required to meet 10% of Edinburgh domestic car fleet.

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Galahitigama GAH

This study was conducted to select the best particle size of coco peat for cucumber nurseries as well as best particle ratio for optimum plant growth and development of cucumber. The experiment was carried out in International Foodstuff Company and Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka during 2015 to 2016. Under experiment one, three types of different particle sizes were used; namely fine (≤0.5mm) (T2), medium (3mm-0.5mm) (T3) and coarse (4mm<) (T4) with normal coco peat (T1) as treatments. Complete Randomized Design (CRD) used as experimental design with five replicates. Germination percentage, number of leaves per seedling, seedling height in frequent day intervals was taken as growth parameters. Analysis of variance procedure was applied to analyze the data at 5% probability level. The results revealed that medium size particle media (sieve size 0.5mm -3mm) of coco peat was the best particle size for cucumber nursery practice, when considered the physical and chemical properties of medium particles of coco peat. In the experiment of selecting of suitable particle ratio for cucumber plants; the compressed mixture of coco peat particles that contain 70% (w/w) unsieved coco peat, 20% (w/w) coarse particles and 10% (w/w) coconut husk chips (5 – 12mm) has given best results for growth performances compared to other treatments and cucumber grown in this mixture has shown maximum growth and yield performances.

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Jamil L Ahmad, Chukwudi C Okebaram, Abdullahi Samaila

Introduction: The link between long term use of verapamil and cancer development has been suggested in literature many years back. However, there are numerous controversies surrounding this association with several epidemiological studies in the positive, negative and non-association between verapamil and cancer development. Aim: To investigate in mechanistic terms the link between chronic use of a calcium channel blocker (verapamil) and cancer development using human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell line. Method: Trypan blue dye exclusion (cell counting) and 3-4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were used to determine the proliferative as well as cytotoxic effects of verapamil. Results: Verapamil had a growth inhibitory rather than proliferative effect on HEK293 cells and the growth inhibition was found to be significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: The long term use of verapamil is associated with cellular growth inhibition and this possibly explained the rationale behind its use as part of combination chemotherapy for some human cancers.

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Şeyhmus Yılmaz, Sultan Zavrak, Huseyin Bodur

Fiber optic technology is a technique of sending data from one place to another by transmitting pulses of light via an optic fiber. This paper is written to provide an introductory look at optic fibre data transmission, the structure of an optic fibre and the mechanism used to carry the optical signal within the fibre, using mono-mode and multi-mode transmission methods and wavelength division multiplexing. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of fibre optic cables are also discussed.

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Joseph Gogodze

This study assesses the relationship between Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the constituents of a National Innovation System (NIS). We consider an NIS as a special kind of intangible (latent) asset and identify its two constituents: input and output capital. These are extracted through a modern NIS measurement model, based on the Global Innovation Index. Using structural equation models, we show that power distance and uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation and indulgence vs. restraint, act through the latent constructs PDUA and LTIV, respectively. Moreover, individualism (IDV) and NIS constituents are directly and negatively affected by PDUA. IDV and LTIV directly and positively affect the NIS constituents. Further, the results show that masculinity vs. femininity significantly and negatively affects the NIS input constituent and significantly affects the NIS output constituent, but its impact is negative for high-income countries and positive for non-high income countries.

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Kebfene Moundine, Zoukalne Moukenet, Kerah-Hinzoumbe Clement, Jean Gaudard

In Chad, malaria remains the first cause of consultation with an annual morbidity of 35.39% and a mortality of51%. To reduce the burden of disease, Seasonal Malaria Chemo Prevention was adopted (SMC) in 2013.Since the adoption of SMC, no impact study was performed and no valuation model was proposed. The aim of this study was to model the impact of SMC on morbidity and mortality in children under five years in Chad. This was a prospective comparative study. Among the followed 8 health districts, a SMC program was applied on 4 in 2015. The impact of SMC was measured by the double-difference model on data from the Health Information System collected between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. The incidence and mortality rate of malaria decreased globally between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. The impact of SMC was a significantly increasing incidence of malaria by 1.587‰ and a decrease of mortality rate by 1.494 per 100 000. So, Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention has contributed significantly to reduce severe malaria cases and frequentation of children aged between 3-59 months. Our results show that SMC contribute to fight malaria by increasing early frequentation of health center in case of simple malaria thus reducing the severe cases and the mortality.

