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International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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IJSTR Volume 1 - Issue 4, May 2012 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Damini Singh, C.P. Malik

Identification of inter-varietal intraspecific diversity is an essential condition for the analysis of genetic diversity. A total of 97 clear bands were generated, out of which 73 (77.6 %) were polymorphic. The total number of markers varied from 3 to 13 with a mean of 8 markers per primer. The number of polymorphic markers for each primer varied from 2 (GCC-177) to 10 (GCC-121) with a mean of 6 polymorphic markers per primer. The amplified product size ranged from 125 to 3968 bp. The PIC values ranged from 0.18 (GCC-81) to 0.416 (GCC-171), with a mean PIC value of 0.284. The Jaccards similarity coefficient values ranged from 0.48 to 1.0 with an average of 0.62. A dendrogram constructed based on the UPGMA clustering method, revealed two major Groups (A and B) Group-A consisted of morphotypes 1, 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 where as Group-B showed segregated genotype 10. The present findings unarguably suggest extending the scope of detecting and quantifying the prevalent genetic diversity existing at the molecular level. To our knowledge this is the first report on the characterization of V. encelioides ten morphotypes based on twelve primers. RAPD appears to have the potential to distinguish closely related morphotypes based on the patterns of their amplicons. Present study highlights that the high genetic diversity within a species could be attributed to wide distribution, and divergent ecological conditions.

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1-8  



Nikita Sharma, Mahendra Mishra, Manish Shrivastava

Due to the advent of computer technology image-processing techniques have become increasingly important in a wide variety of applications. Image segmentation is a classic subject in the field of image processing and also is a hotspot and focus of image processing techniques. With the improvement of computer processing capabilities and the increased application of color image, the color image segmentation are more and more concerned by the researchers. Several general-purpose algorithms and techniques have been developed for image segmentation. Since there is no general solution to the image segmentation problem, these techniques often have to be combined with domain knowledge in order to effectively solve an image segmentation problem for a problem domain. This paper presents a comparative study of the basic image segmentation techniques i.e, Edge-Based, KMeans Clustering, Thresholding and Region-Based techniques.

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9-12  



Mrs. S. J. KULKARNI, S. N. PAWAR, Ms. M.S. TADPATRIKAR

Electrical characterization, such as measurement of the I-V characteristics of electronic devices with respect to change in temperature is necessary for application of such devices. In our project, we report the development of a simple low-cost system for the measurement of I-V characteristics associated with changing surrounding temperature. The temperature switching analyzer developed basically consists of a PIC micro controller based Master/Slave configuration for monitor and control for electronic devices along with high-speed data acquisition system. The design aspects of the system, its interface. to the high-speed data acquisition system and the personal computer, and the details of the application software developed are described.

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13-18  



Osokogwu, U., Oghenekaro, E.

It is known that corrosion is a natural process and is impossible to prevent completely. Thus we only try to control corrosion. Even though coatings and cathodic protection are often more effective, chemical inhibitors are also widely used to reduce corrosion particularly in gas wells producing CO2, H2S and water. The effectiveness of the inhibitor and compatibility with produced fluids must be tested in the laboratory. Inhibitor film efficiency depends on the inhibitor concentration and contact time with the metal surface. A compact and relatively inexpensive system called High Speed Autoclave Test (HSAT) was used with corrosive gases, such as H2S and CO2. Using this system, the effectiveness of inhibitor was evaluated and all the variables that influences corrosion rate were easily controlled in the laboratory, in order to predict field corrosion rates. Several inhibitors were evaluated, active ingredients of those inhibitors include long chain amines, amides, and imidazoline est inhibitors were tested at the concentration range of 500-10000ppm in a mixture of brine/hydrocarbon in the presence of H2S and CO2. In the experimental investigation, results showed that inhibitor D (imidazoline surfactant) was the most efficient (92%) at 1000ppm.

