International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 5 - Issue 7, July 2016 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Marium Elzobier, Mohamed Tag Eldin Ibrahim, Omer Massaad Elbashier

This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of fish oil on broiler performance and feed utilization. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass characteristics, water consumption, mortality, protein efficiency ratio, lysine efficiency ratio, efficiency of energy utilization, relative water consumption٫ production efficiency factor were studied. Two hundred unsexed broiler chicks, 28 day-old (Ross 308) were used. The Chicks were randomly distributed into 2 treatments experimental groups, designated T1 and T2, each group has 4 replicates of 25 chicks. Birds were fed the experimental diets for 3 weeks. They were fed finisher diets from 29 to 49 day old, in which fish oil was added to the iso-calaric and iso-nitrogenous diet, T1 0% (Control group) and T2 3% fish oil. Two rations (iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric) were formulated according the requirement of (NRC) National Research council. Adding fish oil improved feed intake, body weight, weight gain, carcass weight, dressing percentage, protein ratio efficiency, efficiency energy utilization, lysine efficiency and production efficiency factor were significantly affected (P<0.01) and improved water intake, feed conversion ratio were significantly affected (P<0.05) of broilers for the three weeks. No significant differences were observed for relative water intake. Therefore it is concluded that adding fish oil based diets improved broiler performance and feed utilization.

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Mariyam Shareefa

The Inclusive Educational Policy of Maldives (Ministry of Education, 2013), declares that all students should be given equal educational opportunities regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional or other conditions. The aim of this study was to find out what teachers believe, perceive, and feel about their schools’ readiness for inclusive education, with regard to the school leadership, school climate, curriculum instructions, individual student support, and teachers’ knowledge, skills and attitudes. The secondary purpose was to investigate the main challenges that deter inclusivity in the four government schools of Hithadhoo, Addu. A mixed approach with survey and focus group interview methods were used in the study. A total of 153 teachers participated in the survey and 10 teachers were in the focus group sessions. The findings revealed that in general, teachers had a positive view towards all the readiness factors related to inclusive education. However, the results indicated substantial challenges that may impede successful implementation of inclusive education. These challenges include lack of knowledge and skills on inclusive education, lack of facilities, lack of awareness among all stakeholders, curriculum difficulties, and time restrictions.

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Amber Griggs

Using the classic example of the series Twilight, we can see how society plays a critical role in our thought process, and examine the dangers it can create by leaving some vulnerable to negative lifestyles. Taking a closer look at the science behind how our brain processes information, we can see how problems may arise. Addictions caused by social programming leaves much concern for those who experience the cognitive dissonance created by their surroundings. It is our social responsibility to ensure people are not establishing unhealthy lifestyles or destructive behaviors. By understanding the mechanics of the mind, we can help find healthy solutions for fantasy to be enjoyed without interrupting the livelihood of others.

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Janice Paras Milo

Communication is an indispensable tool in the success of organizational operations. Administrators should not ignore communication as one of the key elements in the success of their organization. Competence should be manifested by their broad knowledge about communication theories and principles, by their skillful application of communication strategies and procedures, and by their tactful utilization of appropriate communication channels and media. Through a descriptive survey method and purposive sampling, this study assessed the level of competence of the administrators’ communication abilities along the areas of managerial writing, understanding messages, interpersonal communication, and group communication.

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Denis Cedeno Moreno, Miguel Vargas-Lombardo

Solutions using information technology is an innovative way to manage the information hospice patients in hospitals in Panama. The application of techniques of text mining for the domain of medicine, especially information from electronic health records of patients in palliative care is one of the most recent and promising research areas for the analysis of textual data. Text mining is based on new knowledge extraction from unstructured natural language data. We may also create ontologies to describe the terminology and knowledge in a given domain. In an ontology, conceptualization of a domain that may be general or specific formalized. Knowledge can be used for decision making by health specialists or can help in research topics for improving the health system.

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Aerin Nizar, Saleh S. Ali, D. Salman, E. Demmalino

It is important to initially understand historical and philosophical trails of the emergence of social capital concept before studying its implications to agricultural development through the stakeholders’ interactions. The emergence of social capital concept can be traced back from the classic social theories of Durkheim and Marx as well as other contributed classic scholars in social and economic theories. The concept originated when the forethought of morality conscience, solidarity, cooperation, morality, norms, values, and commitment were brought up to the period of people’s movement. Social capital does not have one single definition because the concept requires a context to define its meaning. Along the years of concept’s development, experts have found a common ground that the definition of social capital can be seen in the context of a social relation of the actors in achieving their common goals. Many empirical researches had been conducted to study social capital in the agricultural development to learn the social capital elements in mutual trust, reciprocity, and network. Many researches also had found that higher social capital level in people, organization, or community, contributes to a better agricultural development outcome. Therefore, social capital becomes one of the significant elements in pursuing development objectives and accountabilities through stakeholders’ social interactions.

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Dr. Hanan A.R. Akkar, Firas R. Mahdi

Many evolutionary algorithms have been presented in the last few decades, some of these algorithms were sufficiently tested and used in many researches and papers, such as: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA), and Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA). Other recently proposed algorithms were unknown and rarely used such as Stochastic Fractal Search (SFS), Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS), and Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO). This paper trying to made a fair comprehensive comparison for the performance of these well-known algorithms and other less prevalent and recently proposed algorithms, by using a variety of famous test functions that have multiple different characteristics, through applying two experiments for each algorithm according to the used test function, the first experiments carried out with the standard search space limits of the proposed test functions, while the second experiment multiple ten times the maximum and minimum limits of the test functions search space, recording the Average Mean Absolute Error (AMAE), Overall Algorithm Efficiency (OAE), Algorithms Stability (AS), Overall Algorithm Stability (OAS), each algorithm required Average Processing Time (APT), and Overall successful optimized test function Processing Time (OPT) for both of the experiments, and with ten epochs each with 100 iterations for each algorithm.

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Badea Ali Gaafer, Mohamed Tag Eldin Ibrahim, Omer Massaad Elbashier

This study was performed to investigate the effect of inclusion of 3% sheep fat on broiler performance including: Feed consumption, live body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, water consumption, carcass characteristics, mortality, protein efficiency ratio, lysine efficiency ratio, efficiency of energy utilization, , relative water consumption٫ production efficiency factor. Two hundreds; unsexed broiler chicks, 28 day-old (Ross 308) were used. The Chicks were randomly distributed into 2 treatments experimental groups, designated T1, and T2, each group has 4 replicates of 25 chicks. Birds were fed experimental diets for 3 weeks. They were fed finisher diets from 29 to 49 day old, in which sheep fat was added to the iso-calaric and iso-nitrogenous diet T1 0% (Control group), T2 3% in each experimental. High significant differences (p<0.01) were observed between groups T1 and T2, in live body weight, body weight gain, carcass weight٫ water consumption٫ feed conversion ratio٫ factor. No significant different were found in feed consumption, Therefore٫it is concluded that adding sheep fat based diets improved broiler performance.