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Nto, Chioma, Alocha, Obinna C, Umeh, Ifeanyi

There is no doubt that ICTs are the major focus for the day to day running of every society. ICTs create a room for a quicker, faster, easier access and exchange of information in the world today. The study investigated the availability, attitude and constraints of final year students in the use of computer-based ICTs (CB-ICTs) in Abia State. Data were collected with the use of a well structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results from analysis revealed that the mean age of the respondents was 23 years, 7 CB-ICTs were available to the respondents at varying degrees. The respondents had a positive attitude ( "x" ̅= 3.11) to the use of CB-ICTs and the major constraint to their use of CB-ICTs was poor resource centre where they can access CB-ICTs. Based on the findings we recommended that resource centre(s) should be built in the institution and if it exists, should be well equipped and running. Equally, awareness to the fact that there is or there will be a resource centre in the institution should be widely spread so that students can utilize the opportunity of its existence and make maximum use of the facilities there in. On the other hand, internet service provider should scale up their services in the area so as to provide a more stable internet connection in the institution as this will enable the students to use more effectively CB-ICTs in the institution and for their academic work.

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Subhakij Khaonetr

The objective of this study on the influence of the triple spheroidization on surface hardness from drilling resistance (Dry drilling) of powder coated gray cast iron using universal testing machine (Compressive mode), the surface hardness in powder coating areas, normal hardness and Charpy impact resistance were considered. The spheroidizing temperatures were 300C, 450C and 600C; the spheroidizing time spanned the range of 6 hours and cooled down in the furnace to room temperature for 24 hours. The drilling resistance test; the high-speed twist drill diameter of 3 mm, the rotating speed of 1000 rev/min, and the crosshead speed of 5-25 mm/min were investigated. It was found that the surface hardness from drilling resistance, normal hardness and Charpy impact resistance increased as the spheroidizing temperatures increased. The maximum surface hardness was found at the third spheroidization.

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Mahamat H. Abakar, Mabel O.Imbuga, Ellie O.Osir, Hector G.Morgan

In the present study, a trypanolysin induced by component of blood meal in the midgut of tsetse G. m. morsitans was isolated and purified in three steps. The first step was achieved by separation of the midgut homogenate on a conventional anion-exchange chromatography column. The highest trypanolysin activity was recovered in the bound fractions (95%, 05 M NaCl). In the second step, isolation was achieved on a Mono Q anion-exchange column by elution at 70-80% 1 M NaCl. The third step of isolation-purification was achieved by using epoxy-activated Sepharose 6-B-affinity chromatography column. In this case, the trypanolysin was eluted using 20 mM Tris-HCl. The purified native G. m. morsitans trypanolysin was of Mw ≈ 669 kDa, while ≈ 14 kDa trypanolysin was shown in denaturing trypanolysin SDS-PAGE gel for the same tsetse species. It was noticed that the purified trypanolysin was lipidated and also found to be glycosylated.

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Yousra M Abbas, Dr. Wagdy R. Anis, Dr. Ismail M. Hafez

In this work a wireless monitoring system are designed for automatic detection, localization fault in photovoltaic system. In order to avoid the use of modeling and simulation of the PV system we detected the fault by monitoring the output of each individual photovoltaic panel connected in the system by Arduino and transmit this data wirelessly to laptop then interface it by LabVIEW program which made comparison between this data and the measured data taking from reference module at the same condition. The proposed method is very simple, but effective detecting and diagnosing the main faults of a PV system and was experimentally validated and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the detection and diagnosing of main faults present in the DC side of PV system.