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19-23  



Md. Aminur Rahman, Kazi Main Uddin Ahmed, Md. Rayhanus Sakib

In modern protection system the key challenge is the trade-off between the security demand (no false tripping), the speed of operations and the dependability requirements. To meet this challenge properly, the application of a novel Artificial Intelligence (AI) method, using fuzzy logic, in power system protection has been proposed in this paper along with the simulated data. The examined technique based on fuzzy logic and value estimation to control the protection action of the protective relay was intended to improve the performance of a conventional protective relay control for human safety and system reliability with the use of a fuzzy logic controller. The difference between estimated and sampled values was used to form the rule base. Proposed relay architecture was used as a detector and was developed to predict faults and to protect particular sections of a designed prototype radial power system at an early stage. Performance analysis of the developed model is simulated using Simulink and found satisfactory output.

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24-29  



Onyeani Charles Awa, Osunlaja Samuel, O.O. Oworu, Olufemi Sosanya

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit rot caused by anthracnose is the most economically important postharvest disease limiting shelf life and export of fresh mango fruits in Nigeria. This study; investigated the etiology, disease incidence and disease severity of mango fruit anthracnose in Southwestern Nigeria. The result of the investigation revealed that 96 isolates out of 231 fungi isolates recovered from symptomatic mango fruits were Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates based on their whitish orange colony, septated hyphae and capsule-like appearance and pathogenicity test conducted. Other 14 fungi species encountered, accounted for 135 isolates. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was more frequently encountered in all the study areas. One-way ANOVA with Duncan Multiple Range Test conducted, revealed that Ogbomosho area had the highest disease incidence mean of 48% and severity mean of 37.87% while Ayetoro recorded the least disease incidence with mean incidence of 37.33% and severity mean of 30.93%. From the result of the investigation, it was evident that anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was prevalent in all the four study areas of Southwest, Nigeria. Sixty percent of mango trees surveyed were found infected with anthracnose and over 34% of fruits produced on those trees were found severely infected.

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30-34  



Anil Kr. Chaudhary, S.K Singh, Sanjay Singh, Fuzail Ahmad

This paper presents thermal models and describe the reliability of switching component of inverter used in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles. Inverters are made up of semiconductors and capacitors, so it is important to assure the reliability of these components. The use of power electronic components in automobile applications is increasing day-by-day. Due to this it becomes important to determine the reliability of power electronic components used in automotive applications. Paper will compare reliability of IGBT and diode. This paper deals with the electrical and thermal modelling of three phase IGBT inverter which is capable of determining the junction temperature of the components over short mission profiles. Thermal simulations of systems and to accurately predict a system's response becomes essential in order to reduce the cost of design and production, increase reliability.

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35-39  



M.Thenmozhi,N.Kirthika

Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters are widely applied in multistandard wireless communications. The two key requirements of FIR filters are reconfigurability and low complexity. In this paper, two reconfigurable FIR filter architectures are proposed, namely Constant Shift Method [CSM] and Programmable Shift Method [PSM]. The complexity of linear phase FIR filters is dominated by the number of adders (subtractors) in the coefficient multiplier. The Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE) algorithm reduces number of adders in the multipliers and dynamically reconfigurable filters can be efficiently implemented. A new greedy CSE algorithm based on Canonic Signed Digit (CSD) representation of coefficients multipliers for implementing low complexity higher order FIR filters. Design examples shows that the filter architectures offer power reduction and good area and speed improvement over the existing FIR filter implementation.

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40-44  



Mohamed, S. M., Palchamy, K.

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a major tomato virus in tropical and subtropical regions. The resistance to TYLCV disease in the tomato accession FLA456 and the breeding line CLN2498E was analysed by screening the parents, F1 and BC1F1 population using a sequence tagged site (STS) marker, linked to Ty-2 gene, T0302 at the Biotechnology and Molecular Breeding Unit of the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre (AVRDC), the World Vegetable Centre at Taiwan. Results showed that CLN2498E carried Ty-2 gene and FLA456 did not carry it. The BC1F1 plants segregated for Ty-2 gene in a ratio of 46:66 which is closed to 1:1 ( χ=3.33, P< 0.05), which indicated that Ty-2 gene was simply inherited. The phenotypic screening showed that the breeding line CLN2498E was susceptible to TYLCV-Thailand strain although it carried the Ty-2 locus. The accession FLA456 was tolerant to TYLCV-Thailand strain. Although the F1 plants carried the Ty-2 locus, with heterozygous alleles, they showed tolerance to TYLCV-Thailand strain disease. All the plants in the BC1F1 bearing the two bands 900 bp and 800 bp were tolerant to the disease, while others with only 900 bp were susceptible. The results concluded that CLN 2498E carries Ty-2 gene and does not resistant to TYLCV-Thailand strain whereas FLA 456 does not carry Ty-2 gene and resistant to TYLCV-Thailand strain.

