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IJSTR Volume 6 - Issue 6, June 2017 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Tonye K. Jack, Emmanuel N. Nyeche

To appreciate ‘clean’ energy applications of the dual-fuel internal combustion engine (D-FICE) with pilot Diesel fuel, to aid public policy formulation in terms of present and future benefits to the modern transportation, stationary power, and promotion of oil and gas “green- drilling”, the brief to an engine research team was to investigate the feasible advantages of dual-fuel compression-ignition engines, guided by the following concerns: (i) Sustainable fuel and engine power delivery? (ii) The requirements for fuel flexibility? (iii) Low exhausts emissions and environmental pollution? (iv) Achieving low specific fuel consumption and economy, for maximum power? (v) The comparative advantages over the conventional Diesel engines? (vi) Thermo-economic modeling and analysis for the optimal blend as basis for a benefit/cost evaluation? Planned in two stages for reduced cost and fast turnaround of results - initial preliminary stage with basic simple models, and advanced stage with more detailed, complex modeling. The paper describes a simplified MATLAB based computational experiment predictive model for the thermodynamic, combustion and engine performance analysis of dual-fuel compression-ignition engine studies operating on the theoretical limited-pressure cycle with several alternative fuel-blends. Environmental implications for extreme temperature moderation are considered by finite-time thermodynamic modeling for maximum power, with predictions for pollutants’ formation and control by reaction rates kinetics analysis of systematic reduced plausible coupled chemistry models through the NCN reaction pathway for the gas-phase reactions classes of interest. Controllable variables for engine-out pollutants emissions reduction and in particular NOx elimination are identified. Verifications and Validations (V&V) through Performance Comparisons were made using a clinical approach in selection of Stroke/Bore ratios greater-than and equal-to one (≥1), low-to-high engine speeds, and medium to high power requirements from data of existing dual-fuel engines and convertible real diesel engines applied in different industry sectors. The results obtained show that dual-fuel engines operating on limited-pressure cycle have economical and environmental advantages in terms of engine efficiency, and fuel consumption; with the engine emissions results showing promise of operating within the desired United Nations’ guide for slow climate change, with reduced carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Habibu U. Abdu, Yayo A. Manu, Yusuf Y. Deeni

This study was carried out to assess the level of susceptibility or resistance of sibling species of Anopheles gambiae complex from Auyo in Jigawa state between 2013 and 2014 to three classes of insecticides approved by World Health Organization (WHO) for vector control. A. gambiae larvae collected from ecologically contrasting breeding sites were reared to adults in the laboratory. Adults from the F1 progeny were assayed for resistance using the WHO adult insecticide susceptibility bioassay protocol. The mosquitoes were exposed to DDT, Permethrin and Bendiocarb belonging to 3 classes of insecticides approved by WHOPES for malaria vector control. The individual sibling species were identified molecularly and the molecular resistance mechanisms characterized by SINE and kdr PCR methods respectively. The An. gambiae populations tested were highly resistant to DDT and permethrin insecticides but less resistant to bendiocarb. Analysis of the genetic composition of the vector population revealed preponderance of An. coluzzii (> 77%). L1014F and L1014S kdr mutations correlated to insecticide resistance phenotype expression. This study indicates differential distribution of the resistant genotype of Anopheles malaria vector between ecologically different habitats in the area. The information could be useful in decision and planning making for vector control programs in the region.

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47-54  



Fahad Faisal

This paper is focused to analyze the proposed methods for in-situ measurements of electromagnetic fields transmitted by LTE base stations. One of the methods is based on measurements of physical broadcast channel (PBCH) using basic spectrum analyzer, whereas the other method is based on measurements of the reference signal (RS) using a decoder. Both alternatives are proposed to be used for extrapolation to the maximum electromagnetic field exposure level at full base station traffic load. The analysis is conducted with respect to instrument requirements, accuracy and time requirements. Different instrument settings of the spectrum analyzer and their impact on the measurement results is analyzed and discussed. Measurements using the spectrum analyzer method overestimate the electric field strength compared with the LTE decoder method in  70 % of all measurement cases in this work. All spectrum analyzer based measurements conducted in the main beam of an antenna at distances of less than 100 m were within ± 20% compared with the decoder results. Measurement results obtained in a reflective environment show that both methods are affected by fading, but significant deviations between the two methods indicate that the spectrum analyzer method is more sensitive to frequency selective fading.

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55-60  



Gladys Iseu, Waweru Mwangi, Dr. Michael Kimwele

Healthcare industry generates large amounts of complex data about patients, hospital resources, disease management, electronic patient records, and medical devices among others. The availability of these huge amounts of medical data creates a need for powerful mining tools to support health care professionals in diagnosis, treatment and management of HIV/AIDS. Several data mining techniques have been used in management of different data sets. Data mining techniques have been categorized into regression algorithms, segmentation algorithms, association algorithms, sequence analysis algorithms and classification algorithms. In the medical field, there has not been a specific study that has incorporated two or more data mining algorithms hence limiting decision making levels by medical practitioners. This study identified the extent to which K-means algorithm cluster patient characteristics; it has also evaluated the extent to which random forest algorithm can classify the data for informed decision making as well as design a framework to support medical decision making in the treatment of HIV/AIDS related diseases in Kenya. The paper further used random forest classification algorithm to compute proximities between pairs of cases that can be used in clustering, locating outliers or (by scaling) to give interesting views of the data.

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61-68  



Damla Vural Cavusoglu, Yusuf Yılmaz, Koray Melih Yatagan

The railway transportation network which is become quite important in the recent times, in our country and in the world, is forced to make new investments by developing technology. Old trains give place to high-speed trains, in consequence of the railway catenary lines and the rail systems enter into a mass renovation study. During the renovation studies, it is needed the catenary maintenance vehicles which are responded the need fast, with wide working area. Until this time, while it is continuing the needs of these maintenance vehicles which are gained by import for our country, sizeable amount of currency is exported. Thanks to this research, in our country it is manufactured the catenary maintenance vehicle for the first time; and while the national capital is lying within the national borders, it is thought that it will be shaped a new work portfolio.

