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IJSTR Volume 4 - Issue 6, June 2015 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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M. Elsayed, Y. Andres, W. Blel, A. Gad

Abstract: This study investigated the possibilities of improving methane yield production from, the anaerobic co-digestion of wheat straw (WS) and primary sludge (PS). The batch experiment was conducted under mesophilic conditions. Different mixtures of WS and PS depending on its C/N ratio were carried out to investigate the optimum C/N ratio for effective methane production. The cumulative methane yields (CMYs) for co-digestion of PS with WS at C/N ratios of 35, 25, 20, 15 and 10 were 1.29, 1.62, 1.33, 2.44 and 2.16 time than digesting PS alone, respectively. The maximum CMYS was observed at C/N ratio of 15 with an increase of 89 %, 50.93 %, 83.61 % and 13.12 % compared with the other C/N ratio of 35, 25, 20 and 10 respectively. This result showed the positive synergy of co-digesting of PS and WS for methane production caused by improving the C/N ratio of the feed stock.

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1-6  



Aris Mahmud, Suratman, Muh. Yunus, Alwi

Abstract: This study aims to determine the institutional form of formal, informal institutional and transaction costs in mining policy implementation asphalt in Buton with reference to the institutional theory. This study used a qualitative research method with a case study approach. The technique of collecting data through in-depth interviews and documentation. Data were analyzed by using data reduction, data presentation, verification or conclusion. The results showed that the formal institutional policies asphalt mining in Buton form of government regulations that are divided into three levels of regulation of the central government regulations, Southeast Sulawesi Provincial Government and Local Government Buton, the agreement in the form of agreement/mou between local government and entrepreneurs asphalt, and contract in the form of mining license. Transaction costs in mining policy implementation Buton asphalt in the form of information search costs, the cost of negotiation and execution of the contract, the cost of enforcement and supervision of contract and non-market transactions costs into additional transaction costs in asphalt mining policy implementation.

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7-11  



Glory B. Kaaya, Dr. Esther Waiganjo

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical Institutions in Tanzania by focusing on the women. The study examined in detail the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical institutions and Arusha Technical College in particular as well as exploring sexual dynamics within Technical Institutions. Moreover a number of theoretical frameworks were concerned basing on the objectives; a case study design was employed involving both qualitative and quantitative methods. Data was collected through focus group discussion, questionnaires and observation at ATC. The finding of this study offers a framework of the understanding of the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical Institutions the report raised the recommendations that Colleges to conduct more sensitisation and awareness campaigns, Establishment of Pre-Entry Courses for female candidates in all institutes encourage industries and companies (Government and Private) to recruitment more female staff, Make use of educated and employed female role models to encourage girls to go to school, Educate the parents (community) on the importance of educating women and their role in the community and the Country at large and by increasing the PPP between MoEVT and other Educational stakeholders to work of factors affecting women enrolment in Technical Institutions.

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12-14  



Carolyn Kandusi, Dr. Esther Waiganjo

Abstract: Throughout history, participation in decision making through processes like voting, vying for leadership position and participation in decision making meetings; has been blinded by discrimination to certain groups of community members including women. This study assessed the social cultural factors affecting Maasai women’s participation in decision making a case of Longido district. Purposive sampling was used to select the districts under the study. Decision to select Longido was based on the inhabitance of pastoral community. A total of 115 respondents were obtained through simple random selection. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation were used in the analysis. The results show that majority would you vote for a woman to be an MP/ Councilor/ Village Chairman in your community. A considerable proportion of men refused to be led by a woman. Furthermore, women were found not to effectively participate in politics through vying for leadership positions as many respondents voted for male contestant, main reasons being no female contestant. Situations in which women are involved in decision making were found mainly to be on issues pertaining women development and family matters. Findings show that women are allowed to vote in the community but often the decision for a woman to vote was found to be determined by men. The study further found that women are not regarded elders and female's ideas were not taken into account as male ideas in village meetings. The main barriers for women participation in leadership were found that men do not want women to compete in leadership and women ideas not accepted by most men. The study concluded that Maasai women’ participation in decision making is limited by social cultural factors like social identity, social acceptance, social roles and limiting cultural practices. It is recommended that civic education strategy and appropriate programs should be designed and implemented to raise the level of knowledge and understanding of women rights and potentials in leadership and decision making. Continuous and effective sensitization of Maasai men and women on changing of their mindsets to accept the ability of women and their leadership potentials is paramount in influencing men’s decision making to accepting women in leadership and decision making organs.

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15-19  



Endraria

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine and analyze the influence of the perception of the use of information technology to transact online interests, perceptions of comfort against the interest of transacting online, trust in transacting online interest, the perception of the use of information technology, the perception of comfort and confidence simultaneously affect the interest of transacting online using internet system banking (Empris Studies at Bank BRI Branch Office Tangerang 2014). With usability Theoretical where research results can be used to enrich the study of accounting keprilakuan in particular and science in general accounting, uses for which the Bank can enrich the concept or theory in its contribution to the development of science so useful as a reference for those who need both from within Bank and outside the institution itself and able to provide input to what extent the perception of the use of information technology, the perception of comfort and confidence can give a positive contribution to the interests transact online using internet banking system (Study Empris at Bank BRI Branch Office Tangerang 2014) and usability for the Government where the results of this study are expected to be used as a correction and input the extent to which the perception of the use of information technology, the perception of comfort and confidence can give a positive contribution to the interests transact online using internet banking system (Study Empris at Bank BRI Branch Office Tangerang 2014), especially in the City Tangerang. The hypothesis proposed in this study in which there is significant influence use of information technology to transact interest perceptions of comfort on the interest on the interest of trust online transacting online transactions simultaneous perception of the use of information technology, the perception of comfort and confidence in the interests transact online using Internet Banking System (Study Empris Bank BRI Branch Office Tangerang 2014)

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A. A. M. Azoddein, R. M. Yunus, N. M. Sulaiman, A. B. Bustary, F. A. Azli

ABSTRACT: Mercury pollution is one of a primary environmental issue and public health problem. The purpose of this research is to remove the mercury using pure culture Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 49128) at optimum growth parameters such as technique of culture, acclimatization time and speed of incubator speed. In this study, the optimum growth parameters ofP. putida were obtained to achieve the maximum of mercury removal. Thus, a field study were carried out at two different location based on petroleum industrial plants in Peninsular Malaysia. Processes involved in this research which is P. putida behavior in rehydrating free-dried growing method, growth parameters and optimum operating conditions. Analysis that carried out are turbidity, total dissolved solid and suspended solid where related to growth of P. putida. Efficiency of mercury removal from actual petroleum based industries plant 1 (P1) wastewater with the presence of 1000 ppb Hg increased from 84% after 4 hours to 90.5% after 96 hours. For plant 2, the sample with presence P. putida and nutrient broth had the highest of mercury removal which is 97.27%. This results show by using P. putida is efficient for mercury removal from actual petroleum.

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32-39  



Rashid Al-Azri, Majid Hilal Al-Rashdi, Lavdim Kazazi

Abstract: Over the recent years the teaching of foreign language vocabulary has been the subject of much discussion and arguments, and a number of research and methodology books on such topic have emerged, as it is the case for example with Nation 2001 and Schmitt 2000. For a long time grammar seemed to have attracted more attention, but this renewed interest in vocabulary, reflects the belief that it is becoming a major component in knowing a language, and as some recent scholars would admit, even more important than grammar already. In addition to the various strategies used to promote vocabulary learning in the classroom environment, songs are widely being used nowadays as a powerful tool, in teaching new vocabulary to early grades pupils. Throughout our teaching of young learners, we have noticed that they are amazingly captured by songs, and they always enjoy listening to them. This might be one of the main reasons why songs have now become one of the cornerstones, in the demanding and challenging process of teaching children. The purpose of this research paper is to find out as to what extent and how the use of songs may support new vocabulary learning for grade four pupils in Oman, and how much it actually helps these young learners in developing their vocabulary learning habits.