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Medha Kisto

This paper investigates the determinants of job satisfaction in Mauritius based on primary data which were sourced through survey among 500 youth workers across the island in 2014. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between job satisfaction and selected demographic, education and employment variables. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done. Results indicated significant relationships between job satisfaction and demographic variables, job variables and mismatch variables, but we find that job satisfaction among youth is explained by different set of variables respectively for males and females and for the whole sample. From the key findings and analysis from the factor analysis showed that factors affecting the respondent current job satisfaction can be grouped under three categories namely socio-economic shocks and demographic indicators, social evils and psychological well-being. Thus, these findings have implications for future research on job satisfaction among youth.

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Apata Dolapo Moses, C.I. Unuevho, S.A. Oke, D. C. Okujagu

The Structural and Lithological studies of a part of North Central Nigeria which lies between latitudes 9o11l21.87N and 11o 3l37.29N and longitudes 7o 43l 53.01E and 6o 25l50.65 E covering an area of 170 km by 183 km was carried out using Landsat enhanced thematic mapper plus[ETM+] and shuttle radar topography mission satellite imageries [SRTM]. These imageries were visually and digitally interpreted using softwares such as ArcGis 9.2™, Global mapper™, Multispec™, Ilwis 3.4™ and Microsoft Paint™. The zone is comprised of cellar [basement] rocks such as Granite, Migmatite, Gneiss, Schist and Quartzite which show megascopic structures such as joints, faults and folds. The drainage pattern within the area which include dendritic, rectangular, braided and annular were identified and their geologic implication was inferred. A Rock Outcrop map and a Lineament map of the study area was constructed. Rossete diagram made from the lineaments shows that the principal Strike direction in the study area is NNE-SSW which conforms to the general structural trend direction in the Nigerian Basement.

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Ahmet Saygın Ogulmuş, Abdullah Çakan, Mustafa Tınkır

In this work, a scara robot type 3D printer system is dynamically modeled and position control of the system is realized. For this aim; computer aided design model of three degrees of freedom robotic system is created using SolidWorks program then obtained model is exported to MATLAB/SimMechanics software for position control. Also mathematical model of servo motors used in robotic 3D printer system is included in control methodology to design proportional controllers. Uncontrolled and controlled position results are simulated and given in the form of the graphics.

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N. D. Gunasekara, C. I. E. Jayasooriya

This is a preliminary study which focuses on Facebook profile picture from two different perspectives; selection and substitution. It attempt to identify & evaluate the related variables that has an impact on profile picture selection. Participants include 309 male and female Facebook users between the ages of 18 to 34 who are enrolled in a higher education institute in Sri Lanka. The analysis finds that profile picture categories differ according to gender. Majority of the males prefer to use their own close up photo while female equally like to use their own close up photo or a photo of a celebrity. Profile picture category did not significantly vary by age, perhaps because of less variation in the age group considered. But it depends on the appearance Facebook user is trying to convey through the profile picture. The individuals who post their own close up photos believe that they appear attractive. The individuals who feel that they look happy are uploading photos with their friends mostly. Most of the individuals change their profile picture when they find a better picture. Reason for changing the profile picture vary according to the age. The males believe they can build an impression about themselves through the profile picture whilst the females’ respond is neutral. Implications of these findings, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.

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Shireen Nisha, Mohammed Farik

In this age of digital natives, we are immersed in digital information 24/7. Individuals, organizations, and government have their share of information systems to mange and use in the various processes of their digital existence. Being a small island state and still developing amidst various problems, Fiji cannot afford losses due to cybercrime. This paper aims to create awareness in regards to some major cybercrimes in Fiji in the year 2016. We believe that the cases and solutions discussed will assist in enforcing better cyber security measures to prevent being victims of such cybercrimes in the future.