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Raj Kumar Arya

Phase separation simulation study related to cellulose acetate-water-acetone has been done. Results show that porous asymmetric and symmetric membranes can be produced by changing the nonsolvent concentration or by the drying conditions without altering the polymer content using dry-casting process. Dry-casting process is the process in which complete evaporation of solvent and nonsolvent takes place. At low initial nonsolvent concentration phase separation may not take place and dense polymer film may be obtained rather than a porous membrane. At high air velocity the phase separation is completely suppressed and uniformly dense coating devoid of substantial microstructure will result.

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Daryoosh Hayati

Two decades ago technologies as VLE or virtual learning environment were introduced to the world. They have been used in many aspects of human life and have had dramatic changes on human life, especially education. These technologies have initiated new possibilities into the field. The role of the teacher, the nature and context of learning, as well as the function and relative importance of contents of the courses have all been challenged and redefined accordingly. This paper introduces some of the most useful ICT, CMC and VLE resources in teaching English literature in a non-native context. extensive use of web 2.0 components, internet, e-encyclopedias, power point presentations, webcasting, and audio-video programs to name some examples, have been made implemented in teaching plays, novels and poetry to the students. The results indicated a great improvement in students learning, moreover the feedback was positive.

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Jigna Desai, Dr. K. G. Maradia, N. B. Gohil

The transmission from the base station to mobile or downlink transmission using 16-ary Quadrature Amplitude modulation (QAM), 64-ary QAM and Quadrature phase shift keying(QPSK) modulation schemes are considered in Code Division Multiple Access(CDMA) system. We have done the implementation and analysis of these modulation techniques when the system is subjected to Genetic algorithm (GA) for multiuser detection and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) with fading and Rayleigh fading d in the channel. The research has been performed by using simulation in MATLAB 7.7 and evaluation of Bit Error Rate (BER) against Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) for CDMA system model. From analysis of three modulation techniques, the system could use more appropriate modulation technique to suit the channel quality, thus we can deliver the optimum and efficient data rate to mobile terminal.

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Ms. Parag K. Shelke, Ms. Sneha Sontakke, Dr. A. D. Gawande

Providing security in a distributed system requires more than user authentication with passwords or digital certificates and confidentiality in data transmission. Distributed model of cloud makes it vulnerable and prone to sophisticated distributed intrusion attacks like Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) and Cross Site Scripting (XSS). To handle large scale network access traffic and administrative control of data and application in cloud, a new multi-threaded distributed cloud IDS model has been proposed. Our proposed cloud IDS handles large flow of data packets, analyze them and generate reports efficiently by integrating knowledge and behavior analysis to detect intrusions.

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67-71  



Mahmud Hasan, Kamruddin Md. Nur, Tanzeem Bin Noor

The JPEG Images play a significant role in present multimedia based computing industry. Being a popular lossy mode of image compression, The JPEG has extensively been being used in almost all sorts of digital device including the mobile phones, tablet and handheld computers. Although the popularly used Baseline JPEG Algorithm is an easy one to be performed by the powerful processors, still the small devices of less capable processors suffer a lot from encoding or decoding a JPEG image by the Baseline JPEG Algorithm. This is due to some complex computations required by Baseline JPEG. This paper discovers the computational cost currently needed by Baseline JPEG and suggests an efficient way to encode or decode the JPEG images so that the overall computational cost of the Baseline JPEG Algorithm is reduced with less affecting the obtainable Compression Ratio and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The suggested cost reduction technique has been tested upon some small computing devices and comparative cost analysis is presented.

