International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 6 - Issue 2, February 2017 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
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Eci Oktaviani, Sudrajat, Dwi Susanto

This study aims to determine effect of inoculant Rhizobium and compost on growth and the number of root nodules on peanut in soil media ex-coal mining. This research used 2 treatments, which are Rhizobium (0, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g) and compost (0, 100 and 200 g) with 5 replied, respectively. Data obtained were analyzed with Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test and Kruskall-Wallis (p=0.05). The results showed that the inoculant rhizobium and compost increased the growth of peanut and number of root nodules. The best growth of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) obtained by treatment of inoculant rhizobium 15 g and compost 100 g, and the most root nodules obtained by inoculant rhizobium 25 g and compost 200 g.

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Drs. Oktoruddin Harun, SKM., M.Kes; Ando Fikri Hakim, S.Kep.,Ners.,MAN; Wandi Suwandiana, S.Kep.

Gastritis is usually regarded as a thing paltry but gastritis was the beginning of a a disease that can be big problem for us. Based on the previous research at Public Health Center sindangbarang cianjur District were found scene gastritis from 10 patients, 7 had less knowledgeable, 1 respondents had knowledge cased, and 2 respondents had good of knowledge. It is suspected that the incidence of gastritis has to do with knowledge and education level of the patients. The purpose of this research is to identify corelation betwen knowledge and education level of the patients outpatient with the gastritis at Public Health Center sindangbarang cianjur District. Research methodology used survey analytic correlative with design cross sectional .Data analyzed by univariat and bivariat with statistics chi square test. Population in this research were out patients Public Health Center sindangbarag. The sample 120 respondents with total of sampling. The results of the study were corelation knowledge of to gastritis incident based on the analysis of bivariat by using test chi-square computerized , the results of statistical corel tests obtained p value = 0.013< = 0.05, so H0 rejected. While relations education level with the gastritis incident based on the results of the analysis bivariat test chi-square use computerized obtained the results of statistical tests obtained p value = 0.0001< 0.05, so H0 rejected it could be concluded a significant between knowledge and the level of education with the gastritis incident corelation at Public Health Center sindangbarang cianjur District, it is advised that need to effort to promotional and preventive, especially with regard to knowledge of gastritis, as information about gastritis, and counseling on a preventive manner gastritis that can reduce or prevent disease gastritis.

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Umu Lamboi, Issa Fofana, Yahya Labay Kamara

Although inherently tedious, the segmentation of images and the evaluation of segmented images are critical in computer vision processes. One of the main challenges in image segmentation evaluation arises from the basic conflict between generality and objectivity. For general segmentation purposes, the lack of well-defined ground-truth and segmentation accuracy limits the evaluation of specific applications. Subjectivity is the most common method of evaluation of segmentation quality, where segmented images are visually compared. This is daunting task, however, limits the scope of segmentation evaluation to a few predetermined sets of images. As an alternative, supervised evaluation compares segmented images against manually-segmented or pre-processed benchmark images. Not only good evaluation methods allow for different comparisons, but also for integration with target recognition systems for adaptive selection of appropriate segmentation granularity with improved recognition accuracy. Most of the current segmentation methods still lack satisfactory measures of effectiveness. Thus this study proposed a supervised framework which uses visual saliency detection to quantitatively evaluate image segmentation quality. The new benchmark evaluator uses Graph-based Visual Saliency (GVS) to compare boundary outputs for manually segmented images. Using the Berkeley Segmentation Database, the proposed algorithm was tested against 4 other quantitative evaluation methods — Probabilistic Rand Index (PRI), Variation of Information (VOI), Global Consistency Error (GSE) and Boundary Detection Error (BDE). Based on the results, the GVS approach outperformed any of the other 4 independent standard methods in terms of visual saliency detection of images.

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Mahmud Abba Tijjani, Izzuddeen Muhammad Hassan

Topography influences the distribution of soil physico-chemical properties. This study assessed soil properties variation resulting from topographic aspect on basaltic parent material at Vom Jos Plateau State in the Southern Guinea zone of Nigeria in order to understand the general soil behaviour, degree of development, nutrients availability and its response to management activites. The result revealed variations in soil properties among the landscape segments which were probably due to the toposequence characteristics in soils. The samples were collected at depth of 0-15cm and 15-30cm, parceled, labeled and taken to laboratory for analysis of the selected for analysis. Clay, silt and gravel contents were moderately variable (CV=22.9%, 15.42% and 32.55% respectively), while sand showed less variability (CV=8.47%). Organic carbon showed high variability (CV=38.08%) while soil pH in (H2O and CaCl2) showed less spatial variability (with CV=4.91% & 6.45% respectively). Available phosphorus has high variability (CV=37.59%). Magnesium, K and Ca showed high spatial variability (CV=42.60%, 35.85%, & 35.84% respectively), while Na and exchange acidity were moderately variable (CV=24.39% & 24.27% respectively). However, no regular pattern was observed in the distribution of the studied parameters. Therefore, further studies might be required to fully understand and clarify the influence of aspect, topography and vegetation types on soil properties for site-specific soil resource management practices in the study area.

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Elsa Silvia Nur Aulia

This present study was motivated by the fact that student’s Arabic writing ability is still relatively weak. This research intends to provide innovation on Arabic learning and particularly to examine the effectiveness of using audio-visual media in learning Insya. In attempt to achieve the objectives, quasi-experimental method under the frame of Non-Equivalent Control Group Design was utilized. In regard to testing the hypothesis, the normal gain to both of the classes is also employed. Tested through the use of Mann Whitney U-test with significance level of 0.05, the result indicated Asymp Sig (2-tailed) 0.00. Based on the testing criteria, Ha (alternative hypothesis) is accepted if it is lower than 0.05. Therefore, it can be concluded that Ha is accepted and H0 (null hypothesis) is rejected. This signifies that there is significant influence of audiovisual media i.e. Arabic cartoon on student’s Insya ability.