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Poonam Rolla, Manpreet Kaur

Wireless Sensor Networks comprised of several tiny sensor nodes which are densely deployed over the region to monitor the environmental conditions. These sensor nodes have certain design issues out of which security is the main predominant factor as it effects the whole lifetime of network. DDoS (Distributed denial of service) attack floods unnecessary packets in the sensor network. A review on DDoS attacks and their prevention techniques have been done in this paper.

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Dr. Hanan A.R. Akkar, Firas R. Mahdi

Artificial neural networks are complex networks emulating the way human rational neurons process data. They have been widely used generally in: prediction, clustering, classification, and association. The training algorithms that used to determine the network weights are almost the most important factor that influence the neural networks performance. Recently many meta-heuristic and Evolutionary algorithms are employed to optimize neural networks weights to achieve better neural performance. This paper aims to use recently proposed algorithms for optimizing neural networks weights comparing these algorithms performance with other classical meta-heuristic algorithms used for the same purpose. However, to evaluate the performance of such algorithms for training neural networks we examine such algorithms to classify four opposite binary XOR clusters and classification of continuous real data sets such as: Iris and Ecoli.

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Cho Zin Myint, Hla Myo Tun, Zaw Min Naing

The aim of this paper is to know the importance role of stability analysis for both unmanned aircraft system and for all control system. The objective of paper is to develop a method for dynamic stability analysis of the design process. These are categorized into:To design, model and stability analysis of UAV based on the forces and moment equations of aircraft dynamic model, To choose the suitable controller for desired altitude of a particular UAV model, To analyze the stability condition for aircraft using mathematical modeling and MATLAB. In this paper, the analytical model of the longitudinal dynamic of flying wing UAV has been developed using aerodynamic data. The stability characteristics of UAV can be achieved from the system transfer function with LQR controller.

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Thwe Thwe Htoo, Maung Maung Latt, Zaw Min Naing, Win Khine Moe, Hla Myo Tun

This research work describes the translational motion analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Since the center of mass of the receiver is time–varying, the equations are written in a reference frame that is geometrically fixed in the aircraft. Due to the fact that aerial vehicle simulation and control deal with the position and orientation of the UAV, the equations of motion are derived in terms of the translational and rotational position and velocity with respect to the aircraft location. The formation relative motion control is a challenging problem due to the coupled translational and rotational dynamics. As the translational vector depends on the current attitude and its angular velocity, and some of the attitude constraints also couple the position and attitude of the spacecraft, it makes the formation control problem high dimensional. This work develops UAV stability conditions, including translational vector maneuverability condition and included angle condition between the translational and the rotational motion of UAV system, and then presents two methods to calculate the UAV attitude. Both of the two methods need first design the optimal trajectory of the translational vector, and then use geometric and nonlinear programming methods to calculate the target trajectory. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated in a UAV by using MATLAB. The performance of the translational motion control is evaluated by the simulated results.

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Fawazy, G. Khedr, Khalid, A. El-Dougdoug, Khalid, A. Shaban, Essam, I. Abu El Nil

In this present study total four bacterial isolates were obtained from 34 collected groundwater samples in 10th of Ramadan, Sharkia governorate, Egypt. These isolate were grown on nutrient agar supplemented with 1mg/l of iron, manganese and combination between them (V/V). Further testing of the bacterial isolates were grown on nutrient agar supplemented with different concentrations (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 mg/l) of iron and manganese. Out of four isolates, one bacterial isolate no.83 has shown the resistance to heavy metals at maximum concentration of 8mg/l. Selected isolate no.S83 was identified as Pseudomonas putida S83 according to Bergey’s manual depending on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Transmission electron microscopy study of P. putida isolate no. S83 showed accumulation of heavy metal salts within and external to bacterial cells. P. putida S83 have higher removal efficiency of Fe+2 94.5% and Mn+2 94% at concentration 2 mg/l and 96 hours.

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Jayshree Dwivedi, Abhigyan Tiwary

Big data is a data beyond the storage capacity and beyond the processing power is called big data. Big data term is used for data sets it’s so large or complex that traditional data, it involves data sets with sizes. Big data size is a constantly moving target year by year ranging from a few dozen terabytes to many petabytes of data means like social networking sites, the amount of data produced by people is growing rapidly every year. Big data is not only a data, rather it become a complete subject, which includes various tools, techniques and framework. It defines the epidemic possibility and evolvement of data both structured and unstructured. Big data is a set of techniques and technologies that require new forms of assimilate to uncover large hidden values from large datasets that are diverse, complex, and of a massive scale. It is difficult to work with using most relational database management systems and desktop statistics and visualization packages exacting preferably massively parallel software running on tens, hundreds, or even thousands of servers. Big data environment is used to grab organize and resolve the various types of data. In this paper we describe applications, problems, and tools of big data and gives overview of big data.

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Fawazy G. Khedr, Khalid A. Shaaban, Said M. Ezzat, Mohamed Maher

Fifty ground water samples were collected from five different localities in El-Sharkia Province, Egypt during 2014. Leptothrix discophora W19 was isolated from the collected ground water samples, purified and grown on nutrient agar media supplemented with 1mg/L of each of iron and manganese. Conventional identification of Leptothrix discophora W19 isolate following the key of Bergey's manual. Standard water containing different concentrations of Fe+2 and Mn+2 had been examined for both tested metals removal capacity using Leptothrix discophora W19 as a bioleaching. The biological system for iron and manganese removal had provided overall removal efficiency up to 95.25% and 95% for iron and manganese respectively.

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Moustapha Diop, Lamine Thiaw, Mouhamadou Thiam, Moctar Mbodji, Nogoye DIAW

This paper presents an efficient control strategy of a grinding device of millet. The grinding device is constituted of an inverter and a craft mill with induction motor. The control strategy of this grinding device is based on the scalar control (V/f) for the craft mill and the Space Vector Modulation (SVM) for the three-phase inverter. The implementation of the control strategy by simulation in Matlab-Simulink gave satisfactory results in reducing efficiently the starting current while maintaining the performance of the grinding system.