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Shruti Suman, B.P. Singh

This paper presents the ring oscillator based CMOS temperature sensor. The method is highly area efficient, simple and easy for IC implementation as compared to traditional temperature sensors. The proposed CMOS temperature sensor was fabricated using 0.35 μm CMOS technology, which occupies extremely small silicon area. It exploits the frequency of the ring oscillator that is proportional to temperature, which is displayed in the form of a digital output. The proposed CMOS temperature sensor comprises a ring oscillator, a voltage level shifter, a 10-bit counter, and a 10-bit register. The designed ring oscillator is frequency-tunable and the voltage level shifter provides the output to full-scale to make sure that the number of its rising edge is counted by the counter. The register saves the counted output.

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T. B. Pankhania, Dr. H. J. Jani

The study mainly focused on finding out the impacts of various aspects of productivity improvements in the global era. It is interesting to know that almost everybody in the opinion that globalization has changed the present industrial scenario, and it is the demand of the day. The set attributes regarding productivity scenario in the estate under study is in the line with the changing world scenario fighting for competing and surviving in the globalization, liberalization and privatization eras. Employees performance is core aspects everywhere, considering human capital of prime importance and retention of talent is positive aspects to the organization. The five factors contribute the market penetration leading to higher productivity of the organization. This is possible only when the employees, employers and organizations are capable enough to cope up with the changing world scenario. In the rapidly changing environment human being is the most important and valuable resource to play vital role in every organization. SPSS Software was used to carry out various statistical analysis to uncover the factor responsible for the health of the estate in general and industries in particular.

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Kaushal Naresh Gupta, Nandagiri Jagannatha Rao, Govind Kumar Agarwal

The primary objective was to experimentally determine the performance of granular activated carbon in effectively adsorbing volatile organic compounds from inert gaseous stream under varying operating conditions. Experiments were carried out to study adsorption of xylene a volatile organic compound (VOC) on the granular activated carbon. The experiments were carried out in a fixed bed adsorption column under various operating conditions. The range of experimental variables is as follows: inlet gas concentration (2400 - 6200 ppm), gas flow rate (50 ml/min) and height of the adsorbent bed (0.015 - 0.025 m). The breakthrough curves were then drawn between ratios of outlet gas concentration to inlet gas concentration versus time for different operating conditions.

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B. R. Kharde, G. J. Vikhe Patil

Time-Cost Trade-off in Projects (TCTP), Least-Cost Schedule (LCS) or crashing technique is used to find optimum project duration to minimize the total cost. In crashing an activities, the direct cost (DC) increases while indirect cost(IC) reduces. So it is double beneficiary technique for managers to decrease the project duration as well as total cost. The goal in crashing is to find the optimum duration or Least Cost Schedule (LCS) where the total cost of the project is least. Unit Time Method (UTM) is the powerful procedure for crashing; yields always optimum solution and is used widely for CPM networks. But much iteration (one for crashing one unit of time) are needed to get to LCS. This is a disadvantage of UTM if project is to be crashed for double figure or more time. Say project crashing for 30 days 30 iterations! Other short cuts avoiding UTM are error porn and errors are observed in few cases (literature). We propose new algorithm which works on UCM logic but requires less iteration. In some problems iterations are reduced to just number of activities crashed till LCS. Algorithm can be viewed as modified Unit Time Method; would always yield the optimum in very less iterations (10 to 30% approximately).

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94-101  



Prasant Singh Yadav, Pankaj Sharma, Dr K. P Yadav

This paper introduces the concept and implementation of RSA algorithm for security purpose and to enhance the performance of software system using this algorithm. In this article we have done study about RSA algorithm. This study includes what is RSA algorithm and why they are used in the field of Cryptography & Network Security. After doing several works on this topic we came to conclude that RSA algorithm is important to Network Security because they are the components (i.e. Encryption & Decryption key) which interact with the Security system. Without them the system will be useless as RSA are used to fire a particular Encryption & Decryption keys process because of which Security system is build. Here we are dealing with general problem in which we have a particular Security system event of a software system and our objective is to secure that system into a software security because without software security system cannot be secure any things in this world. Here we are discuss with attacks made against the underlying structure of the RSA algorithm, which exploit weaknesses in the choice of values for the encryption and decryption keys, and their relation to the RSA modulus N.