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Fitroh Hayati

A school/madrasah library is one of the main facilities which must be provided by a school/madrasah. This is because nowadays, information and knowledge have developed rapidly. Therefore, it is necessary to have a systematic effort to collect, organize and present all information in the library with a particular way that can help teachers and students operate the systems practically and access the information easily. Due to that reason, a school/madrasah needs reliable librarians that can manage the library well. The aim of this research is to examine the effects of the library management training toward the library conception. This research is a quasi-experimental research using pre-test and post-test designs. The research population are participants of a madrasah library management training in Garut regency, as many as 40 people. The sampling technique used in this research is a saturated sampling. The statistical analysis used in this research is paired sample t-test. The results show that there are effects resulted from the library management training mainly to the participants’ understanding of library management that is improvised and to the participants’ knowledge of the difference of pre-test and post-test score (p=0,000<0,05).

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The city requires open spaces of sufficient breadth to maintain a balance between the regions. The city has a circulatory system that brings together the various regions and provides facilities to carry trade goods from farm to distribution centers in the city. Cities have many shortcomings in service to its population. Cities can be too dense, too many houses are less worthy, the unemployment center, and has its government. Taxes tend to be high while the service is inadequate. Even so, the cities will still be there. The task for planners at all levels, both government, and private sectors are seeking to be important elements in our social system is more comfortable to live in, especially when it is in the city found many open spaces that can neutralize the possibility of air pollution. Formation and good urban planning is the dream of society. With a good arrangement, the city will be more comfortable as a residence. Urban and open space are two things that can not be separated from one another. Although it has different functions and benefits, remains a single entity. It really should be understood by all urban communities.

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Muna Tag Elsir, Isam Eldin Eldisougy, Abubakr Hassan, Ahmed Alhassan

The purpose of this study is to identify relationship between the working situation of soap industries in Sudan and their engineering management strategies, considering number of samples of soap industries which facing a problem of misunderstanding of applying the total quality management systems in Sudanese soap factories (which are almost owned by famous rich families), as a one of the total profit indicators when taking into consideration the competition and consumer satisfaction, beside the long term conservation of energy and machinery life. To discover the fact behind this, clear links have been establish between the evaluation of strategies and the summary of findings derived from the raw data, by using the inductive method represented by observation, data collection, pattern of data, hypothesis and generalization a theory, which confirms the prediction, that the chosen samples were suffering directly from engineering management strategies execution, either for energy management or materials management systems, because of lacking or not applying the proper strategy.

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Otor Samera U., Akinyemi Bodunde O., Adekunle Adeyelu., Akumba Beatrice O., Aderounmu Ganiyu A.

Existing Misbehaviour Detection Systems in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are challenged with routing overhead and high latency resulting from complexity and failure to isolate and block misbehaving nodes for the reason that it is difficult to detect them as they participate fully in route finding. In this work, a Mobile Agent-Based Acknowledgement scheme (MAACK) was formulated to address this problem using an object oriented algorithm deployed to report misbehaving nodes to the source and destination by registering the Internet Protocol (IP) address of misbehaving nodes in their header. The scheme was simulated using Network Simulator-3 (NS-3) and results benchmarked with an existing scheme; the Enhanced Adaptive Acknowledgment (EAACK) using packet delivery ratio, routing overhead and latency as performance metrics in the two scenarios. The results showed that the MAACK paradigm guaranteed a higher packet delivery ratio, lower latency and routing overhead than the EAACK scheme. The model can be adapted by Ad-Hoc network protocol developers.

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Jones Kapeleka, Dismas L. Mwaseba

This study was conducted in northern Tanzania to assess the effectiveness of pesticide labels in communicating useful information to horticultural farmers. A total of 200 respondents were obtained through simple random selection. Data were collected through personal and face-to-face interview using structured interview schedule, observation and focus group discussion. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation were used in the analysis. The study revealed that 79.6% of farmers interviewed had not learned anything from the labels. With regard to the main source of information on pesticides use, 66.7% of the farmers get information from pesticides retailers. Misinterpretation of symbols and pictograms was realized among the farmers. It was revealed that 60% of the farmers cannot interpret correctly the warning symbols and pictograms. The study also revealed that 76.3% of the farmers are aware that pesticide labels contain useful information on safe use of pesticides, and 76.1% of all farmers interviewed read pesticides labels before using pesticides. Even when farmers read instructions, most do not understand the instructions provided on pesticide labels, the main reasons reported include the use of foreign language (53.3%), too technical language (51.7%) unclear information (40%), use of uncommon Swahili words (26.7%), while 35.5% said following information on the label do not give good results. Other factors influencing the use of information on pesticide labels were found to be farmer’s perception on pesticide labels, lacking sensitization on label use and reading habit. The study concluded that pesticide labels do not communicate fully the intended information on pesticide use. Pesticide labels need to be simplified and capacity building on symbols, colour codes, pictograms safety precautions, health and environmental impacts of pesticides use is highly required to pesticide users.

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Muchtaridi, Rani Rubiyanti, Hamidah Nuruljanah, Mira Laila N A, Nurul Asih R, Moelyono MW, Aliya Nurhasanah, Ida Musfiroh

Quality of crude drug extract of coffee bean (Coffeea arabica L.) determined by the value of crude drug and extract standard parameter. In this research, coffee bean derived from Pangalengan, Garut, and Tasikmalaya. Standard parameters determined consisted of non-specific parameters and specific parameters. The results of crude drug determination of non-specific parameters including the loss of dry ranged from 8,000%-10,667%;; water content ranged from 7,2%-8,0%; total ash content ranged from 7,2%-8,0%; and acid insoluble ash content ranged from 1,97%- 2,15%. The results of determination of specific parameters including organoleptic examination crude drug, oval shapes, green colour, typical coffee odour, bitter taste; water-soluble contents ranged between 12,30%-14,67%; levels ethanol-soluble contents ranged between 6,67%-8,50%. The results of extract determination of non-specific parameters including the specific gravity of the extracts ranged from 0,894-0,936; the loss of dry ranged from 18,1667%-21,83%; water content ranged from 5,0%-10%; total ash content ranged from 1,77%-3,18%; and acid insoluble ash content ranged from 0,56%- 0,69%. The results of determination of specific parameters including organoleptic examination extract, pasta shapes, green colour, typical extract odour, bitter taste; water-soluble contents ranged between 7,20%-7,73%; levels ethanol-soluble contents ranged between 32,000%-38,166%.