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Sinan UGUZ

In recent years, underground mines have increasingly remained on the agenda with both difficult working conditions and problems such as collapsed and firedamp explosion in our country and in the world. In terms of life safety of miners and their health, mine sites are required to be continuously monitored and controlled. This is difficult to achieve with existing wired systems due to the topography of mine sites. The applications have increased with the development of wireless sensor networks (WSN) technology in mine sites in recent years. This case has also caused an increase in studies on improving WSN performance. Especially, energy efficiency is very important for the WSN hardware with a low energy source. In this study, information about things to consider while using WSN technologies in underground mines and studies on their performance has been provided.

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Ismail Ibrahim Marhoon

This study investigated the effect of silica fume microparticles on the properties of polyurethane foam. Results show that the introduction of silica fume microparticles in the foam- composition does not deteriorate the compression strength of the foam. Furthermore, the addition reduces the temperature that developed in the foaming process, slightly increases the density of the material, and reduces water absorption.

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June Victoria Omollo

Despite investments made in maternal health in the developing world, and a free maternal health programme being launched in Kenya, maternal and neo- natal deaths in Bunyala Sub county remain high. This paper is based on a study which sought to determine the factors Influencing Mothers’ Choice of Birth attendance in Bunyala Sub-County, Kenya. This included an examination of the challenges they face in trying to access facility-based maternity services. A sample of 385 mothers living in different locations of the sub county were surveyed, using a structured questionnaire. Health personnel in the main health facility in each location were also interviewed, and focus group discussions held with Community Health Workers and Traditional Birth Attendants separately. Data revealed that the mothers of Bunyala sub county generally prefer the government facilities over the TBAs primarily due to availability of skilled staff, medicines and equipment. However, some mothers prefer the TBAs because of flexibility of payments, payments in kind, accessibility at odd hours, because of good relations, for cultural reasons,(to refrain from having male birth attendants), and for fear of the mandatory HIV testing done under the PMTCT program. The challenges faced were mainly the distance to the health facility, the in affordability of travel, the cost of medical drugs and supplies, poor roads, unavailability of night time ferry services, verbal abuse and negative attitudes from some skilled attendants, and long waiting hours.

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Saeed Al Rashedi, Abdi Siad

The paper analysed the grain-size spectrum and textural parameters namely mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis of Abu Dhabi coast in United Arab Emirates applying the ASTM sieves. For this purpose fifty seven samples were analysed. The results of the sieving analysis divulged that , samples of the study area range between -2.63 (pebble size) to 2-39 (Fine sands). The statistical analysis reveals that the sand is characteristically fine grained, moderately well sorted to extremely poorly sorted. The sand distribution is strongly coarse and leptokurtic in nature. Abundance of the medium sand to fine sand shows the prevalence of comparatively moderate- to low-energy condition in the study area. Linear discriminate function of the samples indicates an Aeolian, shallow marine deposition environment and less influence of fluvial (7 %) process.

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Avishek Choudhury

The study of knowledge is one of the most fundamental and necessary components in today's world. A claim to knowledge should be evaluated to determine whether or not it is knowledge in its real sense. To conduct this sort of evaluation, understanding of what knowledge is and how much knowledge is possible is required. This paper provides an overview of the important aspects of knowledge, and with the help of epistemology tries to answer the most fundamental questions of what is knowledge? Moreover, how do we know what we know? The paper attempts to show the effect of culture on organizations and how foundational knowledge can help us develop logical decisions in a fluctuating environment. To manage an organization within evolving paradigm, knowledge of variation acts as a necessary requirement. As Deming defined management as a prediction, a leader must have skills to predict and adapt to its external environment. Most of the time organizations fail to observe the paradigm shift and couldn't adjust to the changing environment. The paper also discusses the effect of diverse culture and their respective interpretation of language. Thus, the paper highlights the necessity of understanding human psychology, attaining foundational knowledge and ability to validate the knowledge to establish a successful organization.

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Jaideep Chitransh, Dilshad Hussain

A Scissor Jack is a mechanical device used to lift a heavy vehicle from the ground for changing the wheel and for maintenance purpose. The most important fact of a jack is that, it gives the user a mechanical advantage by changing the rotational motion into linear motion and allowing user to lift a heavy car to the require height. In this work we have designed different components of scissors jack using CAE tools i.e. CATIA andCalculate stresses induced in its different part which are responsible for failure and To Reduce its cost, so that everyone can afford this. We have taken reference of Mahindra Bolero Scissors Jack. The Dimensions of scissors jack was measured by Vernier caliper. By measuring all the dimensions of components of scissors jack, we have designed it in CATIA, after that we assemble all the components of Jack to shape a model of scissors jack and calculated different parameters (Max. shear stress, Max. principal Tensile Stress, Total torque required to lift the vehicle etc) which is used in all components of scissors jack to avoid failure. To reduce the cost of jack we have taken two different sections of three different materials i.e. Mild Steel, AISI 1045 grade Steel, GS-52.3 Cast Steel and comparing which will be suited for above mentioned purpose. By using these materials we have calculate and compare the Strength to weight ratio and find which material is best suited for high load carrying capacity with minimum failure or deformation.

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La Niasa, H.M. Said Karim, Andi Sofyan, Syamsuddin Muchtar

This research aimed to find out the substance of corruption as an extraordinary crime and the efforts that can be taken in eradicate corruption. This research is in the field of criminal law. This study is a normative-empirical research; a legal research that its study is statutory provisions (in abstracto) is linked with the field application (in concreto). The results of research showed that: 1) the substance of corruption is an evil act or reprehensible by law qualified or labeled as a form of corruption. Acts of corruption assessed as an extraordinary crime because of its systematic and wide-ranging impact, and contrary to the interests of the country in general. 2) the arrangement of corruption involves two major aspects of prevention and prosecution aspects. Establishment of legislation was based by desire to bring state enforcement are clean and free from corruption as a policy basis. 3) Efforts to eradicate corruption can be divided into two, i.e prevention, and curative. Prevention undertaken by government and law enforcement agencies is still low, so it needs to be further improved. Criminal sanctions imposed on the corruptor, also tend to just apply the minimum criminal sanctions. Types of corruption are most prevalent in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia is corruption related to acts of abuse of authority or position.