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Barkat Ul-ain, Saadia Aftab, Asima Siddiqa, Safeer Ahmed, Sara Qaisar

Conservation of energy is the biggest need of the hour for developing countries. Smart windows with electrochromic characteristics can be one of the solutions for power shortfall. In this study ionic liquid [BMIM][Br] is successfully synthesized by the reflux method. Ionogels comprising of ionic liquid and polymers (Polyaniline and Polypyrrol) were electrochemically deposited by galvanostatic methods. These films are structurally characterized by XRD and SEM. Concentration of monomer and ionic liquid was changed in order to study the effect on electrochemical and electrochromic properties. The electrochromic character was analyzed by optical studies and colour change was evident at different potentials. To further investigate the electron transport properties, electrical conductivity studies were carried out. In a nutshell different parameters are studied with respect to concentration and temperature, so that best material could be obtained showing high optical contrast and stability. Taking these studies in account an effective electrochromic device can be fabricated.

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72-80  



Rajanna.M, C Kempanna, Y.D Pallavi

The Dairy starter culture is referred to carefully selection of desirable microorganisms. Those are intentionally added to milk during conversion into cheese, dahi, yoghurt, and other fermented dairy products to bring about specific changes in the appearance, body and texture, flavor and desired organoleptic characteristics of the final product. The quality of milk itself has an important bearing on the growth of starter organisms. The mastitis milk has abnormal in composition and such milk with high salt concentration does not support the growth of starter culture that leads to production of poor quality of fermented dairy products with week body.. The presence of certain neutralizing substances performed in milk has found to interfere with growth of starters. There was a definite lag in the growth of the starter organisms as well as acid development when neutralizers were added to raw milk samples. This may be due to the bacteriostatic effect of added neutralizers. But discrepancy was seen to the greatest extent in the case of neutralized, mastitis and highly advanced lactation milks and to a lesser degree on the early lactation milk obtained on the 4th and 5th days.

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81-83  



U. Abdullah Mu'min

The purpose of this study is to measure the level of the effect of Islamic Education learning and learning result on religious behaviour in STISIP Widyapuri Mandiri Sukabumi. The method used in this research is quantitative analysis based on inferential statistical model. The data collection is done by using observation techniques, interviews, and questionnaires. The researcher analize the data by using logic analysis for qualitative and statistical analysis for quantitative data by using descriptive statistics, regression, and correlation. Based on the hypothesis test, simultaneously PAI learning and learning result have a positive and significant effect on student’s religious behaviour. Partially, only PAI learning alone has a positive and significant impact on religious behavior.

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Sutter Paul Chebet, Joram Kareithi, Jamin R. M. Masinde

One in six children aged 5 to 14 years old which is about 16 percent of all children in this age group is involved in child labor in developing countries. In the least developed countries, 30 percent of all children are engaged in child labor. In Kenya, the Central Bureau of Statistics reports that 1.9 million children aged 5-17 years are working for pay or family gain. In recognition of the adverse effects of child labour and abuse, international and national efforts have been made to control it. Nevertheless child labour persists as several surveys conducted in Kenya indicate. This paper therefore sought to understand the emerging trends and challenges facing the girl child in urban domestic service in Eldoret town. The paper adopted exploratory research design for an in-depth and holistic understanding of the child labour dynamics. A sample of 253 girls working in the domestic service was used. Purposive as well as convenience sampling were utilized for selecting study participants. Data for the study was collected using un-structured questionnaire, in-depth interviews and observation techniques. A qualitative method was used to analyze data through thematic approach. The paper found that apart from friends, relatives and self being responsible for girl-child entry into domestic child labour, bureaus have been established as an emerging trend where employers get children to work for them. In addition, too much work, misunderstanding between employer and employees; very little pay; delayed payment; working for long hours; and verbal, physical and sexual violence were the major problems and hardships that girl-child workers go through while providing domestic services to their bosses. The study recommends the need for provision of economic opportunities to young girls; promotion of girl child education and sensitisation of parents and guardians on the risks of child labour in domestic service.

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Nikhil R. Pawar, Suman S. Jain, Smitha R. God

The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to get hold of fresh water for various purposes. In areas where a substantial amount of fog can be obtained, it is feasible to set up a stainless steel as well as black double layer plastic mesh structure for fog water harvesting. The mesh structure is directly exposed to the weather and the fog containing air is pushed through the active mesh surface by the wind. Afterward fog droplets are deposited on the active mesh area which combines to form superior droplets and run down into a gutter to storage by gravity. Fog water harvesting rates show a discrepancy from site to site. The scope of this experimental work is to review fog collection at SCOE, Pune campus and to examine factors of success. This study is to synthesize the understanding of fog water harvesting in the institutional era and to analyze its benefits and boundaries for future development. The rate of fog water harvesting depends on the science of fog physics, chemistry and its starring role in the hydrological cycle. This technology runs on zero energy and zeroes pollution level with cost of the benefit. The collected or treated clear water mainly could be used for different purposes as per requirement. For further development, this technology public as well as government participation is needed.

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Tabe James Takor

This article attempts to analyze the changing attributes and role of the Traditional Institution within the framework of new political dispensation in Cameroon since 1990. The Institution came under immense pressure from politicians. The advent of multiparty politics placed the chiefs who were at the apex of the institution in the difficult position: whether they should be partisan, non partisan or stay neutral in an election, the image and importance of the institution as the epitome of the customs and tradition of the people was undermined. The study made use of secondary and primary sources for the collection of data. Concerning the secondary sources, use was made of an extensive literature that offered some general and specific information about the study. After critical analyses of archival data and interviews, tangible evidence emerged as to the fact that Manyu inhabitants at the time be they indigenes or non-indigenes were affected either positively or negatively by the involvement of Manyu chiefs in party politics. To ensure an easy understanding of the study, we adopted a conventional analytical pattern. We used both the chronological and topical approaches. These approaches aimed at chronologically illustrating the evolution of chiefs’ involvement in politics and thematically examining the changes that the division noticed during the period under study. Our findings reveal two central issues: Firstly; the fundamental human rights of subjects was tempered with. Secondly, they lost respect before their subjects, given that some of their subjects doubted their legitimacy as divine rulers or true leaders. This article also argues that despite this, the institution still remains a very important instrument in local governance and nation building in Cameroon. The article ends with a perspective view for a better interplay between traditional institution and the state for the benefit of the division’s development.