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Made Sriundy, Syamsul Arifin, Toho C. Mutohir, Nining W Kusnanik

The healthy drink usually contains a lot of chemical elements, without microbes inside. But the natural drink like the botanical drink is difference it contains chemical and biological elements. This study was aimed to develop healthy drink of Sugarcane juice by the use of different techniques, i.e.: Knob and Plate. It was an attempt to examine the different effects of Knob and Plate treatments on potential Hydrogen (pH). The old techniques that can be used to eliminate microbe elements from the botanical drink are: Warming, Pasteurization, Pickling, Screening, Irradiating Electromagnetic Wave, and Ozonizing. However, these techniques may cause changes in sense, color and acidity of botanical drink. Other techniques that can be used to sterilize all bacterium in botanical drink (especially sugarcane juice) include the ultrasonic (48 kHz, 5 Vpp, 5 Vdc) by radiating technic (12 knobs) and by front wave technic (Plate). The results of the present study indicate that fresh sugarcane after being irradiated by the 12 Knobs and stored in lab room for 2 days has pH value 5, and by the Plate treatment has pH value 6.5 (in 1.5 hours irradiated) or 8.5 (in 2.5 hours irradiated). This study of the ultrasonic irradiation by Plate transducer can be an effective technic to develop healthy drink with pH 8.5 which may be considered as ergogenic aids suitable to increase energy.

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Bilal Hassan, Stephen D. Butt, Charles A. Hurich

Certain peculiarities of inelastic nonlinearity of unconsolidated near surface periodically stressed granular media contributed at micro- scale are investigated to ascertain possible anomalous time dependent strength behavior macro-effects, with geotechnical/geo-environmental implications. Comparative examination of ultrasonic P- and S-wave repeatable displacement response wave-forms, in time records and spectra, of pulse stimulated both confined dry and fully saturated ceramic grains analogue, endorsable by pertinent theory, is performed. Examination is primarily aimed at both understanding connectivity of “louder” response generated by seemingly unobtrusive “quieter” seismic and aseismic events in granular sediments. Secondarily, results impart an enhanced conceptual substantiation of some previously disseminated and/or published results. The results hint certain persistive time and frequency restricted occurrences vouching vital insights. It could be unambiguously clarified that subtle acoustic emission and/or stick-slip type micro events in stimulated i.e., seismic or aseismic, unconsolidated granular sediments do occur. When spread over time and/or space their cumulated effect may be capable of altering granular material macro strength behavior. It is clearly deducible from resonant type spectral results that material fragmentation or force chain formation type phenomenon occurs possibly due to macro-scale friction mobilization by grain-scale events. It is further speculated that invisible high frequency events may irreversibly alter grain-scale surface properties and/or intergranular friction as (pseudo) enhanced elasticity type effect, more elusive with saturation. An assessment of an examined temporal distribution of grain-scale stick-slip type events when stimulated by P- and S-wave modes is posited to be non-identical. The former, as if, is retardation associated while the latter relaxation type, in a characteristic sense. Presented result forms combined not only offer acute insights in assessing possibilities of elastic wave mode conversion in granular sediments but also evolution of grain-scale effect to a macro-scale with potential of compromising strength and stability of unconsolidated sediments.

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Kadirova Surayyo Adilovna

The concept of landscape - landscape art, according to historical data, along with the palace and iconic architecture, was at a high artistic level. This trend of landscape design in the modern system of green building in modern and in historical towns and cultivated at present with only one purpose - to decorate and enrich our sunny Uzbekistan for the benefit not only of our people, but also humanity as a whole.

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Amnesty Situmeang, Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar, Maryani Cyccu Tobing

This study aims to determine the effect of various germplasm palm oil plantation of population insect pollinators (Elaeidobius kamerunicus Faust.) In PPKS collection at Kebun Kalianta, Riau. The study was conducted from May to July 2016 with a purposive sampling method. The results showed total population of E. kamerunicus is 9,123 head/0.5ha (3,160 head 0.5ha: 5,963 head/ 0.5ha) in the male flowers and amounted to 433 head/0.5ha (182 head/0.5ha: 251 heads/0.5ha ) in female flowers. E. kamerunicus highest male population of 1,244 head/0.5ha and female high of 2,241 head/0.5ha germplasm contained in V3 (Accession Wild Angola) in the male flowers and the male population of E. kamerunicus high of 41 head/0.5ha and the highest female amounting to 65 head/0.5ha located on E. guineensis germplasm in the female flowers on the contrary the lowest population of 0 head/0.5ha located on E. oleifera germplasm of both the male flowers and female flowers. Only the air temperature significantly affect E. kamerunicus male population (r = 0763, p <0.05), while rainfall, humidity, light intensity, wind speed and no significant effect on the existence of E. Kamerunicus male and female.

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Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar, Indra R Matondang

Rice and fish are the main food source for the peoples of Indonesia, especially in Northern Sumatra. This research was done to determine biodiversity insects used by purposive random sampling from March until July 2016 which 3 traps (yellow trap, sweeping net, and core sampler) repeated five times in control and fish farming sites in Purwosari village, Pematang Bandar, Simalungun District, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The results showed the insects were caught on land fish-rice farming consist of 9 orders, 40 families and 42 species, 2028 individuals identified. From the research, the fish farming has been done obtained the highest number of individuals insects caught used yellow trap are 1111 individuals, followed by sweep net (800 individuals) and the lower used the core sampler (117 individuals). Meanwhile, 1288 individuals are highest of insects collected use by yellow trap, followed by Sweep net (704 individuals) and Core sampler (137 individuals). The value of species richness in rice-fish farming 5.384 (index Margalef) and 0.932 (index Menhinick) more than a value of species richness in control 5.089 (index Margalef) and 0.866 (index Menhinick). The result value Index of Evenness in rice-fish farming 0.80 and control 0.78. The suitable traps for detected of biodiversity insects in paddy plantation and fish farming used the yellow trap..

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H.K.G.M Madurika, G.P.T.S Hemakumara

Urban Planning and Land utilization for the Residential is one of crucial factors in high density Cities. Many theories in Planning explain the Residential areas are moving to periphery areas in cities by its commercial development. Martara is one of developing city in Southern Sri Lanka and Residential land value are comparative high in city sub urban areas. In this study it is examined that where is the best locations for residential development in Grater Matara Region by using five criteria. GIS based Multi Criteria Method ( MCE ) method have been applied to find the suitable locations. The results of analysis have been shown that there are 5378.99 hectares area suitable within study area and however extremely importance areas only 1.40 hectares accordingly given criteria but very strongly importance and importance category have 1560.51 and 2468.22 respectively.