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Kamal Alzameli, Daw R. Alwerfalli, Ahad Ali, Ahmed Alsamarai

The development of an assembly line would not stop at a specific research even if that research contains very detailed sectors of one assembly line, or starting from customer order to product delivery. Therefore, continuous improvement needs to be vigorous for continuous productivity improvement and innovation. The optimization process of printed circuit board assembly line includes hard and soft optimization. The hard optimization includes hardware changes via design, and the soft optimization is figured via simulation of the current assembly line and analysis. The aim of the research is to determine the bottlenecks, find a solution, and develop improvement method via changing the configuration of the setup on the assembly line until the feasible optimal configuration is definite. The software that will be used for this simulation is Arena software. The data of the research is collected from real assembly line. The best engineering assumption for the area is used for no permanent data that could be available such as the data that might be collected from the manual stations. In addition to the aim of the research is to get a better yield via improving the time of the PCB assembly process. Hence, the outcome to all of these attempts of optimizing the assembly line of PCB for continuous improvement is to deliver good quality products, reduce cost, and minimize the time to delivery and meet the customer expectations.

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Ashish Manoharrao Ingale

Division is the “inverse” of multiplication so basic division consist of a sequence of subtraction, which are just additions of the negations of the subtrahends; Therefore, CS addition can be used in the arithmetic for division as well. Division is, however more complicated than multiplication, in that subtrahend (multiple of divisor) chosen at any steps depends on the magnitude result of the preceding subtraction and that magnitude is not readily available with CS representation. Assuming two’s complement representation, subtraction with carry save representation is carried out in usual manner of the farming the one’s complement of the subtrahend and then adding that with a 1 also added into the least significant bit position subtraction is performed by adding the negation of the subtrahend, which two’s complement representation consist of the one’s complement addition of 1 in the least significant bit position.

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Shilpa Kalmegh, Dr. Narpat Singh

Floriculture is the branch of horticulture that deals with cultivation of ornamental plants and flowering pants for sale or for use in perfume and cosmetics. Floriculture is the sunshine industry of India, as it offers excellent self employment good remuneration for the small and marginal farmers. The various study in past and recent concluded that the floriculture is the promising business with higher profitability than ordinary crops in open as well as in Hi-tech cultivation growing. Even marginal farmers suits well in this strategy.

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Hendra Yuharmain, Yuyus Suryana, Rina Novianty, Joeliaty

Rural credit bank is finance institution declared to serve the banking service requirement for low public economic in micro and small businesses in Indonesia. This research is aimed to know about impact of Rural credit bank existence towards small and micro business in Padang City, and to see how a prospect of rural banks in future in order to develop micro and small business in Padang City. A problematic came up in the paper research verily, first how far is an impact of rural credit bank existence towards micro and small business in Padang city? Second, How a prospect of rural credit bank as to promote business doers of micro and small business in Padang city. Respondents in the research were 30 doers of individual business in the sector of micro and small enterprises located in simpang haru market, alai market, and raya market of Padang city. Whereas, the premier data used in this research were gotten the research questioner instruments and conducted some interviews with directors of rural banks operated in Padang city. Results of the study, firstly, there has positive impact of productions, purchases and incomes sectors consistently. Generally, the average increase incomes in business relating to credit ability around 25% to 40%, secondly, the credit lent by rural credit bank displays successful in aiding the business existence of micro and small business, thirdly, a credit program given to micro and small business in Padang city has succeeded to support a great number of poor people moving on the poor public rate, fourthly, the strength ability displayed by micro and small business in economic crisis era and national and regional government support policies has developed drastically. The research gives a recommendation that existence impact of rural credit bank could be positive impact for all public levels. So, it is very expected that first, rural banks behaves the positive respond about client/customers requirements. Second, increase continually efficient organizer. Third, low Porto folio credit as well as make flexible every requirements. An original contribution for the research paper could add the new perspective about practicing principle for micro finance institution

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Indra Narayan Shrestha, Bhagwan Ratna Kansakar

Vertical flow of solute in porous media (preferential flow) is studied and compared with Darcy's flow. The methodology used for the study is experimental. The laboratory model used is similar to Darcy apparatus with slight modification. The study has compare measured velocity of first reach of solute with average velocity of flow in porous media. The laboratory model consists of 150 mm diameter High density Polyethylene pipe of 750 mm height filled uniform sand. Nine sets of experiment is conducted with 3 types of sand (D10 = 0.6 mm and Cu 1.42, D10 = 0.11 mm and Cu 1.55, D10 = 0.3 mm and Cu 1.4) and 3 types of brine concentration (5 %, 10 %, 20 % by weight brine solution). Brine solution is found to be 1.13 to 1.84 times faster than average velocity of flow as a result of preferential flow.

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Abdulaziz Altuwaijri

This paper focuses on the quality of heart care in hospitals in the United States of America, as well as comparing some of the services provided in the U.S and Saudi Arabia. Also, it is extremely important to see how all the services that are related to heart care are being implemented by the hospitals. The paper presents cases about real people due to the high number of people having heart issues. Heart care needs to have special devises and procedures that will increase the level of the quality of care, so it is important to discuss the devices and the procedures that are utilized in health organizations.

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Dr. Mahmoud Mohamed Ali, Dr. Kirembwe Rashid Abdulhamed, Muhanna Sulaiman Al-Kindi

This study aimed to reveal the most important difficulties that hinder the Arab Open University in Oman students for the practice of self-learning method in their studies has been rated difficulties to the three pillars, namely: difficulties related to students and the skills of self-learning, and difficulties related to teachers and methods of teaching, and difficulties related to the curriculum and learning resources and after the application of the study of the identification of the difficulties tool (200) of university student's (697) study concluded that many of the results that were notably: that the difficulties related to students and the skills of self-learning more difficulties impeding the exercise of self-learning compared to the difficulties related to the other two mentioned and the students' ability to connect and communicate, and to evaluate themselves and correct educational careers, and their ability to control their behavior and direct their activities toward self-learning are more difficulties influential and disability for students on their ability to exercise self-learning in their study of the Arab open University, and as for the axis of teachers and teaching methods has shown results weakness encourage teachers to students to apply and practice this kind of learning and focus on traditional methods and weak development of skills for self-learning is one of the more difficulties that limit the exercise of the students of this method of learning, and for the focus of the curriculum and learning resources has shown results of the study that the lack of educational software miscellaneous, non-availability of electronic research base and lack of stimulating courses on the exercise of self-learning method is one of the most difficulties that hinder students' ability to exercise self-learning.