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40-45  



Oparanya Wamukoya Windrick, Kisiangani Benson Walela, Okiiya Andrew Sande

ABSTARCT: This study is designed to establish the factors influencing academic of standard eight girls in public primary schools in National exams in Matungu division. The researcher aimed at finding out why there is increased low performance of girls in public schools despite the fact that they are assessed through periodic performance tests, do continuous assessment tests (CATS), midterm, carry out tuition and the provision of free primary education which is aimed at improving academic performance. This study adapted a descriptive survey design as a major method of research where data was collected by the researcher members of a population under study. The target population comprised of Head teachers, teachers, pupils, parents and parent schools representatives. Purposive sampling and simple random technique were used. Data was collected by use of questionnaires and interview guides. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics constituting frequencies and percentages.The study established that girls were exposed to harsh school environmental conditions, they walked long distances to school, schools lacked facilities like toilets, libraries and were exposed to male pest teachers. There were also teacher factors like training, teacher shortage and motivation that affected girl’s performance.The study came up with recommendations for improvement of girl’s academic performance. More public schools should be build to reduce on distance and also overpopulation. The ministry of Education should monitor and evaluate the academic performance of girls in rural areas. The government should put up strict rules on “pest teachers”. The ministry should hire more teachers.

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Okafor Collins Onyebuchi Okeke, Nwadiogbu Ifeanyi Anthony, Agumah Nnabuife Bernard, Eni Obehi Eugene, Odinkemere Stephen Chijindu

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the presence of multi drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Five hundred (500) samples of water comprising 250 each from selected brand of sachet water retailers and borehole water dispensers from seven locations were sampled for the detection of coliform bacteria from biofilm and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility using commercially prepared antibiotic discs. Results revealed a high faecal contamination level in sachet waters as Gospel 36 (72%), Aqua Rapha 30 (60%) and Bejoy 18 (36%) were the highest among the sachet water brands examined, with Nene and Rock Tama sachet water brands having the lowest contamination level of 6(12%) and 13(26%) respectively. Borehole samples, results revealed that Aboffia had 27 (76.93%) samples contaminated with faecal bacteria while Azugwu 11 (28.5%), Azuiyiokwu 18 (50%), Azuiyiudene 29(80%), Kpirikpiri 24 (66.63%), Presco/Ntezi 16(46.15%) and Udensi 22 (61.54%). Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp were the major contaminants of both sachet and borehole water samples. The bacteria isolates from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters were susceptible to only three of the antibiotics used namely nitrofurantoin, amoxycilin and ampicillin. The bacteria were completely resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, norbactin/norfloxacin, ofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin. This showed that they exhibit multi-drug resistance pattern which is a common feature of medically important biofilm bacteria. We therefore report the presence of multi-drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

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Nidhi Verma, Kartik Gupta, Sheila Mahapatra

ABSTRACT: This paper provides the implementation of solid state relays for enhancement of power system protection. Relays are an essential part of the power systems and are responsible for the control of any overload voltage or current and protection of the devices from these parameters. The main function of the relay is to constantly monitor the parameter to be controlled and if it exceeds the percentage range set by the controller then it sends a signal to the circuit breaker to break the connection and isolate the faulty part. Solid state relays are preferred over mechanical relays and in this paper relay functioning is done with the help of opto-coupler. Controlling of opto- coupler is done with the help of microcontroller. Circuit operates through Zero Voltage Switching leading to reduction in harmonics. The implementation of relay circuit offers minimal delay time which enables better time response for protection.

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Philip Adoka Okisai, DR. Kabare Karanja

Abstract: Governance is an important aspect in the day to day operations of schools and achievement of school goals and attaining development in any part of the world and indeed in Tanzania. The main purpose of this study was to examine the factors affecting governance in catholic run educational institutions in Arusha Tanzania. The study specifically aimed to investigate the effect of policy frameworks, monitoring and evaluation and organizational structure in governance in catholic run educational institutions. During the study, primary data collection was done using questionnaires and personal interviews. Both simple random and purposive samplings were used to obtain data. The findings of the study indicated that most catholic run educational institutions are aware of the factors of governance which were being investigated. The majority of the leaders were in favor of good governance in their institutions which is characterized by transparency and accountability. This research shows that the presence of good policies brings about guidance and direction in the institution which in place enhances accountability and effectiveness in the part of those in leadership position. The study recommends that the Institutions should endeavor through staff development programs to induct new staff members in the institution to have a harmonious understanding of institutional policy framework and to achieve the set institutional goals.

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Elsadig Gamaleldeen Elsadig

Abstract: The large demand for the wireless links and the mobility in the devices increase the need to utilize the bandwidth in the low bandwidth networks like satellite. The gaping method which propose in this paper is an effective approach to improving the performance of the TCP protocol in the wireless networks bandwidth at high delay networks in which the link is highly expensive. The new gaping technique had proposed sending data in TCP silence time by sending packets in the silence time, the new designed algorithm use leaky-bucket scheme for injecting packets in the time gaps through the stream of data in the network. The result had explaining and clarifying that, more data had went pass through the highly delay satellite link. The TCP gaping method could achieve the maximum throughput in interval of RTT and the TCP gaping will spreads data out successfully compared with standard TCP.

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Nemence Iriya, Namusonge G. S

Abstract: This study assessed effects of integrity on the performance of elected leaders in Babati town council. A sample size of 93 community members and 24 community leaders were obtained through simple random selection. Data were collected by using structured interview questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation were used in the analysis. The results shows that councilors decided to contest for the position in order to serve citizens (73.1%). On the other hands, most of the decisions that are made by councilors through their routine council meetings were not found to be pro citizens (66.7%). The major drive for position was found to be personal gains than serving the community. Factors affecting councilor’s performance were found to be greedy to payments, favoritisms, other personal benefits and lack ethics and general lack of capacity to handle and supervise community projects. Councilors were also found in misconducts contrary to rules and regulations. Councilors were found to be operating contrary to the Act No. 7 of 1982 that established the local government authorities in rural areas, and the Local Government (Urban Authorities) Act No. 8 of 1982. They were involved in district tender, misuse of public funds, and did not effectively participate in community meetings. It is recommended that rules and regulations governing councilors need to be enforced so as to improve integrity and conformity to standard operation procedures in public resource management

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Enkelejd Caca

ABSTRACT: Building more accurate profiles for temperature and density of hot electronic gas, concentrated in the center of clusters of galaxies, is a constant problem in survey of Sunyeav Zel’dovich effect (SZ). An effect that consists in the inverse Compton effect of the hot electronic gas interacting with Cosmic Microwave Back- ground (CMB) photons passing through Intra Cluster Medium (ICM). So far, the Isothermal model is used for temperature profiling in the calculation of the inverse Compton effect, but based on the recent improved observations from satellites, which showed that the hot electronic gas presents a feature, called Cooling Flow (CF). Temperatures in this model differs towards the edges of the Clusters of Galaxies, leading to a change on the Compton parameter in comparison with Isothermal model. In this paper are processed data, provided by X-ray satellite, Chandra. The X-ray analysis is based on two models for the electron density and temperature profile. A sample of 12 clusters of galaxies are analyzed, and by building the temperature profiles using CF model, the differences on the Compton parameter, are 10-100% in comparison with Isothermal model. Therefore to increase the accuracy of evaluation of the Compton parameter, we should take into account the change of the electronic gas tempera- ture, change that affect changes in both, CMB spectrum and temperature, from SZ effect.

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86-95  



N. Ghozat, H. Erfanian Khanzadeh, N.R. Boroomand Alipoor

Abstract: These All the objectives are attainable in line with ethics and if a system is not ethical, in spite of scientific and modern facilities, it cannot achieve its goals so the main duty of managers is to provide ground for morality since trustworthy, morality are the fundamental axes in any system this article has tried to consider ethical issues according Islamic and Iranian values how should be the view point toward ethics in any system is it a necessity or obligation? In this article we are to provide a conceptual model base on Iranian situation so our article which is a descriptive one uses multi sources of gathering data (questionnaire, interview) to criticize the theoretical views based on western values and to offer a conceptual model.