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Muhammad Ali Peracha, Mushtaq Hussain, Nasiruddin Khan, Muhammad Liaquat Ali, Mehwish Khan

Indus Delta being the 6th largest delta of the world, was earlier environmentally healthy and contributing its due share in the economic growth of the country. During the last six decades construction of reservoirs, canals, diversion of water for irrigation and considerable reduction in seasonal rains etc. substantially decreased the Indus water in the delta. The reduction of fresh water in the deltaic region threatened the livelihood of millions of fisher folk, farmers, marine inhabitants and as well as naturally rich mangroves ecosystem of the area. If the situation continues, the country might lose its major share in revenue generation. Keeping in view the gravity of the circumstances, preemptive measures are required to be taken forthwith. All stake-holders are to be apprised about the significance of the region and ask to play their respective role to save the delta. In this paper efforts have been made to develop a Mathematical Model that acquaints the government about the alarming situation, particularly the degradation of the existence of Mangrove ecosystem in the Indus Delta.

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M. Prawitasari, C.Y. Lee, C. Setyawan

High land occupancy for farming activity particularly in the upstream area was causing land degradation problem in many tropical watersheds. Land cultivation without good agricultural practice was resulting disasters in the downstream during wet season in form of debris flow, flood and sedimentation and in dry season in form of drought. Land conservation practices are required to conserve the function of watershed as rain water catchment area. Information about degradation level in the watershed is required for determining conservation strategies. This study was focusing on degradation level assessment in watershed scale by using Geographic Information System (GIS) in a tropical watershed. Five indicators were used for the assessment such as soil erosion, farm land occupancy index, vegetation coverage index, sediment delivery ratio and land slope average. The assessment was performed by applying scoring and weighting factor in each indicator. All parameters were analyzed using data from various sources. The result showed that indicator of farm land occupancy index and vegetation coverage index has bad category. Meanwhile, soil erosion, land slope index and sediment delivery ratio has good category, respectively. Total score of indicators was 2.6 means that the watershed was in moderate degradation level. GIS provides a good tool for degradation level assessment in the sub watershed scale.

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Young Ho Lee, Ivan Marsic

As the read range of passive UHF RFID broadens up to 11 meters compared to 1-meter range of HF RFID, passive tags have been used for many applications such as tracking medical devices and objects of daily living. The RF communication link between the reader antenna and tags for indoors exhibits intermittent loss of signal reception due to antenna orientation mismatch and breakpoints within the antenna coverage area. We propose a design of a sensing platform for tracking objects using a UHF RFID system with passive tags that provides continuous signal reception over the coverage area. We first investigated causes of power loss for passive tags and then designed a sensing platform solution using antenna diversity. The causes of tag’s power loss were eliminated with angle and spatial diversity methods that can cover an arbitrary area of interest. We implemented this design in an indoor setting of a trauma resuscitation room and evaluated it by experimental measurement of signal strength at different points and angles in the area of interest. Our sensing platform supported complete coverage and uninterrupted interrogation of tags as they moved in the area of interest. We conclude that this sensing platform will be suitable for uninterrupted object tracking with UHF RFID technology in generic indoor spaces.

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This study aims to find out about the activities of society in decision-wood Laban as well as perceptions and participation concerning the preservation of raw material resources for sustaining livelihoods. The results showed Laban wood (Vitex pubescens Vahl) is one type that is widely used as a raw material in the manufacture of traditional charcoal and charcoal high-value results. The public aware of their dependence on forest land/laban, but people still do not realize when they changed the place of business of land allocation will be a negative impact on livelihoods. Public participation to the preservation of forest resources and sources of raw materials charcoal as a source of livelihood is quite high, although in public settings still choose no interference from other parties.

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Siddamsetty Upendra

This paper proposes probabilistic models of time series data in time series analysis. This accommodates models with a fitted drift and as time trend by defining the stationarity assumptions on time series to discriminate between stationarity and non-stationarity about a deterministic trend also defining the stochastic models for time series.

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Epul Saepul

This research aims to know the effect of managerial ability toward the work effectiveness of senior high school vice principal in Bekasi Regency. Methodology The data is collected from participants using survey of data analysis and questionnaire. The result data shown an interpretation that the managerial ability has a direct positive effect toward work effectiveness. Based on this finding, the researcher conclude that a good managerial ability will affect toward the increasing of work effectiveness of senior high school vice principal in Bekasi Regency.

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Diden Rosenda

Human being/man is considered as the most perfectly created creature among other creatures that living in this world. As for what distinguishes a man is the fact that God has given a man an intelligence. By using that intelligence, a man can develop the culture through the education process. Efforts to educate the life of the nation is not acquired with the mere of formal education, but can also be supported by the provision of textbooks, supplementary lessons, and extracurricular activities. One of the extracurricular activities that are important to participate is religious extracurricular activity. Noble values which embedded in such activities can be seen as the basis for the formation of a strong character and excellent manners which are useful as shields in life.

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Mustafa Khalifa Thawadi El. Hamoudi

Investment is whether in local or foreign organization is the action Plan, split by various investment activities, The Libyan economy is among those economies that require this kind of foreign investment to achieve the desired economic goals, which are correlated with the objectives of the Libyan economic system for subsequent stages. Therefore it is important to study the trends and determinants of FDI in developing in general and in Libya in particular. This paper describes the role that could be played by investment foreign investment in economic and social development in Libya, pointing out the positive and negative aspects, and how to deal with each of them in proportion to the facts of the Libyan Economy needs. And in the light of the new economic orientation, in line with the political and economic developments in the international arena and foreign investment, and thus contributing to the expansion of the ownership base, and create job opportunities for citizen, in this study will follow the descriptive approach through the way ahead obtained from digital data from various sources, using the forms as required, and discussed this paper to, the definition of foreign investment, evolved of investment, determinants of FDI, motivated encourage foreign investment, history prospects for foreign direct investment in Libya, Barriers to foreign direct investment in Libya, Policies, strategies to support foreign direct investment in Libya, conclusions and recommendations.