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Mas'an Hamid

The Qur'an is a Muslim holy book using Arabic with the dialect of the Quraish tribe. Textually, the composition or sequence in verses of the Qur'an contains musicality which when combined with the musicality of poetry or Arabic syi'ir (rhyme), both have suitability, especially in conformity with 5 (five) elements of poetry, namely: Sentence, Rhythm, Poems, Imagination, and Deliberate. The opinion of the scholars and the Arabic experts on the existence of poetic aspects in the language of the Qur'an has occurred in contradictory form, some agree and some are not. For those who agree, thought one form of the beauty of the Qur'anic language is a match between the musicality contained in the composition of the verses of the Qur'an with the musicals of the traditional Arab syi'ir (syi'ir multazam), especially in terms of rhythm And his poem. Meanwhile, for the scholars who refuse, they argue, the Qur'an is a divine word, while the syi'ir and the poems are human words, all types or genres of literature are the creation of shamans, imaginers, and fanciers.

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Mohammed A. SirElkhatim, Naomie Salim

Islamic banking system has been expanding so quickly over the past few years. Moreover, it has been developing significantly around the non-Muslim territories including Middle Eastern countries, Southeast Asian countries, and European countries and even in North American countries. The existing of Islamic banks is to attract the customers who seek to avoid interest. The prediction of corporate bankruptcies is an Important and widely studied topic since it can have significant impact on bank lending decisions and profitability, the ultimate purpose of credit risk management is to ensure that credit fund is of safety, profitability and fluidity. At present, it is extremely important of commercial banks to set up an early bank risk warning system.

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Aimee Lynne Pilapil, Normilando Luscano, Raizel Marie Luciano, Jeffrey Lumbres, Patricia Jin Maclan, Ivy Marie Managuelod, Erin Keshia Manlutac, Paolo Luis Paredes, Joana Punongbayan, Lailanie Jane Santiago, Pauline Dominique Sevilla, Beverly Joanne Tusca

Alcoholic abuse remains to be the most common cause of liver cirrhosis with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Herbal supplements are being used to prevent damage in excessive alcohol intake and including hepatitis from other causes as hepatoprotective agents. Fig tree is currently being utilized in studies as a potential candidate for hepatoprotection but with limited success. This study determined the hepatoprotective effect of crude aqueous leaf extract of fig tree, Ficus benjamina, on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. In this study, fifteen Balb/c mice were assigned to negative control, positive control and treatment groups which received distilled water, Silymarin, and F. benjamina crude aqueous leaf extract respectively on day 0 to day 14. Ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity was done on day 7 to day 14 using ethanol given by oral gavage. Assessment of liver function and histology was done with the use of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) assay and histopathological study respectively. Results showed significant reduction of ALT levels in the treatment (52.40 U/L) and the positive control groups (42.58 U/L) as compared with the negative control group with a mean of 196.88 U/L (P<0.05). The difference between the positive and treatment groups was not significant (P>0.05). The degree of hepatic injury was significantly severe in the negative control group than with the treatment and positive control groups (P<0.05). On the other hand, the degree of hepatic injury showed no significant difference between the positive and treatment groups (P>0.05). Thus, the crude aqueous leaf extract of F. benjamina has hepatoprotective property on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, similar to Silymarin. F. benjamina, as an ornamental plant, may be a source of phytochemical with potential pharmaceutical and functional activities.

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Saiful Deni

This paper is a review of the social conflicts of indigenous peoples, especially in North Maluku. The purpose of this review is to find out some factors causing indigenous peoples' social conflicts in North Maluku and to produce alternative solutions as a policy to develop indigenous people's livelihoods. The review resulted in several factors causing social conflicts of indigenous peoples such as; the unclear boundary between the two parties, the customary violations by the forest businessmen, the injustice of the law enforcement officers in solving the problems, the destruction of the indigenous people and the forest community narrow forest, the lack positive contribution of forest management so far to indigenous peoples and forest communities, companies do not involve indigenous peoples and/or forest communities in forest exploitation, destruction of customary buildings as places of worship, deforestation, timber exploitation, while timber by indigenous peoples is sacred wood or abstinence to be felled. Alternative solutions are required by local government such as; policy on legal recognition of indigenous peoples, indigenous peoples' empowerment, implementation of indigenous peoples' aspirations, indigenous peoples' economic development based on local wisdom, and dispute resolution of indigenous peoples through special courts of a holistic nature.

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122-125  



Djayus, Sigit Hardwinarto, Lambang Subagiyo, Sumaryono

Land cover is a biophysical cover that maintains land conditions in water balance. The purpose of this research is to know the condition of land cover, water catchment, groundwater aquifer and correlation. This research begins by collecting data on land cover, soil type, rainfall, slopes and groundwaterinformation. Field activities include observation and data collection of land cover, geological conditions, community wells and geoelectric sounding. Land cover data is classified according to circumstances and conditions. Geoelectric sounding data was analyzed with IP2WIN software, interpretation of lithologic variation of rocks and depth based on resistivity value. Plot the position of each lithology sounding with Surfer software obtained kontour rock field boundary and 3D model of the aquifer position.The results showed that the land cover consisted of vegetated areas: forests 272,21 Ha (40,32%) and agricultural land 183,36 Ha (27,16%) non-vegetation area: 98,80 Ha (14,64%) constructed land, , Open land 116.33 Ha (17.23%) and water body 4.35 Ha (0.64%) The condition of land cover in this water catchment area has decreased 68,38 Ha (10,14%) from the previous condition 340,59 Ha (50,46%) to 272,21 Ha (40,32%). Referring to Permenhut RI No. 32 in 2009, total score catchment area 33, including the somewhat critical condition. Groundwater aquifers based on 3D sounding geolistrik modeling consist of a free aquifer for shallow groundwater depth of water level between (2-30) m with thickness ± (2-65) m and a distorted aquifer for groundwaterin depth of water between 75-150 m With thickness ± (75-125) m, depth of community well ± (10-45) m. The transfer of land into open pit mines resulted in the destruction of the balance and water system, the decreasing / decreasing the discharge of the well water of the community drill, the failure and the lack of new water discharge of the new wells, the loss of groundwaterin several dug wells, landslides and mud floods on the farmland