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Alanazi Sultan, Christian Bach

Abstract: To generate a comprehensive model of Knowledge Management Readiness In Organizationsintending greater value to its practical applicability. This study was based on both secondary and primary data grounded on the deductive paradigm of social research. Survey with 13 professionals in the current business setting was conducted to justify the research findings. The key criterion of KM Readiness In Organizations, i.e. its dependency on human acts was ignored in many traditional KM models although literary works paid substantial value to the aspect. Applicability of conventional KM models in the current context was also limited. The study lacked consideration to the influence of organizational characteristics on KM practices based on organizational readiness. The number of respondents was also limited for a wide research such as this. As this study was mainly guided by the contemporary beliefs and attributes of organizational management, the developed model is likely to find its worthy applicability in practical experiences. Due emphasis was provided to ethical soundness throughout the paper, confirming its originality and value in terms that anti-plagiarism strictness was taken into context and self-infliction of information was avoided entirely.

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99-102  



Jackson Estomih Muro, G. S. Namusonge

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to have a fresh look at the local governance status through exploring governance factors affecting community participation in public development projects. The study also has investigated the actors and factors shaping participation as well as causes for non-participation. For the purpose of the study, six wards within two divisions of Poli and Mbuguni and Meru district headquarters were selected. In the wards, a total of 80 respondents from among the community members were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Others were Village chairman; Village Executive Officers, Ward Executive Officers and Councilors were also interviewed and involved in the FGD. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation and figures were used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the communities were participated in the public development projects and people were participating through financial, material and labor contribution to the public development projects. The analysis also showed that, the government supported the ongoing public development projects including through provision of fund and expertise. The study showed the benefit of community participation in the development projects or programs like ownership of the projects and enjoying the benefits accrued from the projects. The study also indicated that there is significant change in terms of governance as influencers of community participation in public development projects. Despite the fortunes, study showed some challenges found in wards and villages being the incidence of corruptions and misuse of public resources which were mentioned to slow community participation in public development projects. It was therefore concluded that adhering to the good governance principles contribute positively towards community participation in public development projects.

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106-110  



Lati Matata, G.S. Namusonge

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ICT in the governance of micro and small enterprises (MSE) in Makueni County, Kenya. The use of ICT based solutions in supporting the development of MSEs was explored by analyzing the existing mobile telephony use of the enterprises. Technology-Acceptance-Modelling (TAM) techniques were formulated to establish perceived and real value of the ICT systems in improving the efficiency of the above activities with the goal to demonstrate good governance through the indicators of ease of raising capital, the efficiency of return on capital investment and the transparency and ease of payment of taxes, fees, charges applicable and rates payable of Makueni County government This study adopted a descriptive research design. The population consists of all the MSEs in Makueni County, Kenya. The sample size of 100 MSEs was determined using convenience sampling. The primary data was collected through structured field questionnaires and secondary data through public government statistics and subject matter literature. The quantitative primary data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentage, mean, standard deviation and correlational analysis. Based on the findings, the study concludes ICT based solutions have a role to play in the good governance. MSEs have potential to achieve further transparency, efficiency and responsiveness of business to enhance their profitability through utilizing ICT based solutions in relationships with all stakeholders. In addition, the Makueni County government could raise more revenue by improving their transparency and grow their tax base by seeking more efficient means of collecting taxes.

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111-117  



Somatunga L C, Sridharan S, Refai M A C M, Malavige K K, Gamini L P S

Abstract: Health care systems are accountable to their patients and society to provide quality cost effective care and to seek ways to improve that care. By doing this, positive patient outcomes are ensured. Those factors, which affect the delivery of a good service have to be identified. It is important to determine whether the environment of an organization (type of hospitals) plays an important role in determining the implementation of quality improvement programmes Methodology :This was a hospital-based descriptive, cross-sectional survey carried out in selected hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sixteen Line Ministry Hospitals where Quality Management Units are already in place were selected for the study. Staff working in these hospitals including doctors, nurses and allied health staff was included. The data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was repeated after three weeks. Findings: A total of 378 participants responded in the study. This study identified top management commitment, training, teamwork, physical structure and monitoring system as independent variables that influence the CQI implementation programme. All the participants rated lower for teamwork and felt that teamwork had little influence on CQI programme implementation. The type of hospital has not influenced the implementation of CQI programme.

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118-123  



Amit Kumar, Sidhart Bhatia

Abstract: Zigbee is a wireless protocol for transmitting data for short distances efficiently .In menu ordering system we wanted to make a system which is user friendly, less time consuming and cost efficient .As it is a combination of electronics and computer based system we can basically call it an embedded system. It is becoming difficult for restaurants to manage their staff also they don’t want that their customer to wait for waiter to get free, so to provide a better solution to this problem we came up with an idea of making menu ordering system automated.

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124-125  



Eyenghe Tari, Ibama Brown, Wocha Chikagbum

ABSTRACT: The continues increase in both urban and rural population has birthed the problem of inadequate availability of facilities and social services thus giving rise to social disparity and unequal access to basic facilities and services by people of the same population spectrum. Consequently, the problem of social disparity (inequality) is on the increase and is gaining global and local attention. Despite the efforts of government to combat this social problem, it is still raising its head in form of unequal access to educational facilities, heath care, good roads, emergency services and etcetera. Hence the study was intended to ascertain whether or not there is disparity in distribution and access to facilities and services by assessing facilities and services in Port Harcourt City. The study adopted the simple random technique for data collection. Also, primary and secondary data were the major data collected with the use of closed ended structured questionnaire. However, the result of the study showed that income formed a major determining factor in the distribution of facilities and services in Port Harcourt while population threshold was not considered significantly in the study area. However, the study revealed that there is gap in the distribution of facilities and services in Port Harcourt City. The recommendations included the involvement of the citizens at grass root in decision making, facilities and services should be provided with respect to actual population on ground, income level should not determine facilities and service distribution. The study concluded that there is disparity and unequal access in the distribution of social services and facilities.

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126-135  



Ainebyona Robert, Gregory S Namusonge

Abstract: This research project was carried out to ascertain the use of Information and Communication Technologies and Social Networking Sites in political governance of East African Legislative Assembly Parliament. The research project was based on the conviction that in this era of globalization use of ICTs and SNS’s are fundamentally important and will have tremendous impact on governance, leadership and legislation now and in the near future. The specific objective of this study was intended; a) To evaluate the use of Social Networking Sites in enhancing the political governance of East African Legislative assembly Parliament. The findings from the research showed that that all the respondents 100% were subscribed to social networking sites and used them from time to time. Additionally, the EALA parliamentarians had a disparity when it came to use of SNSs to interact with constituents, 73.3% of the respondents indicated that they have used SNSs to interact with constituents on matters affecting the community from time to time however 26.7% showed that they did not use Social Networking sites to interact with constituents. Lastly, the use of ICTs and SNSs by EALA has also made it possible for citizens to view Assembly proceedings in real time and hence where able to view their representatives in the course of carrying out their duties in the political arena.Lastly, the world is changing in a dynamic fashion SNS’s are among the tools leading the transformation and it is about time Parliamentarians in Africa embrace SNS’s as major tools in changing how leaders interact and remain accountable to their constituents a practice that’s been a myth in Africa.

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136-143  



Solomon A. Adepoju, Enesi F. Aminu, Yisa Thomas

Abstract: The computer desktop environment is a working environment which can be likened unto a user’s desk in homes and offices. Often times, the computer desktop get cluttered with files either as shortcuts used for quick links, files stored temporarily to be accessed later or just being dumped there for no vivid reasons. However, previous researches have shown that cluttered desktop affects user’s productivity, and getting these files organized is a laborious task for most users. To be able to conveniently alleviate the effect clutters have on user’s performances and productivity, there is need for third party software that will help get the desktop environment organized in a logical and efficient manner. It is to this end that desktop decongesting software is being designed and implemented, to help curb clutter problems which existing tools have only partially addressed. The system is designed using Visual Basic .Net and it proves to be effective in tackling desktop congestion problem.