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Semy B. A. Latunussa, H. M. Said Karim, Sukarno Aburaera, Maasba Magassing

The existence of lawyer profession in Indonesia is legitimated in Act No. 18 of 2003 concerning lawyers. The purpose of the legislation as well as protecting the lawyers as a profession, is also a major advance is to protect the public from the advocate services are not eligible and protected from possible abuse of advocates. This research was conducted in Jayapura, Indonesia. The selection of this site is based on the consideration that the dilemmatic of lawyers who has responsibility for the client and state is homogenous. The results shows that lawyers as law enforcer officers have equal position with other law enforcement agencies in enforcing the law and justice. Lawyers profession has an important role in law enforcement efforts because any proceedings. To realize its role as law enforcer, the lawyers shall comply with the Lawyer and the Code of Ethics Act in synergistic cooperation and mutual respect with the other legal professions such as judges, police and prosecutors.

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Masitta Tanjung, Maryani Cyccu Tobing, Darma Bakti, Syafruddin Ilyas

Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera:Bombycidae) a group of insect has high economy value. Continually domestication by human leads to the insect get loss of its productivity and more sensitive to high temperature especially while its cultivated in tropical climate. The temperature effect HSP gene of Bombyx mori larvae that responsible for maintaining the body from temperature stress. The gene was obtained by isolation total RNA of larval 5th instar from several organs such as head, silk gland, cuticle layer and and rectum using Trizol reagent. Results showed that the total RNA was found on larval head, silk gland and rectum, whereas, clumping of calcium carbonate occurred on cuticle layer. Based on analytical and RNA quantitative quality using Nanospectrophotometer UV-vis indicate that RNA total on larval cuticle was not detected because of undisolved RNA total in DEPC water and ddH2O.

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Nahid Uz Zaman, Nahid Afroze

The study was carried out with a view to assess the nurses knowledge regarding the risk factors and management of stroke following a cross type descriptive study. Nurses having academic qualification were S.S.C (32%) and H.S.C (68%). Nurses having professional qualification were Diploma in Nursing & Midwifery 50% because this degree was compulsory and basic for all. During the data collection there were also 42% B.Sc. in Nursing and 8% MPH/M.Sc. among those respondents. Length of Service of the respondents (nurses) were 6% (1 to 10 years), followed by 24%, 58%, & 12% were in the (11 to 20 years), (21 to 30 years) and (31 to 40 years). The Nurses were given correct answer about 74% knowledge regarding stroke, 50% types of stroke, 82% controllable risk factor of stroke, 76% uncontrollable risk factor of stroke, 85% positioning needed for patients and 86% management of stroke. Considering the above discussion it was obviously clear that the Senior Staff Nurses (SSN) were much conscious regarding the risk factors and management of stroke working at Rajshahi Medical College Hospital (RMCH).

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Supriyanto, Marlon Ivanhoe Aipasa, Muhammad Sumaryono, Sudrajat

The research was conducted to determine the depth and characteristics of the groundwater aquifers in the region Unmul Samarinda Botanical Garden. The study was conducted using an electric reistivitas. The research data consisted of electrical resistivity data, geological data, topography data, land cover and vegetation data. The results showed that the groundwater aquifer located at a depth of 10 m - 100 m on a line-1 and 15m - 114m on the 2nd line. Type aquifer groundwater in aquifers research sites are free, at the top of the aquifer covered by a layer of porous rock so there is still no movement of water into the aquifer, below the aquifer layer covered by a layer of impermeable serves as a barrier groundwater.

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Tomas Hes, Samuel Mintah, Haiyan Sulaiman, Sheku Kemoh Mansaray

The controversies of microfinance are to a large extent fueled by its unclear definition and limited understanding of the extent of its impact. The problem of taxonomy leads to contrast between idealistic beliefs in the sectorial mission and pragmatic solutions of MFIs causing misinterpretations of the realities by financial laity as well as by development experts. Lack of comprehension of the potential as well as an ideal socio-economic habitat and target profile of microdebtors in the light of problems of over indebtedness, belongs to such problems. An in-depth comprehension of the profile of a desirable microfinance client denominated as microcredit mannequin from the development perspective, and a grasp of a combination of drivers that make microenterpreneurs in developing countries often contracting microdebt, might serve as a tool for more efficient focus of microfinance in developing countries. An understanding of the meaning of microfinance and the characteristics of a desirable client could help focus on particular socio-economic strata, prevention of overindebtedness and improve the impact of debt, especially in rural areas where microfinance is most needed and where it lacks most expertise. The study was founded upon field data collected in regions in Sierra Leone from 800 microfinance debtors as well as non-microfinance practitioners and compares their socio-economic profiles in order to arrive to a set of generalised conclusions on the particular drivers that define microfinance clientele.