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126-128  



Lariman

Lake area in Mahakam river basin, which covers 89 719 ha had not only the fuction as a direct life support, but also has a variety of ecological functions such as flood control, prevention of erosion, pollution, and biodiversity of fish control. Lake area will also be difficult to rectify the condition if contaminated, and it took years for recovery. When present, the lake area in Mahakam river basin has experienced degradation bad neighborhood. There are variousefforts made by the Central Government, East Kalimantan province, regency. Kukar and West Kutai regency in the management of thelake, but its still a partial / sector that is less well targeted and unsustainable, due to lack of understanding of weak challenge of integrated lake management strategies. For the purposes of asynergistic co-management and sustainable these weaknessesshould be eliminated, and replaced by management based onmutual understanding, respect, and cooperate with the roadmapagreed upon, namely collaborative management plan. Collaborative management of the lake region requires a long process and the involvement of all stakeholders. Therefore,mapping the area of the lake, the preparation of the managementdirection of the lake, the lake area of spatial development,increased understanding and participation of all stakeholders should continue to be pursued.

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129-133  



J. A. Noudem, M. G. Nguemtchouin Mbouga, K. G. Kaptso, M. Khalfaoui, G. B. Noumi

The adsorbent power of montmorillonite clay treated with saponins extracted from kernels of Balanites aegyptiaca was evaluated using the terpenes compounds content in the essential oil of Ocimun gratissimun. The properties of formulations based on O. gratissimum essential oil and montmorillonite clay were modified after treatment of clay with saponins. Sabinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, α-gurjunene, neo-allo-ocimene, β-caryophyllene, sabinol and β-pinene terpenic compounds contained in essential oil were chosen to follow their adsorption. The kinetics adsorption of essential oil from a solution onto the adsorbents (treated clay and untreated clay) was explored experimentally. Non-linear form of pseudo-second-order model showed a better fit with good correlation coefficient. Intraparticle diffusion model were also used. Non-linear form of Langmuir isotherm model was applied and the data correlated well and the maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 1.07 mol.g-1 with regards to sabinol. Adsorption capacity of montmorillonite clay treated with saponins is greater than that of the untreated clay. The most adsorbed compounds are the oxygenated terpenic compounds. Treatment of clay with saponins increases the persistence of the insecticidal activity of essential oil adsorbed on montmorillonite clay. The mortality of Callosobruchus subinnotatus decreased from 96% to 70% and from 96% to 13.12% for O. gratissimun essential oil adsorbed on saponins-clay and O. gratissimun adsorbed on untreated clay after 42 days respectively. These results can be used in the production of bioinsecticides.

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Reham ElMorally

In the following paper I wish to investigate the status of women and their socio-economic conditions during the second civil war. As it was common during that period of time, the war was transferred to the womb of women, and sectarian conflicts during that time and even later usually involved “mudding” the blood of future generations of one sect. Therefore, I wish to examine whether this was the case in Lebanon. In order to do so, I will divide my paper into five sections. The first section of the paper will discuss the socio-economic background of the working class families of different sects in Lebanon. The second section of the paper will investigate the other means that were used during the war to weaken the Other, i.e. the focus will be directed at unarmed forms of violence. The third part of the paper will discuss the effects of the war, and more specifically it will focus on how women perceived, experienced, and the extent to which they were affected by the war. The fourth section will attempt to draw a comparative analysis in which the situation of women in Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, have been affected similarly during different conflicts at different locations and periods. The last part of the paper will attempt to draw some conclusions about the eruption of the war and whether its consequences still cause distress to Lebanese women today.

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Yeremia Yohana Masifia, Sarone Ole Sena

The importance of proper Water Resource Management with greater emphasis on ensuring sustainability, quality, accountability and community participation has become imminent as water resources increasingly become scarce (Harvey et al, 2007). Water resources management in Tanzania is governed under the National Water Policy of 2002 and Water Resources Management Act No.11 of year 2009. Other related legislations include Environmental Management Act No. 20 of year 2004, Forest Policy and Forest Act No. 14 of year 2002 and Water Supply Act No.12 of year 2009 among others. However the mechanisms, processes, and institutions through which all stakeholders articulate their priorities, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences is still missing. This study employed descriptive exploratory research design. Data collection was done by the use of both structured and semi structured interview to respondents who were both purpose and simple randomly selected, observation and focus group discussion. Review of reports from Districts and Basin offices and internet to access relevant secondary information was done. Results show that WUAs, LGAs and WSSAs lack relevant understanding, capacities, management and law enforcement as result water management generally remains non participatory, inefficient and expensive and increased water user conflicts in Kisangata and Ilonga WUAs of Mkondoa sub catchment, Morogoro region. The study propose participatory approaches best practices on water resource management at local level for embracement of Community- Based Water Resource Management as the only option of managing sub catchment water resources and reduce water related conflicts among water users. Awareness creation on policy and establishment of alternative economic activities like horticulture, bee keeping and poultry is significant to give relief to land.