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Priyal Mistry

With the affecting of versatile broadband advancement and broad utilization of PDAs and tablets, it is troublesome for the conventional Macro Cell System to meet this as often as possible developing information request. Along these lines, Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets), where a full scale cell, little cells, and other low power focuses participate, is a promising game plan towards giving the augmentation and purpose of imprisonment required later on. The motivation driving this paper is to comprehend the need for HetNet Technology, HetNet outlining, a chart of sending procedures utilizing little cell and the difficulties went up against by various affiliation masterminds remembering key considerations. It is like way talks about achievable approaches to manage oversee impedance in HetNets.

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Gerald K. Ahorbo

The research seeks to design a motorized rice thresher that can be manufactured by local artisans and accessed by all small-holder rice farmers. The concept of the thresher emanated from the working principles of a throw-in axial flow thresher, a peg type threshing mechanism and a screw type threshing mechanism. Components of the thresher were designed and a prototype was made.The power requirement of the thresher was evaluated and validated with the power thresher standards of the Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Japan which recommends an average power requirement of 3.5PS or less. The result was a rice thresher with threshing drum of diameter 400mm and length 1,120mm, a threshing drum shaft of diameter 36mm, a shaft bearing (SKF self-aligning) of designation 1406, a V-belt of number B66, an SKF wedge belt pulleys of designation PHP3SPB125TB and PHP3SPB280TB and a main assembly drawing. The power requirement was 1.4PS (1.03kW) for threshing long crops of length 1,282mm at feed rates up to 402kg/hr and 1.2PS (0.88kW) for threshing short crops of length 812mm at feed rates up to 429kg/hr.

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Sandhyalakshmi Narayanan, Sanjana Sridhar, Neha Deshpande, Ashwini Gaikwad

This innovative glass design will carry an OLED based display controlled via nano Ardiuno board having Bluetooth connectivity with a Smartphone to exchange information along with onboard accelerometer. We are using a tilt angle sensor for detecting if the driver is feeling drowsy. An alcohol sensor has been used to promote the safe driving habit. The glasses will be getting latest updates about the current speed of the vehicle, navigation directions, nearby or approaching sign broads or services like petrol pumps. It'll also display information like incoming calls or received messages. All this information will be obtained through a Smartphone connected via Bluetooth. Also the car mileage can be monitored with help of fuel sensor as the consumption of fuel is directly related to it. Abnormalities if detected will be immediately notified in the glasses. Also the angle of the tilt angle sensor can be defined and set by the user according to his needs. Also the main idea of using OLED glasses is that it is organic thereby helps in reducing the carbon footprint and is quite slim. Therefore it can be easily mounted on the specs without making it heavy. Also they higher level of flexibility and have low power drain and energy consumption

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Orhevba, B.A, Yusuf, I.B.

The effect of Roasting Temperature on the Nutritional Quality of Cashew Nut was investigated. The proximate compositions (moisture content, crude protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate) and mineral constituents (potassium, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium and vitamin c) of the nuts were determined using standard methods of measurements. The analyses were carried out on the raw sample (which served as the control) and the other samples which were roasted at various temperatures of 1500C, 1700C, 1900C respectively using a furnace. The results obtained for the raw and roasted samples at 1500C, 1700C and 1900C are as follow: moisture content 12.90, 6.66, 5.43 and 4.96%; crude protein 17.79, 17.85, 18.15 and 18.70%; Fat 53.60, 46.80, 43.50 and 42.03%; Ash 2.79, 2.92, 3.00 and 3.19%; crude fibre 3.20, 3.25, 3.26 and 3.30% and Carbohydrate 22.62, 29.18, 32.09 and 33.08% respectively. The results for the mineral constituents for the raw and roasted samples at 1500C, 1700C and 1900C are as follow: potassium 719, 770, 790 and 838 mg/100g; phosphorous 9.26, 10.88, 10.90 and 15.30 mg/100g, Calcium 42.20, 43.60, 45.00 and 47.00 mg/100g, magnesium 23.90, 27.90, 28.50 and 29.00 Mg mg/100g and Vitamin C 4.80, 3.55, 3.30 and 2.95 mg/100g respectively. The results showed that roasting temperatures have a great effect on the nutritional quality of cashew nut and roasting temperature of 1900C proved to be the best for roasting cashew nut in terms of nutrient retention.

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Chunkyraj Kh, C. D. Hampali, Anand S. N.

In this paper, an effort has been made in dealing with fluid characteristic that enters a converging nozzle and analysis of the nozzle is carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics package ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5. The paper is the continuation of earlier work: Analytical and Experimental performance evaluation of Wind turbine with Nozzles. First, the CFD analysis will be carried out on nozzle in-front of wind turbine where streamline velocity at the exit, volume flow rate in the nozzle and pressure distribution across the nozzle will be studied. Experiments were conducted on the Wind turbine with nozzles and the corresponding power output at different air speed, and different size of nozzles were calculated. Different shapes and dimensions, with special contours and profiles of nozzles were studied. It was observed that the special contour nozzles have superior outlet velocity and low pressure at nozzle exit, the design has maximum Kinetic energy. These indicators conclude that the contraction designed with the new profile is a good enhancing of the nozzle performance.

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Sayyed Mudassir Ali, Harshit Srivastava

Fins are used to increase the rate of heat transfer to or from the environment by providing excess surface area. Fins performance can be increased by reducing perimeter by area ratio, using material with high coefficient of thermal conductivity(K) and by optimizing size and distance between fins over surface. Boundary layer generation over fin also effects heat loss widely. If boundary layer(BL) of one fin intersects BL generated from other fin then fin performance reduces. Same concept is also applicable on Macro-fins. In our paper we simulated thermodynamic boundary layer over Bell shaped fins (Gaussian distribution) and used these fins to model increase in heat transfer with surface roughness

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Idhamsyah, Achmad Ruslan, Muhammad Djafar Saidi, Abdul Razak

The purpose of this research is to find and analyze the nature of budgetary functions by the House of Representatives. For find and analyze the implementation of budgetary functions by the Regional Representatives Council. The ideal model of future budgetary functions to achieve the objectives of the research, methods of research conducted qualitatively analyze qualitative data were processed and analyzed with empirical normative approach regarding the existing problems of this writing. The results showed, Regarding the implementation of the rights of the Budget, as well as the limitation of the right budget is essentially located at the focus of the regional council to judge the legitimacy or expediency reasons of public towards the Regional Budget than technical assessment. Thus, the Regional Representatives Council focusing on local budgetary strategy appropriate to people's needs, not on the technical budget figures. Implementation of budgetary function by the regional council where the implementation of the budget function must begin with the elaboration of various policies set out in the form of law in the form of work programs of government and development. As a suggestion from the author, should importance of Central Sulawesi province put through coordination with regions that have implemented e-budgeting for the management of the Regional Budget of Central Sulawesi using e-budgeting system in order to manage the manufacturing budget.