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Fredrick Ojija, Mesfin Gebrehiwot, Neema Kilimba

This study attempts to use biological indices such as Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP), Average Score Per Taxa (ASPT) and Hilsenhoff Family Biotic Index (FBI) in order to determine the ecosystem health and water quality of Nzovwe stream in Mbeya, Tanzania. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from Nzovwe stream using semi-quantitative techniques from March to June, 2016. About 500 meters of Nzovwe stream was divided into 5 sampling sites, each site was 100 meters apart. The macroinvertebrates were collected from all the possible microhabitats of each site using a 250µm mesh size D- frame kick net. Macroinvertebrate specimens were preserved in the 70% ethyl alcohol in the polyethylene bottles. The samples were identified to the family level using standard identification keys. The BMWP score and ASPT score indicated good and moderate stream water quality respectively. The FBI showed the stream had possibility of some organic pollution. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index shows the sampling sites were moderately polluted or possibly impaired. Macroinvertebrates in pollution class II were abundant, suggesting moderate pollution. Moreover, the % Midge, % Insects, % Diptera and % Snail indicated the stream water quality or ecosystem health is between unimpaired and possibly impaired. Based on these results, the study concludes that the stream ecosystem is moderately polluted, and therefore the study recommends a regular stream monitoring.

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Kapil Ghimire, Karan Bhatta, Udayaraj Khanal, Prem Raj Dhungel, Saroj Shahi

We present a study on the relative flux density emitted from the outer surface of the stars Aldebaran and Fomalhaut as observed from the Nagarkot Observatory, Nepal on the 24th of November 2016. We found that the variation of the relative flux density of the stars were found to be symmetrical in nature going from the outer surface of the star to the interior of the star and finally to the outer surface of the star again through the diameters. The flux was found to be minimum at the outer surface reaching to its maximum in the interior of the star and finally to its minimum value at the outermost surface of the star. The values of the relative flux density were found to be minimum for Rigel and maximum for Aldebaran. There was a slight anomaly detected in the relative flux density of Fomalhaut which may have been due to the debris of dust that surrounds the star.

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Farid Ahmad, Dr. Md. Delwar Hossain, Shaikh Obaidullah Al Mahmood, Md. Moshrur Raihan

Encouragement of rapid industrialization poses damage to the environment of urban areas in Bangladesh. Appropriate Environmental Management System (EMS) could minimize the damage. This paper intended to explore the drivers and barriers of implementing EMS in the manufacturing industries of Bangladesh. A questionnaire based survey was carried out following a conceptual framework of EMS for this study. The study showed that major drivers of implementing EMS in the manufacturing industries of Bangladesh are international acceptance, compliance to local environmental legislation, international trading, pressure from the customers, production cost reduction and company’s policy for environmental safeguard. On the other hand, adoption of EMS is hindered by complexity in the process of EMS, management ignorance of its existence, lack of government incentives and awareness, lack of education and training, high investment and maintenance cost, ignorance of government regulations, and socio-economic culture. The study reveals that though the manufacturers are still reluctant to implement EMS in their industries due to the complexity faced in the process of EMS, they are heading towards adopting EMSs in manufacturing industries of Bangladesh crossing all the barriers and complexity of the process.

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E. Basuki, A. Prarudiyanto

Inactivation ACC Oxidase (ACCO) during Modified Atmosphere Storage (MAS) of Mango were carried out at Food Technology Laboratory, University of Mataram from by using Completely Randomized Design and continued with Least Significant Different at five percent significance level. Mangoes were stored at Polyethylene (PE) bags; PE + KMnO4; Polypropylene bags (PP); PP + KMnO4 and unpacked (Control) for three weeks. The physical properties of fruit such as weight loss and decay percentage were determined, while physiological properties such as the rate of respiration, ethylene production including ACCO activity. Inactivation of ACCO occurred to almost half-time of its activity in mango stored at MAS as compared to unpacked mango. Therefore, paralleled the rate of respiration and production of ethylene at MAS leads to extend the storage life of mangoes. Weight loss and decay percentage of mango kept in MAS for 3 weeks were lower than unpacked.

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Yuliance Alexanderina Burdam, H. Sulaiman Asang, Muh. Nur Sadik, Hamsinah

This research is a qualitative research, because researchers want to be able to reveal the events riel field and also want to be able to express the values hidden (hidden value) from this study. The location study authors take as the area population is Jayapura city Papua province, while the research conducted at the site Jayapura Abepura Hospital. Which became the focus in accordance with the formulation of the problems identified in this study as follows: Papua Health Card Services (KPS) in Abepura, Jayapura Papua Provincial Hospital. Papua Health Card Services (KPS) in hospitals, Abepura, Jayapura Papua Province through the ministry of outpatients, inpatients, the patient died, SDM Medical and Para medical and care facilities have been carried out but is still less in line with the standards of health (MOH-2005 ).

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Dr. Manal Jabbar Soror

The total quality costs can provide information that give a clear view about the actual execution by ensuring the effectiveness of corrective action when it gather information about the implementation of the procedure in order to identify the extent in which this procedure can address quality problems, in other words to identify solutions of these problems also to know if it was successful or not, the total quality costs can provide a set of indicators and measures for short and long term goals of the economic unit which is linked to these objectives and future strategic visions of economic units which support the evaluation process of strategic performance of these units.

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Ahmad Faiz Muntazori, Winny Gunarti W.W., Rina Wahyu Winarni

Ad consumption among teenagers may have an impact on consumer lifestyle. To anticipate, it would required the creation of a medium of socialization about ad aware in school. The purpose is so that the teens can be selectively consume ad. This study used a qualitative approach and design sociology to describe workflow processes of socialization media creation in junior high school environment. As part of the solution to the problem among teenagers, this study also formulate attitudes for teens to consume ad.