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102-105  



Habibah Lateh, Vijaya Govindasamy

Landslide is a growing global threat and has been destroying lives and property of humankind. In most cases, the damages inflicted could be mitigated if there is a proper knowledge and awareness among the students. Students are playing an important role in maintaining a safe environment and harmony as well as the hope of the nation. Moreover, they themselves become victims to the threat of landslides triggered by man's own actions in managing the environment. The purpose of this study was to identify the extent of students awareness of landslides, as they are the future leaders who will lead this world and uphold positive environmental attitudes and practices of the environmentally responsible behaviors. Guided and close-ended questionnaires were distributed to 60 students in four selected schools in Penang Island. From the survey, the results showed awareness of landslide hazard among the students are moderate. This need to be addressed if the awareness of landslide hazard is to be detected at an earlier and beginning stage.

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106-111  



Ritika Agarwal , Dr. Barjesh Kochar , Deepesh Srivastava

In the field of data mining, classification and association set rules are two of very important techniques to find out new patterns. K-nearest neighbor and apriori algorithm are most usable methods of classification and association set rules respectively. However, individually they face few challenges, such as, time utilization and inefficiency for very large databases. The current paper attempts to use both the methods hand in hand. Here, we have modified the apriori algorithm and used it to classify data for K-nearest neighbor. Modified Apriori helps in finding out only a few of the attributes that mainly define the class. These attributes are named as prominent attributes in this paper. This technique helps in improving the efficiency of KNN to a high extent.

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112-117  



Vinay Soni, Ritesh Joshi

In this paper, a novel simple dimension reduction technique for classification is proposed based on correlation coefficient. Existing dimension reduction techniques like LDA is known for capturing the most discriminant features of the data in the projected space while PCA is known for preserving the most descriptive ones after projection. Our novel technique integrates correlation coefficient and method of elimination for feature selection to reduce the dimensionality of input space. Our approaches are novel because our method finds alternatives to LDA and PCA in a 2D parameter space. Extensive experiments are conducted on various datasets.

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122-124  



Shraddha Shivhare, Rajesh Shrivastava

The differential counting of white blood cell provides invaluable information to doctors for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. manually counting of white blood cell is a tiresome, time-consuming and susceptible to error procedure due to the tedious nature of this process, an automatic system is preferable. in this automatic process, segmentation and classification of white blood cell are the most important stages. An automatic segmentation technique for microscopic bone marrow white blood cell images is proposed in this paper. The segmentation technique segments each cell image into three regions, i.e., nucleus, cytoplasm, and background. In this paper, we investigate whether information about the nucleus alone is adequate to classify white blood cells. This is important because segmentation of nucleus is much easier than the segmentation of the entire cell, especially in the bone marrow where the white blood cell density is very high. Even though the boundaries between cell classes are not well-defined and there are classification variations among experts, we achieve a promising classification performance using neural networks with fivefold cross validation in which Bayes classifiers and artificial neural networks are applied as classifiers.The classification performances are evaluated by two evaluation measures: traditional and classwise classificationrates. we compare our results with other classifiers and previously proposed nucleus-based features. The results showthat the features using nucleus alone can be utilized to achieve aclassification rate of 77% on the test sets. Moreover, the classification performance is better in the class wise sense when the a priori information is suppressed in both the classifiers.

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125-131  



Hilda Ainissyifa

The purpose of the study is to analyze the influence of human resources, organization culture and technology utilization toward knowledge management implementation on high school level. This study was conducted to formal education institute on an educational foundation which covers five formal High Schools. Using path analysis as a methodology. The respondents used as the profession references are teachers, and the sampling technique used is random stratified sampling with 86 people as the respondents based on Slovin method. The result of the study shows that human resources, organization culture and technology utilization bring a significant and positive influence toward insight management on high schools.