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148-172  



Nur Kusuma Dewi

The study aimed to determine the effect of heavy metal pollution on 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-diethylase (EROD) enzyme activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The samples were taken by purposive random sampling technique. The treatment site was the downstream part of the Kaligarang River, Semarang, Indonesia, which contaminated byheavy metals (concentration of Cd 0.007 ppm, Pb 0.010 ppm, and Hg 0.0006 ppm). A clean reference site in Nyatnyono Village, Ungaran was used as the control site with the heavy metal content of 0 ppm. The EROD activities in carp and tilapia were significantly decreased after Cd, Pb, and Hg exposure. The results showed that the average value of liver EROD activity in carp fish control group amounted to 1.77 ± 0.23µmol/min/mg protein and the treatment group was 0.49 ± 0.24µmol/min/mg protein. Whereas in control group of tilapia fish, EROD activity was equal to 2.08 ± 0.47µmol/min/mg protein and the treatment group was 0.49 ± 0.40µmol/min/mg protein. The results demonstrated that metallothionein was a specific heavy metals biomarker, whereas EROD activity ishighly sensitive to extremely low concentrations of theselected pollutants.In conclusion, the use of multiple biomarkers is recommended to monitor the heavy metal pollutants in the river environment.

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Dr. Irwan Ch, S.E., M.M.

This study aimed to analyze the bank rating in terms of differences the financial performance between the Regional Development Banks and Non-Foreign Exchange Commercial Banks. It is consist of capital adequacy, asset quality, profitability, Return On Asset (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) Net Interest Margin (NIM) and Liquidity (Loan to Deposit Ratio). The fulfillment of capital adequacy and asset quality of the bank groups did not differed significantly, while in terms of profitability and liquidity there are significant differences. The earning difference is more likely due to the Regional Development Bank's sources of funds for the implementation of the Local Government Cash Holder function as the Provincial Government and District / City. The difference of liquidity are showed by the performance of Regional Development Banks and the Non-Foreign Exchange Commercial Banks in lending/financing, whereas the two groups of banks on average are still relatively low in lending.

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179-186  



Satria Tirtayasa

The contribution of larges businesses to make the economy growth is very important, likewise the role of Small Business Enterprise (SME’s) where this industry has been believed so strong from the effect of crisis economic in Indonesia. In generaly, SME’s owner are business man/woman that have minimum assets Rp. 500 million where their gathers together to make the cooperative assosiation in one area (SME’s Cluster) . So, in this cooperative assosiation can be expected the SME’s businessman help each others with making colaboration, internal or external networking to enhance their business performance. The internal networking simmilar with marketing strategies for instance strategi Promotion, Distribution, Production, and Raw material supplay, where the objectives are to enchance the SME’s performance. This study intends to examine the relationship between marketing strategies (Promotion, Distribution, Production, Raw material supplay) on SMSEs performance. The marketing strategies consist of our dimentions as follows promotion, distribution, production, and raw material supply. Meanwile, SME’s business performance indicators are market share and profit margin. The sample of research is 70 SME’s businessman where spread of Medan Tembung District, East Medan District, and Medan Perjuangan District. This research had used questionnaires method to collect the data from SME’s businessman. The analysis method had used multiple regression and the result of the research reveals that promotion had positive and significant relationship with SME’s performance.Distribution had positive and significant relationship with SME’s performance, Production has positive and significant relationship with SME’s performance.Raw material supplay had positiveve and significant relationship with SME’s performance. Furthermore, Marketing Strategies (Promotion, Distribution, Production, Raw material supplay simultaneous have significant relationship on SME’s Performances).

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187-191  



Deka Harwinta Zianur, Fanani Sari Putri, Ilham Zuniadi

The title of the research was Frame and Blame: An Analysis of How Local Newspapers Framed the Conflict Between Conventional and Technological Application-Based Transportation Service in Medan. Waspada Daily Newspaper as local newspapers more frequently put a human face on the issue, while national papers more frequently framed it a moral wrong. The objective of the research was to find out how the newspaper constructs the news about this conflict and how it explains the conflict as part of its social responsibility in its news product. The research used qualitative method with paradigm constructivism which considers the subject, Waspada Daily News, as the central factor in the communicative activity and social relationsand as the function of control toward social facts which occur in society (the conflict between motor pedicab drivers and go-jek riders). Framing analysis is a descriptive textual analysis of media used to find out how news is understood and framed by media. The research used Gamson and Modegliani framing model analysis, based on constructivism approach in order to find out the representation of media. The theory of Berger and Luckman Reality Construction was used to explain social reality constructed through the process of externalization, objectivity, and internalization. The result of the research showed that 1) Waspada Daily Newspaper prioritized the conflict because the conflict was the effect of the lack of income of motor pedicab driver, and also because there was no regulation on the transportation/operation of Go-Jek online, 2) Waspada Daily News exposed the conflict in the front page in four days consecutively which indicated that there were attention and seriousness of moral evaluations.

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192-197  



Lusiana Andriani Lubis, Haris Wijaya

Communication strategy on family planning campaign is the interpretation on knowledge, attitude and practice theory (KAP theory) that commonly used in many health campaign programs in developing countries and advance countries in the world. This theory can also be applied for other programs such as agriculture, family planning, commercial, and society capacity building. The aims of this research are to described and analyzed communication strategy on family planning campaign by the field officer for family planning campaign, and also to find out all factors that can be the obstacle on family planning program in Sumatera Utara province, especially in Langkat District. The long term goal of this research is to find out the best method that can be done by the government in order to get people’s support. It can only be achieved if the program are transparant, clearly stated and on the perfect target. The population of the research are the field officer for family planning campaign (10 person) and also the citizen of Langkat District (10 person plus their husband/wife). All informants were being selected by purposive sampling technique. Observation, interview and Focus Group Discussion were also being held in order to get best result. Several results were shown: It showed that the better productive age couples receive information about family planning, the use of contraception (especially using injection and implant methods) among productive age couples is increasing. Biggest problem in Langkat District is that many of the family planning acceptors using short therm contraception method such as pill, condom and injection rather than long term contraception method such as IUD, implant or vasectomy/tubectomy. BKKBN (National Family Planning Coordinating Body) in Langkat District still need to improve many aspects on doing communication strategy on family planning campaign by the field officer for family planning campaign, especially in the low income productive age couples where the birth rate number is still high. Another thing they should do is to raising the number of supply for the contraception products such as pills and IUD.