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Ahmed Kamel

With the worldwide trend of low oil prices, high maturity of oil fields, excessive cost of horizontal and fracking technologies, and necessity for green drilling applications, radial jet drilling (RJD) technology can be a cost effective and environmentally-friendly alternative. RJD is an unconventional drilling technique that utilizes coiled tubing conveyed tools and the energy of high velocity jet fluids to drill laterals inside the reservoir. In recent years, rapid advances in high pressure water jet technology has tremendously increased its application in oil and gas industry not only in drilling operations to improve drilling rate and reduce drilling cost, but also in production to maximize hydrocarbon recovery. In addition, RJD can be used to bypass near wellbore damage, direct reservoir treatments/injections, improve water disposal and re-injection rates, and assist in steam or CO2 treatments. This paper highlights the theoretical basis, technological advancement, procedures, applications, and challenges of high pressure water jets. Several worldwide case studies are discussed to evaluate the success, results, pros, and cons of RJD. The results show that nearly an average of four to five fold production increase can be obtained. The present paper clearly shows that radial jet drilling is a viable and attractive alternative in marginal and small reservoirs that still have significant oil in place to capture the benefits of horizontal drilling/fracking and to improve productivity from both new wells and/or workover wells that cannot be produced with the existing expensive conventional completions.

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Md. Mohiuddin, Mohammod Naymur Rahman, Md. Zainal Abedin

Today’s world is shaped by availability of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Government of Bangladesh declared a vision of Digital Bangladesh by 2021 to ensure services at peoples’ doorsteps. A total number of 4,501 UISCs (Union Information and Service Centers) have been established at all Union Parishads of Bangladesh. UISCs are the ‘e-Service delivery outlets’ which initiated a new era in information and service delivery for rural and marginalized people. With the aim to ensure services at citizens’ doorsteps, UISCs are offering various government services, like public examination results, online university admission, birth-death registration, agricultural & law consultancy, telemedicine, life insurance; private services, like mobile banking, English learning, computer training, email, internet browsing and so on. Now-a-days UISC is a local knowledge Centre. But there is no electricity in each Union Parishad of Bangladesh. in that case, for establishment of e-Centre in Seven Divisions of Bangladesh at Unions without Electricity project needed to provide electricity in everywhere. Without Electricity, we can’t imagine it. That’s why Bangladesh Government decided to install the Solar PV system in different unions of Bangladesh division wise. This research aims to focus on the implementation of project management concepts in Establishment of e-Centre in Seven Divisions of Bangladesh at Unions without Electricity under Bangladesh Computer Council (BCC). Around 1000 union’s e-Centre has been brought under solar power which is total 1800 KW for Rural infrastructure development under digital Bangladesh program. The purpose of the study is to identify and explore the processes of the InGen Technology Limited to show how the company accomplishes a Successful Project by formulating it through project management tools. The study investigates, measures, and evaluates the total processes or activities of InGen Technology Limited in accomplishing and delivering successful project according to the required demand of the clients by applying project management tools and techniques. To do this, emphasize is given on the primary data which were came from the organization observations, discussion with stakeholders and collection of actual working documents. The study is very innovative in nature. As a pioneer of the research area, the future researcher must be benefitted from the research results.

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Issahaku Shirazu, Y. B Mensah, Cyril Schandorf, S. Y. Mensah

The study is to estimate renal and effective dose during abdominal MDCT scan, using image data for dose optimization for purposes of radiation protection in Ghana. In addition dose influencing parameters including: CTDIVOL, DLP and MSAD were recorded and compared with ICRP/ICRU, AAPM, EU and IAEA dose optimization recommendations. All the measurements were done during abdominal MDCT examination. The measured parameters were part of image data on the MeVisLab (DICOM) application software platform. The total photon fluence (mAs per area) and the photon energy fluence (kVp per area) on the abdominal and renal surface was also determined. Renal and effective dose were estimated using ICRP publication 103 recommendations. The results of the measured parameters based on the average renal surface area of 29.52cm2 and 30.67cm2 for the right and left kidney respectively, shows that: The mean dose parameters were; 6.33mGy, 7.78mGy, 936.25mGy cm, 5.76mGy, 10.99mSv and 14.09mSv for CTDIV, CTDIW, DLP, MSAD, RD and E respectively. The average values were lower than the general recommended average critical values, but this seems misleading, based on the fact that 37% of the individual dose and exposure parameters exceeded the recommended critical values. A tradeoff between patient radiation dose and image quality in abdominal CT has been established. Where at a mean SNR of 6.6 decibels an adequate images were produce to answer all the clinical questions, with an average effective dose of 14.09mSv and renal dose of 10.99mSv. Radiation dose during x-ray CT imaging is an important patient safety concern. Reducing radiation dose result in a reduction of the risk to patient; however, reducing dose also reduces the signal strength and thereby reduces the signal to noise ratio in the resulting CT image, hence, the image quality is affected. It is recommended that the established reference values be use as clinical advisory mechanism to protect patience and clinicians. It is also recommended that the studies should be carry out periodical to estimates the abdominal effective dose in all the centers.

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Issahaku Shirazu, Y. B Mensah, Cyril Schandorf, S. Y. Mensah

The study is tailored to measure body height and weight in order to estimate local base standard reference body surface area, body surface index and body mass index (BSA, BSI and BMI) in Ghana for clinical application. The data were collected based on age and gender variation of patients and compare the established standard reference body indices with international established estimates. The weight and BMI measuring machine together with tape measure were the measuring tools used. The procedure involve using BMI calculator with DuBois formula to estimate local standard reference values of BMI, BSI and BSA in Ghana. The height and weight of male were 178.6cm and 80.8kg, while female height and weight were 167.1cm and 61.9kg respectively. The determined Ghanaian standard reference estimated BMI, BSI and BSA were: 25.19kg/m2 39.81 kg/m2 and 2.02m2 for male and 21.91kg/m2 36.58kg/m2 and 1.69m2 for female respectively. Model relationship between these parameters has been designed to enable prediction of any unknown parameters if at least one is known. The reference height, weight, BMI, BSI and BSA are recommended to be used in Ghana for clinical application.

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Ravi Raj, Sunnivesh Suman

In this Paper, the problem of removing Power dissipation from single phase Induction Motor with DC sources is considered by the speed control of Induction Motor with highly advanced 9-Level multi-level Inverter which having approximate zero Harmonics. As the demand of power is increasing day by day. So that, we must introduced very advanced Electrical Instruments which having high efficiency and less dissipation of power. The requirement of very advanced Inverter is necessary. Here we are designing a Multi-level Inverter up to the 9-level using IGBT (Insulated-gate bipolar transistor) by Mat lab which having negligible total harmonic distortion (THD) that’s why it will control the speed of single phase Induction motor which is presently widely used in our daily needs. Also, several informative Simulation results verify the authority and truthiness of the proposed Model.