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132-138  



Vikrant S. Vairagade, Kavita S. Kene

Fiber reinforced concrete has been successfully used in slabs on grade, shotcrete, architectural panels, precast products, offshore structures, structures in seismic regions, thin and thick repairs, crash barriers, footings, hydraulic structures and many other applications. The usefulness of fiber reinforced concrete in various Civil Engineering applications is thus indisputable. This review study is a trial of giving some highlights for inclusion of steel fibers especially in terms of using them with new types of concrete.

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139-141  



Ashwin S Ramteke, Milind E Rane

The process of segmentation is a vital part in any script/character recognition technique. Devanagari is mostly useful Script in India for number of officials and banking applications. Segmentation of Devanagari script is difficult because of presence of large character set which include vowels, consonants, compound characters and modifiers. This paper focus on the line, word, character segmentation of handwritten Devanagari script for efficient script recognition.

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142-145  



Harpreet Singh Chawla, M. I. H. Ansari, Ashish Kumar, Prashant Singh Yadav

TCP, Transmission control protocol which is mainly used in the wired network to provide process to process or end to end delivery of data. This protocol is mainly known because of its feature of providing a reliable delivery of packets from source to the destination due to this capability researchers are always interested in deploying it over Mobile Adhoc Networks but while deploying TCP on MANET they faces many problems. To overcome these problems, lots of variants and improvements had been proposed and a lot of work is going on. In this paper we just try to first put some light on the various issues faced while deploying TCP over MANET and then some of the improvements techniques proposed so far.

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146-150  



Waleed Nessim, Fujun Zhang

Adjusting operating temperature of the engine in the steady state and during warm-up improves fuel consumption and reduces engine emission through higher operating temperatures. Also it can improve thermal comfort by faster cabin heater performance. Thermal fluid analysis by 1-D simulation is an effective tool for studying the control of the entire cooling system and optimization of engine performance by using active control thermal management systems which allow high tolerance for coolant temperature across speed-load map of the engine. In this work a 1-D simulation model (GT-SUITE) was used to evaluate the effect of warm-up improvement on powertrain performance by using electric coolant pumps and fans, electronic control valve, and an electronic control system with PID feedback. Firstly, the cooling system model was validated with experimental data, and then replaced with an advanced thermal management system. The effect of fan speed and pump speed on engine coolant temperature with different thermal management strategy during warm up was studied. Depending on the operating conditions, the results showed an improvement in brake specific fuel consumption (3-9%) and stability improvement in outlet coolant temperature due to controller tuning during steady state operation.

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151-155  



Obuka, Nnaemeka Sylvester P., Okoli Ndubuisi Celestine, Ikwu, Gracefield Reuben O., Chukwumuanya, Emmanuel Okechukwu

In order to control the corrosion in pipelines, it is important to understand the underlying corrosion mechanisms and prediction of it's initiation and means of mitigation. This paper reviews the electrochemistry of corrosion, it's kinetics and thermodynamic nature, with respect to CO2 and H2S effects in propagating corrosion in oil and gas pipeline system. The phenomenon of polarization and it's importance in the mitigation of corrosion processes was highlighted in relation to it's mechanisms. Several principles and models used in predicting and evaluating corrosion kinetics were reviewed emphasizing their applicability in the oil and gas pipeline system. Scale formation on metal surface plays a prominent role in the rate of corrosion propagation making the process more complex, hence the mathematical models to extract the parameters which determine the effect of scale formation were appraised.

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156-162  



Ketan Patil, Roshan Marode, V. M. Chidri, A. J. Keche

In Centrifugal Pipe Casting machine, hot molten metal is injected from one end and the other end remains closed by a covering plate having standard dimension. This covering plate is locked by a worker with the help of a spanner. This covering plate again needs to be opened after completion of casting process for the extraction of the pipe from the mould. This paper discuss mainly focused on the analysis of locking plate and its new design so that the human interference must be reduced to higher extent. Thus large amount of time can be saved which in turn will increase the productivity and reduce the cost of production.

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