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198-201  



Putri Kemala Dewi Lubis

The purpose of this research is to know the effectiveness of tax billing using a letter of reprimand in increasing the Acceptance of Income Tax on Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East and also to know the effectiveness of the implementation of the tax Billing with a letter of reprimand on Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East. The type of research is descriptive and the research object is the tax billing using a letter of reprimand on Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East. In this research, it is to measure the effectiveness of tax billing using a letter of reprimand in increasing the acceptance of the tax ratio of the effectiveness of tax billing with a letter of reprimand and the ratio of tax revenue contribution.The test result shows that the tax billing with a letter of reprimand in 2011 and 2014 classified as ineffective and contributed less to the receipt of income tax in Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East.Head of Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East can perform various business both internally and externally to increase the effectiveness and contribution of tax billing in working areas.

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202-209  



Ayush Raj, Aviral Upadhyay, Vikrant Nakhate

Software testing is a wide field which is still a subject of much research. It encompassing several methods and fields related to it include Software defect analysis and fault prediction. Software fault prediction is the process of developing models that can be used by the software practitioners in the early phases of software development life cycle for detecting faulty constructs such as modules or classes. There are various machine learning techniques used in the past for predicting fault, testing software and analysis of defects. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive discussion on the recent trends in these fields and the application of Soft Computing concepts in the for testing and fault detection.

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210-215  



Farbod Souri

The purpose of this study, is performing an empirical study in the field of marketing in order to investigate the effect of internal stimulus on posthaste buying behavior of the chain store customers.In this model, the effect of internal stimulus on posthaste buying behavior is investigated. To review research sample of 385 customers was selected as a stepwise clustering. Data gathered by standard questionnaire with 21 questions that its validity and reliability was confirmed and distributed among the statistical population. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. At the level of Descriptive statistics, indices such as frequency and frequency percentage were used and in inferential statistics, correlation methods, structural equation modeling, path analysis has been done using the spss and lisrel software. The results of the analysis showing the existence of a significant and positive impact of internal stimulus on posthaste buying behavior. In general, the ability of the Tehran Hyperstar chain store to increase customers posthaste buying must pay special attention to effective stimulus of customers (the impulsivity, the pleasure of shopping, fashion involvement, personal identity) (p<05/0).

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216-224  



Farbod Souri

The purpose of this study, conducted an empirical study in the field of marketing in order to investigate the relationship between brand equity, brand loyalty and customer satisfaction in Refah stores in which Nam and colleagues model (2011) have been used. In this model, the relationship between brand equity and brand loyalty and customer satisfaction is evaluated. To review research a sample of 384 customers was selected as a stepwise clustering. Data gathered by standard questionnaire with 23 questions that its validity and reliability confirmed and was distributed among the statistical population. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. At the level of Descriptive statistics, indices such as frequency and frequency percentage were used and in inferential statistics, correlation methods, structural equation modeling, path analysis has been done using the spss and lisrel software. The results of the analysis showing the existence of a significant and positive relationship of brand equity on customer satisfaction and loyalty. In general, the ability of Refah store to increase customer satisfaction and brand loyalty of customers to Refah brand being associated with the brand equity (05/0> p).

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225-231  



Dwianita, Rizni Wajthia, Sofiari Ananda

The title of the research was The Process of Disclosing A Gay’s Personal Status to His Surroundings in Medan, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia (A Study on Interpersonal Communication by Using Self-Disclosure Approach). The purpose of this research was to find out the process of self-disclosure of gays to family, friends and his surrounding about his status as gay. The method used is descriptive research method qualitative approach. Theories used are Inter-Personal Communication, Self Disclosure, Social Penetration Theory. Data collection technique is done by in depth interview with a gay and added with archives and documentation. Stages of data processing starting from field research and library research. Through this study found that there are differences in the process of gay self-disclosure in the family and friends. Self-disclosure begins with gay acceptance of how he can accept his sexual orientation as a gay. After being able to accept his condition, he then discloses himself in a different way to his family, friends and his surrounding. There are also obstacles experienced in self-disclosure to the family, namely the fear of disappointing the family.

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232-238  



Oda I. B. Hariyanto

Ritual Panjang Jimat as peak of the event in commemorating the birth of Prophet Muhammad S.A.W is culture heritage of Keraton Kasepuhan Cirebon. This event has lasted since 15th century. Those cases become attention and attraction both society and tourist. It is often society’s perception tends to the mystical; therefore it needs for surgical meaning to describe signs and symbols of food as the offering in ritual panjang jimat. This study uses descriptive qualitative method to review the complex and dynamic of social situation and also meaningful to analyze the meaning of signs and symbols of food as the offerings in ritual panjang jimat by using semiotics structuralism. This finding show that in general society has not been understood clearly the meaning of local wisdom which contains in food as the offering in that ritual. Ritual panjang jimat is syncretism, a fusion of activities, cultural expression, tradition, arts, and religion. The phenomenon of this culture is ought to be preserved as cultural heritage and local wisdom, especially in Cirebon and generally for cultural heritage of Indonesia.

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239-244  



Fauzi Eka Putra, Burhanuddin Nasution, Rian Indah Syafitri, Andrea Dimitry Nasution

Interpreting the typical Medan speech code is something unique and distinctive, which could create confusion for the outsider students because of the speech code similarities and differences in Medan. Therefore, the graduate students of communication science Universitas Sumatera Utara whose originated from outside of North Sumatera needs to learn, comprehend and aware in order to perform effective communication. The purpose of this research is to discover how the interpretation of speech code for the graduate students of communication science Universitas Sumatera Utara whose originated from outside of North Sumatera in adapting themselves in Medan. This research uses qualitative method with the study of ethnography and acculturation communication. The subject of this research is the graduate students of communication science Universitas Sumatera Utara whose originated from outside of North Sumatera in adapting themselves in Medan. Data were collected through interviews, observation and documentation. The conclusion of this research shows that speech code interpretation by students from outside of North Sumatera in adapting themselves in Medan leads to an acculturation process of assimilation and integration.