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Waheeb Ahmed, Babu Anto P

In this study, we describe An Arabic Question Answering(QA) system based on data mining approach. The system employs text mining techniques to determine the likely answers to factoid questions. It depends mainly on the use of lexical information and does not apply any complex language processing tools such as named entity recognizers, parsers and ontologies. The system achieved an accuracy of 61.5%.

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Madalle Agi, H. Rakhmat, Haselman, Atta Irene Allorante

This study aims to determine (1) a description of planning capability on the effectiveness of performance, (2) a description of the ability to organize on performance, (3) a description of the ability of leadership on the effectiveness of performance, (4) a description of the ability of socio-emotional on the effectiveness of performance, (5) a description of ability to supervise the performance effectiveness (6) the effect of capability planning, organizing, leadership, socio-emotional, simultaneous monitoring of the effectiveness of the performance. The method used is survey explanatory aimed to test the hypothesis by using the sampling method. Sampling was conducted through stratified random sampling technique. The data collection was done by using documentation and technical questionnaires. This study uses a combination of quantitative methods that dominant ie supported by qualitative methods. Quantitative data were analyzed with path analysis were processed using SPSS software, while the qualitative data collected through documents and questionnaires, then reduced, and served. Research shows that the ability to plan does not affect the effectiveness of school performance because the programming is still normative and not yet fully involve stakeholders, the ability to organize significantly influence the effectiveness categorized quite good performance, leadership ability significantly influence the effectiveness of performance in both categories, the ability of socio- emotional significantly influence the effectiveness of the performance in good enough category, surveillance capabilities significantly influence the effectiveness of the performance of the category is quite good, and the ability of planning, organizing, leadership, socio-emotional, monitoring positive and significant impact on the effectiveness of the performance of the very high category. Interesting things were found from the results of research in Sinjai is very dominant leadership abilities affect the effectiveness of the school's performance.

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Tuan Anh Hoang, Nam Xuan Chu, Trung Van Tran

Currently, the environmental problems is one of the urgent problems for all countries in the world. Vietnam is among of 10 countries with the most polluted air in the world, the health of people is affected by the non-guaranteed air quality in Vietnam. According to the EPI in 2015, Vietnam ranked 79 in the total of 132 countries in the overall environmental assessment. However, the air pollution index, Vietnam ranked 123. On the burden of disease due to environment, Vietnam ranked 77. Therefore, the solutions for reducing the environmental pollution in Vietnam are ultra necessary. This paper presents the effects of environmental pollution, the impact of air pollution on the ecology and the life of people. The results of the paper contribute to improving people's awareness of environmental protection and also offer some solutions to reduce environmental pollution in Vietnam.

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SN Niles, WPP Dias, TKM Perera, W Vinoth, EMR Wijenayake

Yarn evenness is a key factor in its performance and in the properties of the material produced from the yarn. The presence of defects in a yarn will result in the deterioration in the quality and usability of the yarn. While many methods are available to ascertain the yarn evenness many of them are tedious and dependent on the operator for its results, while others, though less subjective and of high speed, are prohibitively expensive. This paper outlines a method which uses a cost-effective image capture device and image processing algorithms to process the captured images, generate a diameter variation plot and analyse the same to count the number of thick and thin places in the yarn.

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Morwani, D.N., Ombati, J.M., Ngesa, F.U.

Limited access to accurate and timely market information continues to be a major impediment in the marketing of farm produce by farmers in Africa and in Kenya, especially in Manga Sub-County, Nyamira County. This limited access to market information has led to high cost of transaction and emergence of middlemen. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have the potential to assist in addressing this problem by creating awareness, linking and distributing information on marketing. It is evident that farmers in Kenya have focused their attention in acquisition of ICT resources because of widespread coverage of mobile telephony, low call rates, affordable data bundles, increasing internet connectivity and other forms of ICT applications for example the M-pesa services with little application in marketing. This study aimed to determine the relationship between level of education of farmers and use of ICTs in marketing of farm produce by small scale farmers in Manga Sub-County in Nyamira County, Kenya. Descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The target population of the study was 11,040 commercial farmers in Manga Sub-County from which a sample size of 109 small scale farmers was selected using stratified random sampling technique. A questionnaire administered to farmers in the Sub-County was used to collect data. Validity of the instrument was enhanced by subjecting the instrument to examination by three experts in the Department of Agricultural Education and Extension of Egerton University. Analysis of piloting results using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha method yielded a reliability index of 0.896 indicating the instrument was reliable. The collected data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics used were the frequency and percentages. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used in data analysis. The hypothesis was tested at a significance level of 0.05. Findings of the study identified that high level of education of farmers significantly influenced the use of ICTs in marketing farm produce by small-scale farmers in Manga Sub-County. This study recommends improvement in level of education of farmers, in order to improve the farmers’ use of ICTs in marketing of farm produce in the study area.

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Sally Essawy

This paper explores the process of defining an aesthetic philosophy and criteria of Timeless architecture, and using it to enhance building effect on users. An argument is made for the justification of the concepts manifested for a timeless architectural aesthetic over the continuation of the current paradigm. The various factors that influence the development of a timeless aesthetic are also discussed, including architectural concept, varying style references, and the moral and social obligation that timelessness represents. By the end, principles of a timeless aesthetic architecture are established: that timelessness represents a practical philosophy, that timelessness serves as the concept generator in the design process, and that timeless architecture is universally specific to the constraints of its concepts and style. Two case studies are also examined in relation to these principles as well as more qualitative and quantitative evaluation factors.

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The usage of information and communication technology in learning led to a significant change in the medium of instruction. ICT-based learning media has influenced every subjects including Islamic religious education lessons. The purpose of this research is to know the changes to the results of a study of treatment between classes of control and experimental class. Research method used in this study was quasi experimental nonequivalent control group design. After doing the t-test results obtained -13,166 not among 2,12 mean Ho is rejected, meaning that there is the influence of ICT-based learning media towards the improvement of the learning outcomes of students with obtaining an average score of class reached 70,88% and total students who achieve over 80% of the KKM. This shows that there is a significant difference between the results of learning using ICT-based learning media compared to the conventional method without the use of the media.