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Kallol Kumar Samaddar

The ready-made garments (RMG) industry plays a vital role to augment the socio-economic development of Bangladesh. However, workers health and safety issue in this sector still less focused even though recent time increasing accident rate and loss of lives in some deadly incidents like accidents in Rana Plaza and Tazreen Fashion attack keen attention from home and abroad regarding fire hazards and building safety. In this circumstances, this study aims to depict overall scenario about occupational health and safety of workers in RMG factories and identify occupational health and safety factors which have an impact on workers performance as well as factories efficiency. Fire risk index (FRI) of various factories is occupied to get an overview of fire safety and relative importance of occupational health and safety factors are identified by relative important index (RII). Principal component analysis (PCA) is conducted to investigate the significance of occupational health and safety factors categorized in the variables. Then cause and effect diagram is developed to identify key causes behind musculoskeletal disorder and occupational accident. The relative important index (RII) shows that factories are relatively more concern about health hazard and emergency situation rather than working condition. Prolong working time is the most common in the factories which result in workers sufferings from lower back pain. Most of the workers are injured through needle piercing as negligence of using needle guard which is the root cause. The study also reveals that standard working condition augments factories performance in term of efficiency while accident rate impediment the factories from achieving target efficiency.

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Ando FIkri Hakim, S.Kep, Ners., MAN, Dr. Pandith Arismunandar, MM

Elderly people worldwide currently estimated at more than 629 million people, and by 2025, the elderly will reach 1.2 billion, the elderly are very susceptible to various degenerative disease, a degenerative disease that has high level of morbidity and mortality are hypertension, Then towards the prevention of hypertension should be done, one of them can be addressed with non-pharmacological therapies such as gymnastics elderly as the exercise. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of elderly exercise on blood pressure in in Budi Luhur Clinic Cimahi. The method used in this study is the Pre-experimental design using t-test analysis. The number of respondents in this study as many as 58 people, sampling techniques in this study using total sampling. Data collection using observation sheet gymnastics and perform blood pressure measurements using spigmomanometer that has been calibrated.

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Safirun Pervin, Nuzhat Jerin, Tasmia Farzana, Shakila Sultana, Asif Hayat Zilani, S.M. Ariful Alam, Jahidul Islam, Fatema-E-Jannat, Suvamoy Datta

Tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world next to water. For selling food and drinks in Bangladesh a large number of people are involved. This study was performed to determine the microbiological quality of tea vendors in different area of Dhaka city. A total of 50 street tea vendors were randomly selected for this study. Samples were collected from Tea cup, vendor hand and water of each tea vendors. All samples were assessed for the presence of total bacterial count, total Enterobacteriaceae, total coliform count and total Staphylococcus aureus. The presence of Salmonella and Vibrio species were determined following appropriate enrichment and culture method. Cup and hand samples collected showed significantly higher count of total heterotrophic bacteria. Prevalence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., Staphylo-coccus aureus has been on higher side as compare to the Enterobacters and Klebsiella. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the S. aureus isolates shows that the highest sensitivity was observed against Streptomycin whereas high resistance observed against Amoxicillin. Contamination of tea vendor samples with pathogenic and resistant bacteria indicate their poor quality and unacceptability as drinks. This could be a threat to the consumer’s health and require immediate attention in order to control any outbreak of food and water borne diseases. Results of this concise study indicate that water testing is significant approach to ensure the supply and availability of contaminated-free water for tea preparation and processing.