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245-249  



Arezoo Nouri Heydarlo, Amin Babazadeh Sangar, Sajjad Aghania

With the development of computer networks and data editing programs, the possibility of transferring or investigating digital data identity has encountered some difficulties. In this paper, some information is placed within images by using watermarking to verify the identity of images that will be destroyed by editing any of this information. Additionally, the slightest change watermarking methods that use chaotic maps are provided to enhance the sensitivity of these data. Then, a new method is proposed to insert one or two logo in a cover image and finally the necessary tests will apply on images. The proposed test and comparing the proposed approach with other methods show the high sensitivity and successful application of this method in images.

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250-261  



Raji, S.A., Olusanya, S. O., Olokoba, S. O., Olodo, A. A.

This present study includes the use of MATLAB R2012b software for the design and analysis of waste stabilization pond for the university of Ilorin. Kwara State. Contamination and pollution resulting from unlawful and increasing wastewater discharge expose the environment to degradation and the populace to health risks. The forecasted population in 25years time was found to be 93606 people. The total volume of wastewater that will be generated in 2042 was found to be 9372.6m3/day and the maturation pond had the largest area (43738.80m2) with its dimension being 296m by 148m by 1.5m while the facultative pond had the least area (11715.75m2) with dimensions 501m by 167m by 1.5m.

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262-265  



Annisa Nur Ramadhani, Muhammad Faqih, Dewi Septanti

Urban housing renewal is part of urban renewal that aims to make the housing environment more functional and integrated. Urban renewal implementation is necessary through a sustainable development concept approach that include physical, social, economic, and cultural consideration into account. While sustainable tourism can be one of the efforts to support the development of urban economy and maintain the sustainability of sustainable development. Kampungs or informal settlements in Indonesia are potential to be developed as tourism area because each kampung has unique characteristics, cultures, site ambiences, and local wisdom. Although they have many potentials, there are still many kampungs that have not developed optimally yet. Therefore, this study aims to formulate the development concepts of urban housing renewal based on sustainable tourism using Kampung Tambak Bayan as a case study, in order to improving the quality of kampung through tourism approach that can reduce the number of slums, as well as improving local citizen’s prosperity in a sustainable way. The datas are collected through observation, questionnaire, and documentation. The results of several quantitative and qualitatively descriptive analyses show that efforts to upgrade Kampung Tambak Bayan as a tourism destination can be realized through quality enhancements of physical environment, basic infrastructures, build tourism facilities, stakeholder cooperation, the establishment of tourism organization, and local community empowerment in order to support the actualization of kampung’s tourism.

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266-274  



Muhammad Zunnurain Hussain, Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan, Muhammad Taimoor Aamer Chughtai

In this paper, Authors will be discussing the penetration testing in system administration and challenges faced by the industry in securing the data and information using different techniques. Penetration Testing is modern technique of assessing the vulnerabilities in the system. It has been performed to explore all the loop holes in the system and the tester behave like an attacker. All the potential weaknesses, access to data manually or automatically being checked and verifies by the tester. The purpose of this activity is to gather all the required information to secure the data before real attack effects the system, during the process port scanning and other activities were performed and finally as report will be made to suggest improvement in the system to secure it. It is very challenging these days to secure the communication between two users although people use different encryption techniques [1].

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275-278  



Alvin Prasad, Mohammed Farik

Security is a major concern for everyone, be it individuals or organizations. As the nature of information systems is becoming distributed, securing them is becoming difficult as well. New applications are developed by researchers and developers to counter security issues but as soon as the application is released new attacks are formed to bypass the application. Kerberos is an authentication protocol which helps in to verify and validate a user to a server. As it is a widely used protocol minimizing or preventing the password attack is important. In this research we have analyzed the Kerberos protocol and suggested some ideas which can be considered while updating Kerberos to prevent the password attack. In the proposed solution we are suggesting to use password and biometric technique while registering on the network to enjoy the services and a combination of cryptography and steganography technique while communicating back to the user.

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279-282  



Sandeep Kumar, Mahendra Singh Mir

This research tries to analyse and compare the content and usability of central universities of central zone of India according to university grant commission parameters. Nowadays the websites of libraries are performing an important role in accumulating and circulating information or the data sources to the users and nowadays it is a popular way to interact with users without physical appearance. A study on the websites will help us to determine and analyse the content available, so that the rich and appropriate information may be provided to us by the assessment of improving the current site. A checklist was arranged to collect data which consist of a general information about library services, information about library collection, accessibility on universities webpage, link searches and retrieve interface. This checklist was set to determine the content of University library websites.The investigator took all centre zone central universities of India library for the study on the basis of content available on websites.

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283-286  



Agnita Yolanda, Nurismilida, Vivi Herwinda

Consumer behavior is an action taken by a person in making a decision to search for, purchase, acquire, use of goods and services that will satisfy their needs. The purpose of this study is presented to determine how much the behavior of consumers to choose online shopping and direct shopping at Management of Higher School ( STIM) Sukma Medan. The method used in this research is descriptive method with quantitative data that has been obtained through the data directly from the company. The data collected with the spaciousness of research and literature in the form of distributing questionnaires to 52 (fifty-two) consumers. Processing data using SPSS statistical test tools version 17.00. Based on the results of the 4 (four) and the indicator above the 8 (eight) questions as well as 52 (fifty-two) consumers. Results showed that the most influential in choosing online shopping is a cultural factor with a percentage of 26.14%, while the most influential in choosing the direct spending is psychological factors with the percentage of 26.50%.

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287-292  



Yadanar Win Myint, Tun Tun Moe, Wint Yi Linn, Anjae Chang, Phyu Phyu Win

Effect of heat treatment on different properties of Titanium dioxide(TiO2) nanocrystal is being reported. Nanocrystalline TiO2 was synthesized via chemical precipitation methods using TiCl3 as starting material with two types of precipitants: NaOH and NH4OH. The effect of calcination temperatures (300,500 and 900˚C) on the crystalline structure, phase formation and morphology of synthesized TiO2 were investigated by Xray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). For precipitation method using TiCl3 + NaOH, the structure and phase determination using XRD analysis were confirmed the small crystallite size in the range of 11nm to 31nm with rutile phase. In the case of TiCl3 + NH4OH, phase transformation from anatase to rutile was clearly observed at annealing temperature of 900˚C. The SEM range revealed that almost of the nanocrystals are in spherical shape and effect of heat treatment on particle size was observed. According to the results, pH does not influence the TiO2 morphology but the agglomeration becomes higher when the temperature calcination is increased.