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144-147  



Ibama Brown, Wocha Chikagbum, Udoh Imoh Jerimiah

ABSTRACT: In recent years, the development of standard markets and its impact on the environs has become a burning issue in the minds of many governments and people alike. Consequently, this paper is poised to take a comprehensive look at the location of the Rumuwoji Mile 1 Market in Port Harcourt with respect to the social and economic impacts on the environs. The State Government has shown considerable interest in the location of the market and other ancillary activities and facilities around it. This led to considerable emphasis being placed on the relationship between the various land-uses, viz: residential, commercial, recreational, transportation etc, in most urban centers in like Port Harcourt. This has become imperative as there seem to be palpable hazards and effects being exacted on the environs daily by different socio-economic activities within and around the market. In the same vein, this paper has taken special interest in identifying different hazards and the real and potential effects the Mile 1 Rumuwoji market has on its immediate environs as a segment of an urban city of Port Harcourt. The methodology employed in conducting the research was the Hazard and Effect Management Process (HEMP) to ascertain the hazards and effects posed by the market. From the research, it was discovered that the market serves as a central place because it attracts people from different origin to the area and that properties in the area are of mixed uses. The market provides employment in the area. Noise and unhealthy sanitary practices are allowed to thrive there and inadequate parking spaces. To mitigate these challenges, some of the recommendations includes: the adoption of the social impact mitigation and enhancement framework, provision of basic facilities and services, the creation of more parking spaces. Sanitary laws and effective refuse collection and disposal should be put in place. If these are done, the living conditions of the people living in the area will be improved and the quality of their lives enhanced.

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148-160  



Dr. Mustafa B. Dawood, Haider H. A. Al-Katib

Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of flexural strength of pretensioned prestressed concrete beams with openings and strengthened with (CFRP) sheets, tested as simply supported span subjected under two-point loading. The experimental work includes testing of nine prestressed concrete beams specimens with dimensions (effective length 1800mm × depth 300mm × width 130mm), two of which were without openings as a control beams (one without and the other with strengthening by CFRP), three were with openings, and the remaining four with openings and strengthened with CFRP sheets. The opening was made at square shape (100×100) mm in flexure zone at mid span of beam. Several design parameters were varied such as: opening width, opening depth and strengthening of openings of beams by CFRP sheets at compression and tension zone. Experimental results showed that the presence of square opening (with ratio h/H= 0.333) and rectangular opening (with ratio h/H from 0.333-0.5) at mid span of beams decreased the ultimate load about (5.5)% and (5.5-33.1)% respectively when compared with beam without openings (control beam). The externally strengthened prestressed concrete beams with bonded CFRP sheets showed a significant increase at the ultimate load, this increase was about (10.9-28.8)% for flexure beams when compared with the unstrengthened beams. Moreover, the load-deflection curves for flexure beams strengthened with CFRP sheets were stiffer than the unstrengthened beams. Therefore, this results gave a good indication about using CFRP sheets in improvement of deflection.

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161-172  



Adhurim Hoxha, Joan Jani

Abstract: In this work, the multiphase diffusion in the infinite couple Cu-Zn, was studied experimentally. The diffusion couples were prepared by platting technique. The samples were annealed in three different temperatures, which were taken below the melting temperature of Zn. For each temperature, there were used six different annealing times, ranging from 1h up to 32h. In the micrographs provided by light microscopy, it can be seen the formation of only two of the three intermetalic phases present in the Cu-Zn phase diagram, namely ε- and γ-phase. WDX EPMA analysis was used to obtain the concentration profiles of the diffusion layers.he diffusion coefficients of Cu and Zn in α- and η-solid solutions, are calculated using the solutions of second Fick’s law, for independent concentration case. Since the diffusion coefficients depends only on the temperature of annealing and not on the time of it, they must be the same for a given temperature. Therefore the diffusion coefficients were averaged for each temperature. Knowing the diffusion coefficients for each temperature, enables the calculation of the activation energies and the frequency factors as well.

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173-176  



Shiny B, Dr. Deepa J.

Abstract: This paper presents an approach based on classification for improving the accuracy of stereo matching methods. We propose this method for occlusion handling. This work employs classification of pixels for finding the erroneous disparity values. Due to the wide applications of disparity map in 3D television, medical imaging, etc, the accuracy of disparity map has high significance. An initial disparity map is obtained using local or global stereo matching methods from the input stereo image pair. The various features for classification are computed from the input stereo image pair and the obtained disparity map. Then the computed feature vector is used for classification of pixels by using GentleBoost as the classification method. The erroneous disparity values in the disparity map found by classification are corrected through a completion stage or filling stage. A performance evaluation of stereo matching using AdaBoostM1, RUSBoost, Neural networks and GentleBoost is performed.

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177-181  



Sukhlal Mujalda, Devendra Singh Verma

Abstract: House construction for real state is the current demand to satisfy the different categories of customer. Various techniques are available to satisfy the customer demand like QFD. Using the QFD house of quality modal, we were able to understand the fundamental customer quality and care requirement within the real estate construction. This paper represent a simple case using QFD on the design phase of a real estate construction project as a tool of improvement for feature of middle class row house unit.

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182-190  



Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Sadawarte Sahebrao Kishanrao

Abstract: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) refers to the inherited peripheral neuropathies affect approximately one in 2500 people; they are among the most common inherited neurological disorders. The majority of CMT patients have autosomal dominant inheritance, although X-linked dominant, and autosomal recessive forms also exist. The majority of cases are demyelinating although up to one third appear to be primary axonal or neuronal disorders. A patient of 9-year-old girl, visited our hospital because of began to suffer from an insidious onset of progressive distal weakness and numbness, and muscle twitching in both in her upper and lower limbs. Nerve conduction studies showed, sensory nerve conduction (SNCV) of bilateral median and ulnar nerve was reduced in upper limb and bilateral sural nerve was reduced in lower limb, While in case of motor nerve conduction (MNCV) bilateral median and ulnar nerve was reduced in upper limb and common peroneal nerve (CPN), as well as posterior tibial nerve was decreased leg. F response latencies were markedly prolonged in patient. Family history along with electrophysiological studied showed; It was typical case of autosomal dominant CMT 2 axonal neuropathy. CMT is currently an untreatable disorder and at the moment the treatment of CMT is only supportive, as there are no drugs available that would halt the disease symptoms. The care of a CMT patient is challenging for the health care team.

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191-194  



Sudarlan, Rina Indiastuti, Arief Anshory Yusuf

Abstract: Since the decentralization was implemented by Indonesia government in the last decade, the provincial government has more powerful authority to use and manage on the own provinces. The use of natural resources is blessed by the God for community welfare. By using 30 provincial cross-section data that the mining sector has a negative affected and statistically significant to economic growth and it has unsignificantly affected for decreasing poverty and also unsignificant for income inequality in Indonesia. The purpose of this research is to understand the affect of mining sector to poverty and income inequality in Indonesia from 2002 to 2011. The research used explanatory method by using time-series and cross-section data and applied a two stage simultaneous equation method (2SLS). The important finding in this research is (a) mining sector had a negative impact on economic growth and economic growth was not significant statistically for poverty reduction, (b) inflation did not have any impact on economic growth and had a positive impact poverty headcount, poverty gap and poverty severity, and (c), economic growth had positive impact on income inequality.

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195-200  



Mohammed Nabil Abdalazim Mursi, Dr. Mohamed H. M. Nerma

ABSTRACT: With the latest advancements in electronics, several techniques are used for removal of unwanted entities from signals especially that are implied in the most complicated applications. The removal of power line interference from most sensitive medical monitoring equipments can also be achieved by implementing various useful techniques. The power line interference (50/60 Hz) is the main source of noise in most of bio-electric signals. The thesis report presents the removal of power line interference and other single frequency tones from ECG signal using the advanced adaptive filtering technique with least mean square (LMS) algorithm. The thesis is based on digital signal processing (DSP) techniques with MATLAB package. The MATLAB package will be used in the thesis work which is a powerful tool for the interactive design in most of the scientific applications and complex engineering calculations. In addition so as to achieve the goal of thesis, the removal of harmonics (hum) and high frequency noise from ECG signal by using general notch rejection filters is investigated and implemented.