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K.K.G.U Hemamali, S.M. Amarathunge

Production, selling, consumption and concern of plain set yoghurt show incitement in the last few time periods in Sri Lanka. New plain set yoghurt brands are coming to the Sri Lankan market very quickly too. The aim of this study was an attempt to do sensory evaluation and compare the physical and chemical parameters of some selected plain set yoghurt brands sold in Matara municipal area of Sri Lanka. Five different brands of plain set yoghurt samples were selected on the basis of preliminary survey done. Then all the selected plain set yoghurt samples were test for organoleptic characters such as color, aroma, appearance, thickness, taste, sourness, sweetness and over all acceptability. After that all the selected plain set yoghurt samples were analyzed with their physical and chemical parameters such as syneresis effect, pH, titratable acidity, total protein content. By doing analysis of sensory evaluation, the brand 12 was the least acceptable product while brand 15 was the most acceptable product by thirty untrained panelists. It also revealed that the thickness with appearance and taste had significant influence (p<0.05) on over all acceptability of the plain set yoghurt brand. According to the results obtained, all physico-chemical parameters significantly differ (p<0.05) between the plain set yoghurt brands too. Hence, plain set yoghurt manufacturers must give attention on improvement of thickness, taste and appearance for better consumer acceptance and for better production. Overall plain set yoghurt quality assessment needs good care on quality control during processing.

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Ahmed Al Kuwaiti, Vinoth Raman, Arun Vijay Subbarayalu, Palanivel R.M., Sivasankar Prabaharan

Employees are considered as an asset to any organization and each organization provide a better and flexible working environment to retain its best and resourceful workforce. As such, continuous efforts are being taken to avoid or extend the exit/withdrawal of employees from the organization. Human resource managers are facing a challenge to predict the exit time of employees and there is no precise model existing at present in the literature. This study has been conducted to predict the probability of exit of an employee in an organization using appropriate statistical model. Accordingly, authors designed a model using Additive Weibull distribution to predict the expected exit time of employee in an organization. In addition, a Shock model approach is also executed to check how well the Additive Weibull distribution suits in an organization. The analytical results showed that when the inter-arrival time increases, the expected time for the employees to exit also increases. This study concluded that Additive Weibull distribution can be considered as an alternative in the place of Shock model approach to predict the exit time of employee in an organization.

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Shaneel Deo, Mohammed Farik

Information technology (IT) plays a vital role in Fiji’s economy as businesses strive for competitive advantage. However, IT has also become a tool for attackers. Hence, it is important that all IT users invest in better information security technologies and practices to safeguard against all possible attacks and threats that emerge in the horizon. In this paper, we review recent information security attacks that have taken place in Fiji and recommend countermeasures to safeguard against such attacks in the future.

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Omed Ismael Sulaiman, Amanj Mohamed Ahmad

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how interim financial reporting affects the investors’ decisions. The need of reviewing interim financial reports (IFR) emerged as a significant tool to their beneficiaries, particularly investors’, appropriate and timely information. To achieve the objective of this study, the literature has identified a few research methodologies. In this research, the questionnaire is designed to ask investors’, financial managers and academics in the field. Interviews were also designed to observe how investors’ use interim financial report. The hypotheses of this research aim to investigate how the reviewing interim financial reports affect the investors’ decisions positively. The results show that investors’ should use interim financial reports to propose a strong decision. It is also considered that the interim financial reports should be reviewed by the external auditors in order to push the investors’ to make efficient decisions for future earnings.

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Yaxyayev Abdulla Abdujabbаrovich

In the town planning since the ancient periods, emphasizing to the vertical elements had the certain role. That’s why, the gates of the city, the buildings on the main square, were built with high and gigantic form. The zikkurat on the silhouettes of the city and other settlements and other structures like the tower form the balance of the composition. Today, in the architecture are given the great importance the creation of vertical compositions for leaving of the biodiversity. The purpose of this article consists of the appearance of the vertical compositions and researching development of laws in the town planning.

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