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Amal Ramadan Abd Elhalim

University works to provide all the material, educational and psychological needs of the university students in order to achieve the social of the university. it affects the quality of the output, descriptive survey method was used to identify the academic and social problems of the female students at the Faculty of Applied medical Science and correlate problems to the level of their performance. there was a questionnaire consists (of 64) phrases, which were distributed into (8) axes and applied to a random sample of (210) at different levels in the first semester of the academic year 2014-2015, Departments of MLT, PHT, CLN, DRD. The study showed : the problem of University environment ranked the first place, University library in the Scand place,but the problems related to Curriculum the in third place, the problems related to the field training in fourth place,Followed by problems related to psychological and social problems in fifth place, problems related to academic guidance in sixth place, the problems related to the time table in seventh place, finally came problems on the faculty staff in the eighth and last place and that the most important variables affecting the academic performance of the students There are significant correlation relationship between each of the University environment, academic guidance,University library and field training on the one hand, and the cumulative average of the other hand no significant correlation relationships between the academic performance of students in the study and curriculum, faculty staff where it appeared that the correlation coefficients were not significant at the 5% level Recommendations to the college administration to conceived proposal for mechanisms to confirm how to deal with the academic problems in the college through comprehensive strategy to solve and prevent academic problems faced the students,solve the problem of Library, And reconsider some courses, need to Attention to academic guidance processes, And of balanced scales of study and examination tables and employing specializes in social worker and Psychology in the college.

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Rahimov Laziz Abduazizovich

Humayun`s Tomb is the first mausoleum which was built by Baburids in India. Also, the world’s most well-known mausoleum Taj Mahal has been inspired by this Tomb. However, until now this magnificent mausoleum’s commander and which architectural style was used is still debatable. In this research we will try to identify the commander of Humayun`s Tomb and clarify which architectural styles was used and from which traditions this heritages was inspired. Moreover, we analyze the main characters, innovations of the Humayun`s Tomb and identify later impacts for developing mausoleums of this type.

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Shelveen Pandey, Nadeem Shah, Amit Sharma, Mohammed Farik

We buy, work, play and essentially live online. As our lives progressively depend on information technology services, the necessity to protect our information from being maliciously disrupted is critical. Anything that is networked can be hacked, and with the increasing dependence on the Internet everything is being networked, therefore everything is vulnerable. This paper discusses common computer crimes threats, reflects on challenges & weaknesses of computer crime & cybercrime laws in Fiji, and provides novel recommendations for the way forward in fight against cybercrime.

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Rajesh Vuppala, Mohammed Farik

Information security is a challenging issue for all business organizations today amidst increasing cyber threats. While there are many alternative intrusion detection & prevention systems available to choose from, selecting the best solution to implement to detect & prevent cyber-attacks is a difficult task. The best solution is of the one that gets the best reviews, and suits the organization’s needs & budget. In this review paper, we summarize various classes of intrusion detection and prevention systems, compare features of alternative solutions and make recommendation for implementation of one as the best solution for business organization in Fiji.

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Sereeva Guljazira

this article is devoted to the architecture of mahalla, where mechanism of its historical formation and evolution, planning solutions, structural composition are analyzed. In addition, an attempt has been made to cover the activity of mahalla, neighborhood team in family lifestyle of Central Asia’s nations from historical and ethnographic viewpoint. Recommendations on increasing the opportunities for efficient use of populated areas.

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Husam E Mustafa, Gurashi A Gasmelseed

Pozzolana is defined as Siliceous and aluminous material which reacts with calcium hydroxide in presence of water at room temperature to form strong slow-hardening cement. Pozzolana has the advantage of reduction of leachibility of calcium hydroxide liberated during the setting and hydration of cement. In Khartoum Refinery five to ten tons per week of spent catalyst are produced in fine powder, this quantity is sent to dumping sites or landfills. In this study pilot experiments were successfully carried out at different ratios to produce cement. The RFCC spent catalyst samples were subjected to chemical analysis to determine the content of Al2O3, SiO3,TiO3, CaO and V2O5 …..etc. These were found to be 49.5, 41.1, 0.32, 1.4 and 0.09 percent respectively, other compounds are, Na2O, MgO, P2O5,SO3, K2O, MnO,Fe2O3,Co3O4 and NiO2 with. It is found that the percentages of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 amount up to 91.5% that is above the ASTM standard C618:2003 which stipulated that the minimum of such compound is 70 %. Physical properties of RFCC spent catalyst were also carried out including, crystallinity and Pozzolanicity index. The cement produced was tested for compressive strength, consistency and setting time .It is concluded that RFCC spent catalyst in Khartoum Refinery is a Pozzolanic material and up to 30% replacement from Portland cement (blended cement) complies with the Sudanese and European Standards No SSMO 3998:2011and EN-197-1:1992 respectively. The study shows that the compressive strength of blended Pozzolanic cements decreases with increasing Pozzolana content. From the foregoing, it is recommended to use RFCC spent catalyst with Portland cement as blended cement to produce mortars for construction and concrete.

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K. R. Padma, Dr. P. Josthna

A healthy pregnancy requires strict coordination of genetic, physiologic, and environmental factors. The relatively common incidence of infertility and pregnancy complications has resulted in increased interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie normal versus abnormal pregnancy. The peptide hormone adrenomedullin has recently been the focus of some exciting breakthroughs in the pregnancy field. Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a 52-amino acid peptide with structural homology to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) initially isolated from human pheochromocytoma. ADM is synthesized by many mammalian tissues including the adrenal medulla, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, myocardium and central nervous system. ADM binds to plasma membrane receptors composed of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), a member of serpentine receptor superfamily, and receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP) type 2 or 3. ADM has also some affinity for CGRP receptor composed of CRLR and RAMP1. Supported by mechanistic studies in genetic animal models, there continues to be a growing body of evidence demonstrating the importance of adrenomedullin protein levels in a variety of human pregnancy complications. With measurement of foetal resorption sites, we can examine the importance of adrenomedullin, a peptide hormone in pregnancy which alters due to genetic, physiologic and environmental factors. A growing body of evidence illustrates AM as a pivotal component in normal physiology and disease with marked beneficial effects in the host defense mechanism.