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201-210  



Lavdim Kazazi, Majid Hilal Al-Rashdi, Rashid Al-Azri

Abstract: Transition from one stage of education into another is among the most important and influential processes in the life of every pupil. Therefore, proper attention and care must be dedicated to such issue by all the relevant stakeholders, making sure pupils get the best knowledge that is consistent throughout all the different phases of education. As such, this paper will look into the impact this transition creates in pupils, by reviewing what different literature found on such issue say, analyzing it from the students’ point of view, and finally, offering relevant recommendation based on the findings from the students’ questionnaires. Of course this issue is quite complex in its nature, which in turn would mean that there is still the need for further and deeper studies to be made, in order to make sure that the transition from primary to secondary and then tertiary education, may be as smooth as possible for all the pupils. Making sure to do so, means that the students will feel equipped with the right tools of knowledge during all the phases of their education.

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211-215  



Anterpreet Kaur

ABSTRACT: Syntactic similarity is an important activity in the area of high field of text documents, data mining, natural language processing, information retrieval. Natural language processing (NLP) is the intelligent machine where its ability is to translate the text into natural language such as English and other computer language such as c++. Web mining used for task such as document clustering, community mining etc to performed on web. However to find the similarity between the two documents is the difficult task. So with increasing scope in NLP require technique for dealing with many aspects of language, in particular, syntax, semantics and paradigms.

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216-219  



Takyi Appiah, S., Otoo, H., Nabubie, I.B.

Abstract: The number of malaria cases in the Ejisu-Juaben Municipality were modelled statistically to find the best model for forecasting the disease for a two year period. The Box-Jenkins approach was applied to Secondary data from the municipality to determine the best model fit. From the model obtained, the forecast was found to have an oscillatory trend for some period and then remain constant for the period of two years from 2014 and 2016.

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220-226  



Elham S. Dawood, Modhi K. Elshamry

Abstract: Zea maize is one of the main cereals produced in Hail area (Saudi Arabia). The risk of mycotoxin contamination is related to mycoflora associated with corn kernel. This paper reports on isolation and identification of external and internal mycoflora of maize harvested in Hail area in 2006 – 2008. A mycological survey was carried out on 200 samples from two agricultural companies . Comparison between frequency and relative density of the prevalent genera and species was carried out. Genus Fusarium was the most prevalent component of the internal seed - borne mycoflora in the two companies, Aspergillus spp. was the most prevalent genus as external seed –borne mycoflora. The predominant species of the different genera were Fusarium moniliforrme, Aspergillus flavus ,A. niger and Alternaria alternate.

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227-230  



Sadniman Rahman, Nazmul Hoque Sakib

Abstract: To estimate the animal diversity in Tushkhali Union under the Mathbaria Upazila, Pirojpur District, Bangladesh, a long time study was done from January 28, 2014 to February 23, 2015. During the study animals under the total 37 families were found. This indicates that still the Union has a moderate animal diversity status. The way of conservation was also included in the study. During the study the opinion of the local people was also be taken regarding how to do the conservational methods.

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231-233  



Ahmet Kaya

Abstract: A two-dimensional analysis of heat and mass transfer during radio-frequency assisted convective drying of a rectangular apple slice is performed using an implicit finite difference method. Temperature and moisture distributions inside the object are predicted. Effects of level of power density and heat transfer coefficient on moisture and temperature profiles in the product are evaluated. It is shown that increasing the level of power denstiy and heat transfer coefficient increase the temperature and decrease the moisture in the product. The results obtained from the present model are compared with those available the literature and a considerably good agreement is found.

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234-241  



Emmanuel Jackson Petro Gunda, Peter Anthony Kopoka, Dr. Ephantus Kihonge

ABSTRACT: E-government facilitates delivery of public services of relevant government information in electronic form to citizens in a timely manner and better service delivery to citizens. E-government is a kind of governmental administration which is based on Information Communication and Technology Services. Electronic government describes the use of technologies to facilitate the operation of government and disperse of government information and services. The scope of the work was limited to Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) in Ruvuma region. The population of thirty (31) were selected from a total population of 169 public servants use both purposive and stratified random sampling techniques applied. The major findings of study revealed that about 67.7% of response from respondents agree that ICT infrastructures specifically modern computer connected to internet, reliable internet speed, well organized organization website, power availability in public operation contribute to efficient in delivery of services, it also noted by respondents to faster decision making, speeding up transaction processing and reduce cost. The study greatly recommends that capacity building to public servants on ICT, install and strengthening ICT infrastructures to government organizational are inevitable to realise relevant role of e-government in delivery of public services.

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242-251  



Amritpal Singh, Amrita Kaur, Jasmeet Kaur, Ramandeep Singh, Shipra Raheja

Abstract: Everyday refinement and development of technology has led to an increase in the competition between the Tech companies and their going out of way to crack the system andbreak down. Thus, providing Data mining a strategically and security-wise important area for many business organizations including banking sector. It allows the analyzes of important information in the data warehouse and assists the banks to look for obscure patterns in a group and discover unknown relationship in the data.Banking systems needs to process ample amount of data on daily basis, related to customer information, their credit card details, limit and collateral details, transaction details, risk profiles, Anti Money Laundering related information, trade finance data. Thousands of decisions,based on the related data, are taken in a bank daily. This paper analyzes the banking dataset in the weka environment for the detection of interesting patterns based on its applications ofcustomer acquisition, customer retention management, and marketing and management of risk, fraudulence detections.

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252-256  



Joy karan singh, Jyoteesh Malhotra

Abstract: Due to time varying nature of wireless channel and due to limited sources of signal transmission and various effects such as path loss.Doppler spread,shadowing and interference make it difficult to achieve satisfactory data rates. Diversity is a technique which is used for combating fading and co channel intereference and error bursts.In this paper various concepts of antenna diversity and combining techniques such as SC,MRC are discussed to combat multipath fading.BER and SNR performance of the various combining techniques are analyzed using MATLAB simulation.

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257-260  



Okanlawon T.F., Ariwaodo J.O., Adeniji K.A.

Abstract: This present study examined the phytochemical and Antimicrobial properties of the two occurring Nigerian species of Pericopsis (Allopatric taxa): Pericopsis elata and Pericopsis laxiflora. The phytochemical content and antimicrobial properties of the leaves and stem bark of both species were examined using standard techniques. Antimicrobial activity of the stem bark and leaf of the two species were confirmed using the agar diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory conc. test (MIC) against four standard organism viz: Shigella dysentriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida valida and Pennicillum atrovenetum. The powdered leaves and stem bark were screened and results were properly recorded as observed. Extracts of the leaves and stem bark of the two species were also analyzed quantitatively for the following phytochemicals: Tannin, Alkaloid, Flavonoid, Terpenoid, Saponin and Phenols. Folin ciocalteu reagent was used to determine the total Phenolic content. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that both plants had almost all phytochemical screened for. Quantitative analysis of bioactive components revealed that total phenols are also found in the extracts expressed as mg of GAE per gram. Results showed that the saponin content was the highest with about 47.13% shown in the stem bark extract of P. elata. This is followed by alkaloid with 39.40% in the leaf of P. laxiflora and 36.86% of flavonoid shown in the stem-bark of P.elata. Antimicrobial activity exhibited a concentration dependent profile as the extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against all the test microorganisms. The test organisms were most susceptible at concentration of 200 and 100mg/ml respectively and most resistant at low concentration. This study, however, supports the fact that Nigerian species of genus pericopsis contain important compounds which may be useful in medicine, it also suggests that further research should be conducted into the plant as a whole.

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261-266  



Aung Soe Phyo, Zaw Myo Tunand, Hla Myo Tun

ABSTRACT: A ZigBee sensor network for data acquisition and monitoring is presented in this paper. A ZigBee module is connected via a USB interface to a Microsoft Windows PC, which works as a base station in the network. Data collected by sensor devices are sent to the base station PC, which is set as Wireless sensorNetwork (WSN). ZigBee is low power consumption, built-in security method and ratified specifications make it very suitable to be used with medical sensor devices.This application of Zigbee based network consists of two transmitter sections and a receiver section.Each transmitter section consists of heartbeat sensor, body temperature sensor, microcontroller, Zigbee and LCD module.In the proposed system the patient’s health is continuously monitored and theacquired data is analyzed at a personal computer using Graphical User Interface(GUI). If a particular patient’s health parameter is higher or lower the threshold values, an alarm system is used to alert the doctor. The aim of this system is to know the condition of patient’s health by the doctor immediately and to reduce the load of the staff taking care of the patient in the hospitals. In this paper, wireless point to multipoint system is used between doctor and patient.