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Suryadi, Aipassa, Ruchaemi, Matius

The forest area in Indonesia is divided into three sections: production forests, protected forests and conservation forests, in forest conservation in the two longer a natural forest conservation and forest preserves. For forest park included in the group of forest conservation of nature as well as the area of Forest Park Soeharto Hill who are forest areas designated by the government as a conservation area with the purpose of collection of plants and animals that are natural and not natural, kind of original and not original used for the sake of research, science, education, cultivation support, tourism and recreation. In a period that is long enough area use Forest Park Soeharto Hill much degradation in because human development and policy changes by the government as a result of forest remaining in the forest park Suharto hill from 2010 to 2015 tended to decrease the remaining forests of which: in 2010 amount of 60236.38 ha, equivalent to 88.89% of the total area, in 2011 amount of 45.959,09 ha, equivalent to 67.82% of the total area, in 2012 amounted to 40534.93 ha, equivalent to 59.82% of wide area, the year 2013 amounted to 57901.57 ha, equivalent to 85.44% of the total area, in 2014 amounted to 54683.20 ha, equivalent to 80.69% of the total area and 2015 amounted to 53.336,94 ha, equivalent to 78.71% of the total area.

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Delali Polycarp

Texture is one of the most important indexes of quality in food products. It encompasses the structural and mechanical properties of a food and its sensory perception in the hand and in the mouth. This study was designed to evaluate the textural properties of the most cultivated and consumed yam (Dioscorea) varieties in Ghana in order to assess their potential alternative food and industrial processing applications. Matured yam varieties were obtained from the Roots and Tuber Conservatory Division of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute, Bunso Ghana. Textural profile of the cooked yam cultivars was established using texture analyser (TA-XT2i Stable Microsystem Godalming, England) with built-in Texture Expert Exceed software. Cluster observation and principal component analyses were used to characterize the varieties based on similarities and differences in properties. The study showed that significant variations existed (p<0.05) in the textural properties of different yam varieties. Cooked samples of D. esculenta had the least hardness and chewiness (5.05 N and 0.22 respectively) and will be suitable for food applications that require mashing while D. praehensalis had highest values for hardness and chewiness (49.9 N and 4.36). There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in adhesiveness of the yam varieties examined. D. rotundata, D. alata and D. bulbifera varieties had tolerable textural properties appropriate for efficient industrial and food process applications. This information may be helpful in breeding and varietal improvement programmes for selecting varieties with similar textural properties for further study.

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Kimathi, S., Kang’ethe, S., Kihato, P

Heading control of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, UAV is a vital operation of an autopilot system. It is executed by employing a design of control algorithms that control its direction and navigation. Most commonly available autopilots exploit Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) based heading controllers. In this paper we propose an online adaptive reinforcement learning heading controller. The autopilot heading controller will be designed in Matlab/Simulink for controlling a UAV in X-Plane test platform. Through this platform, the performance of the controller is shown using real time simulations. The performance of this controller is compared to that of a PID controller. The results show that the proposed method performs better than a well tuned PID controller.

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Bolade M. Ogunleye

The chemical structure and glass transition temperature of Ricinodendron heudelotii wood were studied using Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), respectively. The thermal characteristic of R. heudelotii was conducted on N-methyl-2-pyrolidone saturated specimens while submerged under the same solvent at a temperature range from 130 to 0°C at 3°C/min, multi-frequencies of 0.1-10 Hz using DMA. Ratios of syringyl to guaiacyl associated bands along the longitudinal and radial positions of the wood differ significantly. Higher syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of the corewood than middlewood correlate well with lowering softening temperature. The findings in this research reveals that more chemical would be required to pulp R. heudelotii wood obtained from the base (10% of the merchantable height) and outerwood because of the presence of high lignin content compared to the other longitudinal and radial positions, respectively where wood were collected. Also, outerwood favour pulp production compared to middlewood and corewood because of the high holocellulose content.

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Florentinus Sudiran

This study focuses on the cleanliness of the city of Samarinda using qualitative methods with the city environmental hygiene research objects. Data taken from the literature, observations and interviews. Results of the study: (a). Public policy implementation has yet to achieve optimal results as expected because there are still some areas in the city of Samarinda is still dirty. (b) factors that support the implementation of public policies is the existence of binding rules and commitments DKP Samarinda to cleanliness while the obstacle is the lack of budget and lack of community participation as well as the increase in population of 2.43% per year. (c) The model of public policy implementation to realize the Samarinda city clean by taking the theory of Van Meter Van Horn (1975). To successfully realize Samarinda clean and tidy, the government of Samarinda should draw upon the wide range of communication and consistency of the program activities of the cleanliness of the city of Samarinda based on the size and clear objectives involving the community as possible in order to get support resources, a professional bureaucracy, environment responds positively, an increase in disposition, help in trouble, getting compliance, gain synergies from the plurality of elements of society and increasingly understanding and agreement of all parties. Recommendation: (1) The community is involved through communication in order to gain support. (2) Creative in mobilizing communities in hygiene program. (3) Penalties given to the offender's law rules (l4) Provides education from an early age. (5) Establish a citizen mindset that cleanliness has a multiplier effect, namely: to attract people on vacation in Samarinda City so that increase revenue, a city that is clean and healthy so that increase labor productivity and the face of the city to be beautiful. (6) the anticipation of environmental problems.

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An An Andari

The background of this research is the phenomenon which is found in the real life that children understanding to math is still abstract. There is assumption that study math is hard. The problem of this research is how the media usage influence the mathematical logic ability of children in kindergarten. This research is conducted by using the experimental quasi method with the sample are children of group B in Juwita Kindergarten. The group devided into two, group B-1 as control class and group B-2 as experimental group. Based on the data analysis, the result of post test then was tested by normalitas test and Mann-Whitney test with assumption the data which is not distributed normally had a significant value 0,000. That significant value is lesser than 0,05 therefore Ho is rejected. It means that there is significant difference in math logic ability between the children who study math using block medium and the children who do not using the medium. This research is recommended for (1) kindergarten teacher to understand and increase the knowledge particularly in utilising media, chosing method, increasing the quality of study and facilitating the student’s learning in kindergarten; (2) Manager of teacher education program for education of young children programs as a suggestion either the material or substance to formulate the learning material which had an effect on learning quality; (3) the researcher then make a contribution in increasing the knowledge about the benefit of using block as medium learning due to learning quality which integreated with another learning field in kindergarten.

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