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Insarullah, Irwansyah, M. Yunus Wahid, Abrar Saleng

This research aims to know the implementation of transparency, participation, accountability principles, and also the influence of controlling, human resource, legal culture, and medium/infrastructure factor in the enforcement of environmental permit in the area of mining in Morowali Regency. The research method used is socio-legal research. Research population come from community of around mining region, members of Regional Legislative Council (DPRD), there is a sum of 95 people, i.e 49 people from society, 10 people of members of DPRD, 16 employees from some mining companies and 20 people from officers of local Government of Morowali. Results of research indicate that the principles of transparency, participate and accountability in the enforcement of environmental permit in the area of mining in Morowali Regency, is still considered as a low category. So that, it has not yet reflected the existing of good governance principles in the enforcement of environmental permit in the area of mining.

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Ganesh Ghosh, Danish Khan

Several studies suggest that natural flavonoids with antioxidants and can influence the response to chemotherapy as well as the development of adverse side effects that results from treatment with antineoplastic agents and It’s prevalence over Multi drug resistant bacterial strain revived interest on Flavonoids. Synergistic effect is defined as passive interaction arises when two agents combine and together, they exert an inhibitory effect that is greater than the sum of individual effect The new Synergistic therapy so that antioxidant are more effective in combination on multi drug resistant bacterial strain. Interaction between natural antioxidants and topoisomerase enzyme can be seen through Quercetin as a potent antimicrobial compound alone and in combination with other natural antioxidant like rutin. MIC/MBC result show antibacterial activity of the flavonoids were enhanced when used in combination against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonae, Escherichia coli as the test bacteria. The combination of rutin and quercetin, rutin and gallic acid, mannitol and gallic acid were much more effective than either flavonoid alone. Furthermore, It’s gave a good relation between these antioxidant compound and antimicrobial activity. Flavonoids as a chemotherapeutic agent and its Synergistic effect can be solution for various microbial disease conditions.

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Gour Chand Mazumder, Md. Habibur Rahman, Saiful Huque, Nasif Shams

today’s most important concern of Bangladesh is power generation. Government has planned a 1320 MW coal-fired power station at Rampal near Sundarbans. Environmentalists have indicated that this plant will face environmental issues. So we tried finding the capability of Sundarbans to face carbon emissions. We figured out approximate carbon emission of that power plant using an arbitrary operational model. We found 3.16MKg of carbon emission daily. We used mangrove’s carbon sequestration rate to calculate the carbon tolerance level of Sundarbans and found approximately 4.2 MKg of carbon per day.The amount of emission we found here is marginal with the ability of Sundarbans as it is already contributing to sequester carbon from other sources. We studied and showed technology wise carbon reductions. It is possible to reduce 90% to 95% carbon emissioby using these technologies. We recommend these advanced technologies to ensure sundarbans' environmental safety.

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Alexander KorinusMarantika, Anik Martina H, Arningwilujeng Ekawati

The purposes of this research were to determine the best dosage of the tuna innards fermentation powder substitution based on its survival rate, specific growth rate, and the conversion ratio of pangasius fish (Pangasius sp.) fish feed. The fish feed test formula contained 30% of raw protein. The tested fish feed consisted of fish powder mixed with substitution powder from fermented tuna innards. The substitution in fish feed A=(0%), B=(10%), C=(20%), and D=(30%). The number of pangasius fish thrown into 50x30x30 cm aquarium was 20 fish with average weight 3.12±0.03g. Fish feeding frequency was 5% 5% three times a day at 08:00, 13:00 and 19:00, for 40 days. The results showed that with the added fermented tuna innards protein powder substitution dosage until 20% of the fish feed, the survival rate improved reaching 100%, the best specific growth rate was at 3.36 (% BB) and the fish feed conversion ratio declined at the lowest 1.55 (g/g).

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Balgaeva Sh. A.

the paper presents if issues on rural small gardens and gives the analysis of architectural - theoretical bases of their formation.

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Xuejing Huang, Sushma Chandra Reddy

Vocabulary is the first hurdle for English learners to over- come. Instead of simply showing a word again and again, we come up with an idea to develop an English news article search engine based on users word-reciting record on It is designed for advanced English learners to find suitable reading materials. The search engine consists of Crawling Module, Document Normalizing module, Indexing Module, Querying Module and Interface Module. We propose three sorting & ranking algorithms for Querying Module. For the basic algorithm, five crucial principles are taken into consideration. Term frequency, inverse document frequency, familiarity degree and article freshness degree are factors in this algorithm. Then we think of a improved algorithm for the scene in which a user read multiple articles in the searching result list. Here we adopt a iterative & greedy method. The essential idea is to select English news articles one by one according to the query, meanwhile dynamically update the unfamiliarity of the words during each iterative step. Moreover, we develop an advanced algorithm to take article difficulty in to account. Interface Module is designed as a website, meanwhile some data visualization technologies (e.g. word cloud) are applied here. Furthermore, we conduct both applicability check and performance evaluation. Metrics such as searching time, word-covering ratio and minimum number of articles that completely cover all the queried vocabulary are randomly sampled and profoundly analyzed. The result shows that our search engine works very well with satisfying performance.

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Okoye, Joseph Ikechukwu, Ojobor, Charles Chijioke

the proximate composition, energy content and sensory properties of complementary foods prepared from sorghum and African yam bean flour blends were investigated. The sorghum flour (SF) was blended with African yam bean flour (AYBF) in the ratios of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 and used for the production of complementary foods. The complementary foods produced were evaluated for proximate composition, energy content and sensory qualities using standard methods. The proximate composition of the samples showed that the protein content of the complementary foods increased gradually with increased level of African yam bean flour addition from 8.64% in 90:10 (SF: AYBF) to 13.44% in 50:50 (SF: AYBF) samples, while carbohydrate decreased. In the same vein, the energy content of the samples also increased with increased supplementation with African yam bean flour from 368.84KJ/100g in 90:10 (SF: AYBF) to 382.98KJ/100g in 50:50 (SF: AYBF). The sensory evaluation carried out on different samples of complementary food after reconstitution into gruels with boiling water showed that the formulation prepared from 100% sorghum flour used as control was most acceptable by the judges and also differed significantly (p≤0.05) from the other samples in flavour, texture and taste. However, the sample fortified with 50% African yam bean flour was scored highest in colour.