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267-274  



Kisame Deogratious, G.S Namusonge

Abstract: This research project dealt with the factors affecting governance of Food security and livelihood projects a case study of the Food security and livelihood project that was implemented by AAIDRO in Monduli district and included 60 respondents all together. The specific objectives of this study intended to: access the Leadership styles that are being used in project governance. The findings of the study indicated that 91.7% of the respondents were in favor of their leaders project governance styles, it was portrayed that participative leadership style was being used by the leaders for project governance. Based on a sample of 60 project members, this study had confirmed that a project leader’s leadership roles like mentor, facilitator, innovator and coordinator are important in influencing project governance effectiveness which includes team mission, goal achievement, and empowerment, open and honest communication

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275-281  



Do Lam Mung, Kyaw Soe Lwin, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: Wireless charging system described by using the method of inductive coupling. In this project, oscillation circuit converts DC energy to AC energy(transmitter coil) to transmit magnetic field by passing frequency and then induce the receiver coil. The properties of Induction coupling are wave(magnetic field-wideband), range(very short~cm), efficiency(hight) and operation frequency(LF-band~several handred kHz).The project shows as a small charging for 5V battery of phone in this method. The system bases on coupling magnetic field, then designed and constructed as two parts. There are transmitter part and receiver part. The transmitter coil (transmitter part) transmits coupling magnetic field to receiver coil (receiver part) by passing frequency at about 1.67MHz. The Ampere’s law, Biot-Savart law and Faraday law are used to calculate the inductive coupling between the transmitter coil and the receiver coil. The calculation of this law shows how many power transfer in receiver part when how many distance between the transmitter coil and the receiver coil. The system is safe for users and neighbouring electronic devices. To get more accurate wireless charging system, it needs to change the design of the following keywords.

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282- 287  



Sushma Verma

Abstract: This paper is a modest approach to determine the most suited mother wavelet for localization of transmission line faults. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and artificial neural network (ANN) based algorithm has been developed for this purpose. Extensive simulation studies were carried out in ATP for various types of fault conditions, locations and fault resistances. DWT analysis of the sending end current signals was done using ‘daubechies’ wavelets. Five wavelets: ‘db1’, ‘db2’, ‘db3’, ‘db4’ & ‘db5’ were selected associated with different centre frequency and period. The statistical features extracted from the DWT coefficients of the sending end current signals were used to train the ANN for identifying the fault locations. The results shows that the ‘db3’ mother wavelet is best suited for localization of transmission line faults, because of its short period and more number of vanishing moments.

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288-293  



Hteik Htar Lwin, Aung Soe Khaing, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: Most doors are controlled by persons with the use of keys, security cards, password or pattern to open the door. Theaim of this paper is to help users forimprovement of the door security of sensitive locations by using face detection and recognition. Face is a complex multidimensional structure and needs good computing techniques for detection and recognition. This paper is comprised mainly of three subsystems: namely face detection, face recognition and automatic door access control. Face detection is the process of detecting the region of face in an image. The face is detected by using the viola jones method and face recognition is implemented by using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Face Recognition based on PCA is generally referred to as the use of Eigenfaces.If a face is recognized, it is known, else it is unknown. The door will open automatically for the known person due to the command of the microcontroller. On the other hand, alarm will ring for the unknown person. Since PCA reduces the dimensions of face images without losing important features, facial images for many persons can be stored in the database. Although many training images are used, computational efficiency cannot be decreased significantly. Therefore, face recognition using PCA can be more useful for door security system than other face recognition schemes.

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294-299  



Sangeeta Kandpal, A. K. Saxena

Abstract: Dendritic silicone core polyimides have been synthesized using silicone anhydride dendrimers which inturn were synthesized by the hydrosilation reaction of maleic anhydride with Si-H terminated silicone dendrimers in presence of Speier’s catalyst. The anhydride groups were converted to imide functionality by the reaction of aromatic diamines at elevated temperatures. All the products were characterized by usual physico-chemical method i.e. elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H- NMR spectroscopy. The molecular weights of dendrimers were determined by using vapor pressure osmometry. The dendritic polyimides have shown fairly good solubility in polar aprotic solvents e.g. N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc), N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N methyl-2 pyrrolidone (NMP) etc. Thermal studies (TGA & DSC) of these compounds have also been studied under inert atmosphere which have shown high char yield (~ 65% at 800 ºC) and thermal stability above 400 ºC. The glass transition temperature of these imides was found in the range of 170-190 ºC.

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300-305  



Yin Min Theint, Myo Maung Maung, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: This system proposes metal detector by using PIC microcontroller interfacing with PC. The system uses PIC microcontroller as the main controller whether the detected metal is ferrous metal or non-ferrous metal. Among various types of metal sensors and various types of metal detecting technologies, concentric type induction coil sensor and VLF (very low frequency) metal detecting technology are used in this system. This system consists of two configurations_ Hardware configuration and Software configuration. The hardware components include induction coil sensors which senses the frequency changes of metal, a PIC microcontroller, personal computer (PC), buzzer, light emitting diode (LED) and webcam. The software configuration includes a program controller interface. PIC MikroCprogramming language is used to implement the control system. This control system is based on the PIC 16F887 microcontroller.This system is mainly used in mining and high security places such as airport, plaza, shopping mall and governmental buildings.

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306-311  



Dr. Susila Sumartiningsih

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research is to analyze the empiric of management strategic: Driving Factor (DF) and Pull Factor (PF) to team learning cohesion among nursing program in Banten Provinsion. The study was designed in the quantitative descriptive correlational study, and the method was a cross sectional. The total sampling (n=192) were manager (n=3), lecturers (n=45) and students (n=144) at nursing program study among Banten provice in Indonesia. The data were analyzed by using the Chi-Square.Theresults were shown‘good’ category (83.33%) in DF and PF of Management Stratgict Implementataion and ‘high’ category (59.72%) in Team Learning Cohesion. There was not a statistically significant relationship, p = 0.543 (p ≥ 0.05), between the DF and PF of team learning cohesion in implementation of Management Stratgic. In view of this, it can be concluded that the nursing lecturer should be able to be a good motivator in order to encourage the student academic achievement.

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312-314  



Usman Ahmad, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Muhammad Luqman

Abstract: Pakistan is one of the countries in the world, who is affected with polio virus. The main objective of this present study was applying spatial statistics to examine the spatiotemporal patterns and areas of hotspot detection for describing the pattern of polio disease in Pakistan. In this study, statistical data smoothing process was used to decrease noise in polio records which is registered at a district level from 2011 to 2014. Moran's I (Spatial analysis method) was applied to measure spatial association in polio disease distribution in study area and examined how districts were spread or clustered. Getis-Ord Gi* (d) statistics was utilized for the identification of cold spot and hotspot within study area and IDW technique applied for Interpolation. This predicts the trend of polio disease distribution around the study area. The incidence rate of polio disease through mapping depicted uneven distribution of poliovirus in affected districts of Pakistan. Spatial statistics are used to perform Moran’s I test and it measured considerable positive spatial autocorrelation of polio disease incidences for previous four successive years. The results depicted spatially clustered and spatial pattern of polio disease in study area. The research concluded that the polio cases were increased in northwestern side of KPK province and southern part of the Sindh province of Pakistan over the past two years (2013–2014).

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315-322  



Aye Min Soe, Maung Maung Latt, Hla Myo Tun, Zaw Min Naing

Abstract: The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system, smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are “Fan On”, “Fan Off”, “Light On”, “Light Off”, “TV On” and “TV Off”. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts: speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process, it contains two main modules: feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization (VQ) approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system, RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

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323-329  



Yi-Jen Mon

Abstract: The Bluetooth is a commonly known, convenient and famous communication protocol. In this paper, it is used to control LED mounted on Arduino test platform by using the APP of mobile phone. At first, the control program is completed by Arduino development software environment, then the Android APP is installed in mobile phone. Finally, by using the Bluetooth of mobile phone, the test platform will be connected. The LED can be controlled by APP of mobile phone. The experiment results are demonstrated the effective performance.