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293-299  



Srigandawati, Andi Sofyan, A. Suriyaman M. Pide, Wiwie Heryani

The essence of restorative justice in the settlement of household violence is very important as bridge for peace of the parties, to restoring good relations between the perpetrator and victim, both the direct and indirect victim (the family of victim). The type of research is socio-legal research with the normative law method (doctrinal research). The results shows that the implementation of restorative justice of adjudication on household violence cases can be applied, although there is no legal arrangement. The judge may apply in its judgment based on the fact that the judge cannot refuse a case because of a law that does not exist or it is unclear. Judges are required to explore the values that live within society to discover the law. It can be concluded that restorative justice has been acknowledged by its existence in the adjudication as the purpose of punishment. Similar perceptions are required for law enforcers concern the concept of restorative justice as the purpose of punishment.

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300-306  



Nadeem Shah, Mohammed Farik

Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware, its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

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307-309  



Shelveen Pandey, Mohammed Farik

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is currently the leading standard for encryption which is currently used by the U.S. Government to protect sensitive data. The paper compares AES, DES, and 3DES encryptions and in light of current and future challenges.

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310-312  



Muni Prashneel Gounder, Mohammed Farik

Network security is vital in each field of today's reality, for example, government workplaces, instructive foundations, any business association and so forth. Information security is now top agenda for any computing environment ensuring safe transmission of information from sender to recipients. Dangers to data privacy are powerful and enhanced devices in the hands of attackers that could utilize the vulnerabilities of a system to degenerate, annihilate steal the sensitive data. This paper discusses latest trends and types of malwares, malware attacks techniques, method of propagation and detection additionally, it exhibits recommendations on various solutions are expressed to combat malware attacks. The primary beneficiaries of this journal are network engineers, network administrators, academics and students whose focus area is network security for research and development.

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313-318  



Jacinta S. Kimuyu, Nzioka J. Muthama, Sammy M. Musyoka

A new study in Kenya has spatially quantified the paradigm shift in the current and future malaria vectors ecology by use of BIOCLIM True or False model with IPCC HADCM3 projected future climate under A2a scenario. The study was designed to correlate the effect of climate change as an explanatory variable, among other factors, on malaria vectors distribution in Kenya. There has been reported malaria cases in new Counties that were never malaria endemic zones, thus the study seeks to research on ecological changes that can be as a result of changing environmental factors to support malaria vectors to thrive in new areas. Predictive modeling was done to investigate the spatial-temporal vector distribution under different IPCC future climate projections. The period from 1950 – 2000 was treated as the current climate scenario to explain where malaria vectors are existing as per vector spatial presence data and the prediction of the ecological niches where the vectors would also be found to thrive. Ecological Niche Modeling demonstrated significant alteration in suitability of malaria vector habitats in Kenya from the current ecological zones by the years 2020, 2050 and 2080. Most of the current malaria ecological niches were found to remain suitable while others turned out to be unsuitable after projection although new malaria hotspots were found to emerge. Prediction by the year 2050 demonstrated an alarming expansion of suitable malaria ecologies. By 2080 the predictions showed that the suitable ecologies will start to revert similar to the earlier suitability as in the current climate. Therefore, climate change in Kenya will adversely affect the environment at an alarming rate by 2050, but beyond that there will be a level of stabilization, where further change will trigger reversal to the past climate. This change in unsuitable to suitable malaria habitats can negatively affect the national effort to fight malaria under the ongoing towards zero campaign if strategic planning overlooks the possible effect of climate change among other factors on future dynamics of malaria distribution in Kenya.

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319-332  



Farbodsouri

The purpose of this study is performing an empirical study in the field of marketing in order to examine the relationship between internal motivation and customer satisfaction of posthaste purchase in stores that researcher made model have been used.In this model the relationship between internal motivation and customer satisfaction of posthaste purchase was investigated. To review research sample of 385 customers was selected as a stepwise clustering. Data gathered by standard questionnaire with 21 questions that its validity and reliability was confirmed and distributed among the statistical population. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. At the level of Descriptive statistics, indices such as frequency and frequency percentage were used and in inferential statistics, correlation methods, structural equation modeling, path analysis has been done using the spss and lisrel software. The results of the analysis showing the existence of a significant and positive impact of internal motivation on customer satisfaction of posthaste buying. In general, the ability of the Tehran Hyperstar chain store to increase customers satisfaction of posthaste buying must pay special attention to the effective internal motivation of customers (the impulsivity, the pleasure of shopping, fashion involvement, personal identity) (p<05/0).

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333-341  



C. S. Ibeh, J. Audu, C. O. Okpanachi, Y. L. Abdulganiyu, I. S. Ogbonnaya

A qualitative and comparative study was carried out on some locally sourced oils (melon oil, Africa elemi oil and Africa locust bean oil) to evaluate suitability as substitute quenching media to mineral-based oil. The cooling ability of the oils was investigated using AISI 1034 medium carbon steel. The effect of heat transfer coefficient on quench severity, mechanical properties of the quenched specimens were investigated in the course of the study. Results showed that the peak rate of heat extraction of melon oil, Africa locust bean and Africa elemi oil were higher than that of mineral oil. Higher heat transfer coefficient of 1463, 1023 W/m2k were obtained for melon oil and Africa locust bean; Africa elemi and SAE 40 oil have heat transfer coefficient of 982 and 469 W/m2k respectively. The selected oils can be used as quenchants for medium carbon steel, since the oils exhibits better cooling properties and mechanical properties than mineral-based oil.

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342-346  



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CURRENT PUBLICATIONS
ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - July 2017 - Volume 6 Issue 7