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Isdore Paterson Guma, Agnes Semwanga Rwashana, Benedict Oyo

Household food security (FS) is complex and requires multiple stakeholder intervention. Systemic approach aids stakeholders to understand the mechanisms and feedback between complexities in food security providing effective decision making as global resource consumption continues to grow. The study investigated food security challenges and a system dynamics model was developed for evaluating policies and intervention strategies for better livelihood at household level. Dynamic synthesis methodology, questionnaires and interview guide were used to unearth food security challenges faced by households. A causal loop diagram was drawn. The model demonstrates a balance between food stock, seeds preserved, seeds for sale and consumption from crop harvest throughout the food cycles. This research makes contribution to the literature by evaluating dynamic synthesis methodology and FS policy discussions from a feedback point of view.

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Ronan G. Zagado, Michael J. Wilmore

This paper demonstrates how the short messaging service (SMS), popularly known as ‘texting’, has facilitated production of solutions to farm issues using the Farmers’ Text Centre (FTC) of the Philippine Rice Research (PhilRice) as the case study. Text messages registered in the FTC database in 2010 covering one cropping season were discourse analyzed. Interpretive qualitative research particularly the Grounded Theory was employed to interpret/theorize said data. Since texting is a new, emerging discourse in agricultural development, Grounded Theory allows the explication of theoretical accounts that explain its existence and impact. Results indicate that timing (queries received within working days from 8am to 5pm get speedy response), content (the easier the question the faster it gets reply), length (the shorter the message the better) and clarity of the query/text message, as well as cultural factors (such as greetings and terms of respect) are all important governing factors in texting for farm use. Moreover, analysis reveals that the series of text messages sent back and forth by farmers and agricultural specialist in FTC suggests a dynamic process of negotiation, rather than passive information sharing. The analysis further reveals that texting has allowed farmers to have access to a ‘negotiated’ knowledge rather than a standard scientific recommendation vis-à-vis the solution to their farm issues. The term ‘negotiated’ implies that farmers are actively involved in knowledge production via texting. ‘Textholder’ is coined in this paper to describe farmers and agricultural specialists as co-creators of knowledge in texting, as opposed to their traditional role as knowledge generator and user, respectively. From the analysis, reflections, implications, and theoretical contributions are drawn in relation to the value of SMSing in agricultural extension and communication.

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Ahmed R. Abdelaziz, Ahmed M.Fathy

This paper presents an application of Chaotic differential evolution optimization approach meta-heuristics in solving transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) using an AC model associated with reactive power planning (RPP). The reliability–redundancy of network analysis optimization problems implicate selection of components with multiple choices and redundancy levels that produce maximum benefits, can be subject to the cost, weight, and volume constraints is presented in this paper. Classical mathematical methods have failed in handling non-convexities and non-smoothness in optimization problems. As an alternative to the classical optimization approaches, the meta-heuristics have attracted lot of attention due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in reliability–redundancy optimization problems. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) – paradigms of evolutionary computation field – are stochastic and robust meta-heuristics useful to solve reliability–redundancy optimization problems. EAs such as genetic algorithm, evolutionary programming, evolution strategies and differential evolution are being used to find global or near global optimal solution. The Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) population-based algorithm is an optimal algorithm with powerful global searching capability, but it is usually in low convergence speed and presents bad searching capability in the later evolution stage. A new Chaotic Differential Evolution algorithm (CDE) based on the cat map is recommended which combines DE and chaotic searching algorithm. Simulation results and comparisons show that the chaotic differential evolution algorithm using Cat map is competitive and stable in performance with other optimization approaches and other maps.

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Okoye Obuora A. Ubani Nelson O.

A municipal water reticulated pipeline network in Owerri, Nigeria previously analyzed by Simultaneous Loop Flow Correction Method, was re-evaluated using Basic Discrete Systems Analysis Method. This study was carried out to validate the results of the earlier study and decide if the water pipeline network flow characteristics can also be evaluated in a later study for more insight. This study sought, produced a better representation and explanation of the head loss and discharge profiles for the water pipeline network. The water pipeline network consists of twenty-four discrete system (pipe elements) and pipe connections become the nodes which consists of sixteen nodes. These pipeline elements were viewed as discrete systems and flow equations, from first principles, are formulated for each element. Plots were developed to show the nodal head loss, nodal pressure, pipe elements corrected head loss and pipe elements corrected discharge being affected by the pipe diameter and length. The plots revealed that the solutions which were obtained as corrective flow parameters (head loss, pressure and discharge) for the water pipe network described the flow profiles of the pipe network and the flow fluctuations being experienced in the pipe network.

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Okoye Obuora A.

The motion of a multi-fluid flow is of interest in the oil and gas industry. The flow characteristics aid or impede production rate. This study analyses two phase fluid flow characteristics consisting of crude oil and natural gas, in straight pipes of the same internal diameter, using homogenous model. Flow values were obtained from a Niger Delta flow station and predetermined experimental flow equations were used to determine the pressure drop in order to comprehend the flow characteristics in the pipeline. An average total pressure loss (∆PT) of 0.075 MPa was obtained in the laminar flow category at 0.006228 MPa/m and an average total pressure (∆PT) of 27.896 MPa in turbulent flow category at 2.325 MPa/m in a pipe length of 12 metres. Graphs were plotted to show the influence of the calculated flow parameters on the fluid flow. The graphs aided in depicting the flow regimes in the pipeline. These are universally dominant parameters in the oil and gas industry as they significantly impact on the transportation of crude oil from oil wells or reservoirs to the process plants. These results may be used as a baseline and guide to compare realistic measurements in similar flows.

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Nursaban R. Suleman, Sucherly, Popy Rufaidah, Rina Novianti Ariawaty

The aim of this study was to test the concept destination personality, perceived value, and destination image. In particular, this study aims to determine how much influence destination personality and perceived value to destination image on marine tourism in Bunaken and Wakatobi National Park. This type of research is descriptive and verified. The survey was conducted using questionnaires to 223 tourists traveling in Bunaken and Wakatobi especially scuba diving activities. By analyzing using the SEM (structural equation model) with AMOS program. Descriptive research results indicate that the destination personality, perceived value owned marine tourism Bunaken and Wakatobi has been running very good, with the exception of the destination image is considered pretty good. While the research results verification that destination personality affect destination image with a standard deviation of 0.46 or effect (46%). Then the perceived value affects the destination image with the effect of a standard deviation of 0.30 (30%). Then the effect of simultaneous destination personality and perceived value to destination image with a standard deviation of 0.39 or (39%).

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