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330-332  



Saranga Gunasekara

Abstract: The mobile telecommunications industry is capital intensive by nature. With the rapid advancement of technology and changing consumer behaviors mobile network operators has had to adapt their product and service portfolio in quick succession. The main implication of the need for high capital investments is the risk associated with the investment. Therefore it is essential that mobile telcos follow up technological investments with the correct service provisioning to the customers. This requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of the consumers. Through this paper the author attempts to identify, evaluate and quantify the effects of a number of traits of consumers that determine the consumer preference to a particular mobile network brand. The author also provides recommendations on strategy formulation. The evaluation has been carried out in the context of the Sri Lankan Mobile Telecommunications Industry.

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333-343  



Pramod Kilabanur, Tanveer Ahmad, Dorothy Bhagabati, Nitesh Kumar, Yasaswini S

Abstract: Soil stabilization is a term used for improving mechanical, chemical, physical, biological or combined method to improve the properties of natural soil and making it fit for engineered purpose. This research is focused to evaluate the suitability of Envirobase and Sodium Silicate with lime on some of the geotechnical properties of black cotton soil obtained from Azadpur, Gulbarga located at northern region of Karnataka. The properties include Index properties and Strength properties such as compaction and California bearing ratio. It was observed that addition of Envirobase to the black cotton soil had increased the California bearing ratio by a remarkable amount and the addition of sodium silicate with lime reduced plasticity index of the soil.

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IJSTR-0715-11983  



Su Myat Mon, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: Speech is an easiest way to communicate with each other. Speech processing is widely used in many applications like security devices, household appliances, cellular phones, ATM machines and computers. The human computer interface has been developed to communicate or interact conveniently for one who is suffering from some kind of disabilities. Speech-to-Text Conversion (STT) systems have a lot of benefits for the deaf or dumb people and find their applications in our daily lives. In the same way, the aim of the system is to convert the input speech signals into the text output for the deaf or dumb students in the educational fields. This paper presents an approach to extract features by using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) from the speech signals of isolated spoken words. And, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) method is applied to train and test the audio files to get the recognized spoken word. The speech database is created by using MATLAB.Then, the original speech signals are preprocessed and these speech samples are extracted to the feature vectors which are used as the observation sequences of the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) recognizer. The feature vectors are analyzed in the HMM depending on the number of states.

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349-352  



Win Kay Khaing, Zaw Min Naing, Su Su Yi Mon, Aung Soe Khaing, Hla Myo Tun, Sao Hone Pha

Abstract: GPS is playing in very important role in our modern mobile societies. Software approach is very flexible rather than the traditional hardware receivers. The soft-GPS receiver includes two portions: hardware and software. In hardware portion, an antenna, filter, down-converter from RF (Radio Frequency) to IF (Intermediate Frequency), and an ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) are included. In software portion, signal processing such as acquisition, tracking and navigation that runs on general purpose processor is included. The GPS signal is taken from N-FUELS (Full Educational Library of Signals for Navigation) signal simulator. The heart of soft-GPS receiver is the synchronization processes such as acquisition and tracking. In tracking, there are two main loops for code and carrier tracking. The objective of this paper is to analyse and find the optimum discriminator function for the code tracking loop in soft-GPS receivers. The delay lock loop (DLL) is a well-known technique to track the codes for GNSS spread spectrum systems. This paper also presents non-coherent square law DLLs and the impacts of some parameters on DLL discriminators such as number of samples per chip, early-late spacing, different C/ No values where C denotes the signal power and No is the noise spectral density, and the impact of with or without front-end device. The results of discriminator outputs are illustrated by using S-curves. Testing results with the real GPS signal are also described. This optimized discriminator functions can be implemented in any soft-GPS receivers.

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353-359  



Susila Sumartiningsih

ABSTRACT: The learning model is one of the enabling factors that influence the achievement of students. That students have a good learning outcomes, the lecturer must choose appropriate learning models. But in fact not all lecturers choose the most appropriate learning model with the demands of learning outcomes and student characteristics.The study design was descriptive quantitative correlation. Total population of 785, the number of samples are 202 were taken by purposive sampling. Techniques of data collection is done by cross-sectional, and then processed through the Spearman test. The results showed no significant relationship between classroom lecture method in the context of blended learning models to study the effectiveness perspective, the p value of 0.001. There is a significant relationship between e-learning methods in the context of blended learning models with perspective of activities study of nursing students, the p value of 0.028. There is a significant relationship between learning model of blended learning with the perspective of nursing students' learning effectiveness, p value 0.167. Researchers recommend to future researchers conduct more research on the comparison between the effectiveness of the learning model based on student learning centers with the e-learning models and its impact on student achievement of learning competencies, as well as to the implications for other dimensions of learning outcomes and others.

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360-363  



Hsu Myat Thwe, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: Nowadays, remote patient health monitoring using wireless technology plays very vigorous role in a society. Wireless technology helps monitoring of physiological parameters like body temperature, heart rate, respiration, blood pressure and ECG. The main aim of this paper is to propose a wireless sensor network system in which both heart rate and body temperature ofmultiplepatients can monitor on PC at the same time via RF network. The proposed prototype system includes two sensor nodes and receiver node (base station). The sensor nodes are able to transmit data to receiver using wireless nRF transceiver module.The nRF transceiver module is used to transfer the data from microcontroller to PC and a graphical user interface (GUI) is developed to display the measured data and save to database. This system can provide very cheaper, easier, and quick respondent history of patient.

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364-368  



ThandarOo, HlaMyo Tun

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to provide a more efficient and effective communication method between teacher and student with the use of heterogeneous network. Moreover, the effective use of heterogeneous network can be emphasized. The system of e-education can develop utilizing wireless network.The e-Education system can help students to communicate with their teacher more easily and effectively using a heterogeneous wireless network system. In this wireless network system, students, who are blind or dumb, will also be able to communicate and learn from the teacher as normal students can do. All the devices or laptops will be connected on wireless LAN. Even when the teacher is not around, he will be able to help his students with their study or give instructions easily by using the mobile phone to send text or voice signal. When the teacher sends information to the dumb student, it will be converted into sign language for the student to be able to understand. When the dumb student sends the information to the teacher, it will be converted into text for the teacher to understand. For the blind student, text instructions from the teacher will be converted into audio signal using text-to-speech conversion.Thus, the performance of heterogeneous wireless network model can evaluate by using Robust Optimization Method. Therefore, the e-Education system’s performance improves by evaluating Robust Optimization Method.

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369-373  



Ein Gyin Pwint, Su Su Yi Mon, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: Acoustic echo cancellation is a common occurrence in today’s telecommunication systems. The signal interference caused by acoustic echo is distracting to users and causes a reduction in the quality of the communication. This paper is implementing the overall system of acoustic echo cancellation system using LMS and NLMS algorithms for adaptive filter, normalized cross correlation (NCC) algorithm double talk detector. The result of echo return loss enhancement (ERLE) and mean squared error (MSE) which show that how much the amount of echo signal cancelled and the amount of residual error signal for cancelling acoustic echo cancellation on a PC with the help of the MATLAB software.

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374-380  



Sandar Myint, Zaw Myo Lwin, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: In this study, we present a performance analysis of single-pumped and dual- pumped parametric optical amplifier and present the analysis of gain flatness in dual- pumped Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier (FOPA) based on four-wave mixing (FWM). Result shows that changing the signal power and pump power give the various gains in FOPA. It is also found out that the parametric gain increase with increase in pump power and decrease in signal power. .Moreover, in this paper, the phase matching condition in FWM plays a vital role in predicting the gain profile of the FOPAbecause the parametric gain is maximum when the total phase mismatch is zero.In this paper, single-pumped parametric amplification over a 50nm gain bandwidth is demonstrated using 500 nm highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) and signal achieves about 31dB gain. For dual-pumped parametric amplification, signal achieves 26.5dB gains over a 50nm gain bandwidth. Therefore, dual-pumped parametric amplifier can provide relatively flat gain over a much wider bandwidth than the single-pumped FOPA.

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381-386  



Mita Kosode, Suresh Gawande

Abstract: In this paper we are using the existing passcode based approach of hiding classified information in images with addition of the Galois field theory,which is advancing the security level to make this combination method extremely difficult to intercept and useful for open channel communication while maintaining the losses and high speed transmission.

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387-392  



Thwe Zin Phyo, Aung Soe Khaing, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: This paper describes area classification for Landsat7 satellite image. The main purpose of this system is to classify the area of each cluster contained in a satellite image. To classify this image, firstly need to clusterthe satellite image into different land cover types. Clustering is an unsupervised learning method that aimsto classify an image into homogeneous regions. This system is implemented based on color features with K-means clustering unsupervised algorithm. This method does not need to train image before clustering.The clusters of satellite image are grouped into a set of three clusters for Landsat7 satellite image. For this work, the combined band 432 from Landsat7 satellite is used as an input. Satellite image(Mandalay area in 2001) is chosen to test the segmentation method. After clustering, a specific range for three clustered images must be defined in order to obtain greenland, water and urban+balance.This system is implemented by using MATLAB programming language.

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393-397  



Yi-Jen Mon

Abstract: The gyroscope has ability to get accurate data of motions for space of three dimensions such as axes of x, y and z. Its applications are covered very widely such as in mobile phone, consumer electronics, etc. due to the robust sense abilities of direction and motion. In this paper, it is used to get data from motion and these data are shown in window and LCD screen. The experiment results show that it has good performance.

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398-400  



Ye Lwin Oo, Su Su Yi Mon, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: With the increasing demand of higher data rate for telecommunication, the IEEE802.11n standard was constituted in 2009. The most important character of the standard is MIMO-OFDM, which not only improves the throughput but also the spectrum efficiency and channel capacity. And in wireless communication, the role of MIMO detectors plays an important part to remove inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by multipath fading channel. In this paper the BER performance of IEEE 802.11n for 3x2, 4x2 and 4x3 antennas are compared using MMSE and ZF detectors in Matlab Simulink.

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401-404  



Frimpong, J. O., Amoako, E. E., Nkoom, M.

ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of the Ke-enya stream which is relied on by the inhabitants of Babato-kuma and its surrounding villages for their domestic and Agricultural activities. A total of twenty eight (28) water samples were collected at upstream, midstream and downstream from November 2012 to January 2013 for analysis. Most of the physicochemical parameters were within WHO guidelines recommended for potable water with the exception of Turbidity and Colour which exceeded the WHO standard of 5 (NTU) and 15 (Hz) respectively. Colour ranged from 100 to 130 (Hz) with a mean of 117±9.45 (Hz), whiles Turbidity ranged from 9 to 36 NTU with a mean of 20.78±10.5 NTU. However, Total Coliform (420-1188 CFU/100ml, 757±261), Faecal Coliform (140-623 CFU/100ml, 305±145) E.coli (46-391 CFU/100ml, 135±102) and Total Heterotrophic bacteria (444-3129 CFU/ml, 1341±778) were higher than WHO standards. Bacterial contamination could be traced to settlements along the stream, livestock production, poor or non-existence sewage system coupled with poor sanitary conditions among others. Alternative sources of water supplies in the form of hand-dug wells or boreholes if possible by the Municipal assembly, NGOs and other philanthropies to the inhabitants whose traditional sources of drinking water is directly from this stream will be beneficial in reducing the health implications associated with this pollution.

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405-411  



Nang Su Moan Hsam, Myo Maung Maung, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: Drilling machine is used for boring holes in various materials and used in woodworking, metalworking, construction and do-it-yourself projects. When the machine operate for a long time, the temperature increases and so we need to control the temperature of the machine and some lubrication system need to apply to reduce the temperature. Due to the improvement of technology, the system can be controlled with wireless network. This control system use Window Communication Foundation (WCF) which is the latest service oriented technology to control all drilling machines in industries simultaneously. All drilling machines are start working when they received command from server. After the machine is running for a long time, the temperature is gradually increased. This system used LM35 temperature sensor to measure the temperature. When the temperature is over the safely level that is programmed in host server, the controller at the server will command to control the speed of motor and applying some lubrication system at the tip and edges of drill. The command from the server is received by the client and sends to PIC. In this control system, PIC microcontroller is used as an interface between the client computer and the machine. The speed of motor is controlled with PWM and water pump system is used for lubrication. This control system is designed and simulated with 12V DC motor, LM35 sensor, LCD displayand relay which is to open the water container to spray water between drill and work piece. The host server choosing to control the drilling machine that are overheat by selecting the client’s IP address that is connected with that machine.

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412-416  



S. Azizu, S.B. Twum

Abstract: In this paper, assessment of acceleration schemes in the solution of systems of linear equations has been studied. The iterative methods: Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR methods were incorporated into the acceleration scheme (Chebyshev extrapolation, Residual smoothing, Accelerated gradient and Richardson Extrapolation) to speed up their convergence. The Conjugate gradient methods of GMRES, BICGSTAB and QMR were also assessed. The research focused on Banded systems, Tridiagonal systems and Dense Symmetric positive definite systems of linear equations for numerical experiments. The experiments were based on the following performance criteria: convergence, number of iterations, speed of convergence and relative residual of each method. Matlab version 7.0.1 was used for the computation of the resulting algorithms. Assessment of the numerical results showed that the accelerated schemes improved the performance of Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR methods. The Chebyshev and Richardson acceleration methods converged faster than the conjugate gradient methods of GMRES, MINRES, QMR and BICGSTAB in general.

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417-424  



EiThuzarKhin, Chaw Myat New and Hla Myo Tun Department of Electronic Engineering, Mandalay Technological University, Mandalay

Abstract: Globally, many vehicle types operate on the highway system. And highway infrastructure stakeholders have developed a number of products intended to facilitate the identification of critical assets and provide guidance for conductiong security planning. Many of these productsare conducted as joint efforts between the state highway agencies.The main aim of the system is to have a network between Roadside Unit ( RSU ) and On-Board Unit ( OBU ) and between On-Board Unit ( OBU ) and another On-Board Unit ( OBU ). ZigBee is a consortium of software, hardware and services companies having improved a common standard for wireless networking of sensors and microcontrollers.Bluetooth is a technology of wireless standard for exchanging data for short distances. In this article, we point out sending data to the drivers via not only ZigBee module but also Bluetooth module.

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425-429  



RoyaRoustaee, MasoumehPourrajab, Sara Kasmaienezhadfard, BaharakTaleblo

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between collaborative learning activities and demographic variables such as gender, ethnicity and the highest qualification. In order to reach the aim of this study, the researchers conducted a survey research and data were collected from437 teachers of the State of Selangor, Malaysia. The findings indicated that there is a strong correlation between collaborative learning activities with gender and ethnicity; however, there was no significant correlation between collaborative learning activities with the highest qualification of teachers. This study provides beneficial points for teachers and principals that are presented in the study.

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430-434  



Lumayo Mildred Fedha, Peter Oino Gutwa, Caroline K. Gatobu

Abstract: While most regions in the world have been experiencing an increase in rural-urban migration, some have experienced excessive rates. As men’s rural-urban migration occurs, one of the sectors that is mostly affected is the family institution, where women take up the role of decision making in the household in their absence. This study is an outcome of the study conducted on the impact of rural-urban migration on household decision making in Soy sub-county. The study found that men’s absence in the household affects different aspects within the family context. Men’s rural-urban migration has led to an increase in the number of women-headed households in the rural areas. Women who are left in charge of households are expected to continue to perform their traditional roles, at the same time taking on men’s responsibilities within the household. However, culture dictates that they consult men even when they are away. From a socio-cultural context, men’s prolonged absence has many implications on the family and community life and greatly affects institutions such as health, education and agriculture. Therefore, the presence of men is crucial to household security, decision-making and mobility. The study recommends that as much as men are away from home, women should be empowered to make household decisions for smooth running of household undertakings.

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434-439  




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CURRENT PUBLICATIONS
ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - December 2016 - Volume 5 Issue 12