International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 5 - Issue 10, November 2016 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Ram Sagar Yadav, Indra Narayan Shrestha, Anjay Kumar Mishra

Objective of this study is to assess ethical behavior among professionals at procurement and after tendering process with its impacts and drivers in Nepalese Construction Industry. Different literatures were reviewed to assess ethical practices along with its cause and effect inside Nepalese Construction Industry. Pilot study was conducted for the validity of the questionnaire. One key informant from each selected organization was interviewed. The questionnaire contains shortcomings of ethical behavior at procurement and after tendering phase, impact of shortcomings of ethical practices and factors leading to these ethical practices based on the objectives of the research. Five ranking Likert Scale were used. The collected data were analyzed based on relative importance index (RII) in three different categories as Investigating Offices (3 numbers), Professional Associations (4 numbers) and Government Departments (4 numbers) with total of 11 organizations. All together 240 respondents were targeted out of which 170 response were collected with response rate of 70.83%. The research shows that for commitment of professionals “The overall level of unethical conduct in construction industry” is placed at first rank with agreement level of 72.7%. For Professionals shortcomings of ethical behavior at procurement phase “Individuals or organizations undertaking work without adequate qualification / experience / training” is placed at first rank with agreement level of 68.00%. For Professionals shortcomings of ethical behavior after awarding the Tender “Contractor’s professional don’t dispose waste in suitable and safe ways which is friendly with the environment” is placed at first rank with agreement level of 67.50%. For factors lead to shortcomings of ethical behavior “Personal culture or personal behavior” is placed at first rank with agreement level of 78.20%. From the research, it is clear that shortcomings of ethical behaviors have negative impact firstly on cost as it affects the profitability of the organization and causes loss for these organizations every year. Secondly, it affects the projects quality as it is noticed that construction projects quality in Nepal ranges from moderate to very low. The dissemination of ethical awareness, heavier penalties, compulsory training, and setting code of ethics are considered the best ways to monitor these shortcomings of ethical behaviors occurred in construction industry. The codes of practice are the most feasible way to attempt change behavior. Characteristic and responsibility that professionals should have is important in order to perform their work. With a good character and full set of responsibilities in hand, professional will always know what to do when facing problem and will try their best to avoid any shortcomings of ethical behavior. A self-building training and motivation to comprehend the professional about the responsibility and character as an ethical professional should be conducted from time to time.

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Manikant Kumar, Dr. Pratibha Tiwari

Along with the development of civilization is increasing energy consumption. Due to which India is facing an energy crisis. It is estimated that global energy demand will double in 2030. India Trhurga other developing countries will face a crisis. Returning to the problem Fall growth of renewable energy resources will increase. Even for electricity generation from renewable sources. (Naturally replenished) renewable energy such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, as will have to depend on natural resources. High energy demand and environmental concerns in the papers smart microgrid is forced to change the existing power grid. This paper dynamic demand response and smart microgrid for residential and industrial consumption in the context of renewable energy production, including the proposed management approach. The objectives of this research, renewable energy resources with a smart microgrid has played an important role. Power system in rural areas in India to meet growing energy demand. The model deployed PLC networks, data management system, sensors, Switchgears, Transformers and other utility tools to integrate Smart Grid Smart homes are used together. Analytical results Residential renewable energy generation and smart meters show the effectiveness of the proposed system to optimize control of the electrical grid and is designed to improve energy conservation.

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Emmanuel Mpianing

The Inland Valley Rice Development Project (IVRDP) was introduced as a poverty intervention project with the aim of increasing income of participating rice farmers. This study analyzed the effect of income from the IVRDP on household poverty indicators such as nutrition, health and education of children of school-going age. Purposive sampling technique was used to select six rice growing communities in Ahafo-Ano South district in the Ashanti Region of Ghana and random sampling technique was also used to select 120 respondents. Primary data were collected through personal interview and secondary data were obtained from the baseline survey conducted by the regional office of the IVRD-Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA) in Kumasi. The techniques of descriptive statistics, complete enterprise cost accounting method and binary logit regression were employed. The study revealed that rice income has been increasing since the year 2005 with the exception of 2007. There was an improvement in the nutrition, health and education of children of school going-age of the rice farmers in the Ahafo-Ano South district in the Ashanti Region. The income from the rice project had no significant relationship with the improvement in nutrition (P=0.4528) and health (P=0.1120) of the households of the rice farmers. However, the rice income had significant (P=0.0670) and positive effect on the improvement in the education of children of school-going age of the rice farmers.

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Rosenda M. Wamelda, Grace Santa T. Daclan, EdD, Gloria P. Gempes, EdD, Dm

This phenomenological study was designed to determine the experiences of pregnant secondary school students aged 12-19 students who were descendants of unwed mothers. In-depth-interview and focus group discussion were applied with 14 pregnant students who were utilized in selecting the participants of the study. The participants revealed that their experiences were on humiliation and disdain, remorse, fear and insecurity, escape and remediation, support and love, financial constraints, and acquiescence. Their coping mechanisms were being positive about the situation, having the aid and support of the family, faith and hope to the divine God and the wisdom of the family. Importantly, the teenage mothers valued the lessons learned from the experience, the values of resilience and elasticity, resolution and repentance for what they have done, and hopes and dreams for the future.

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Charles Wamuti, Stephen Kimani, Michael Kimwele

Despite the growth of mobile learning and advantages offered, such as portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, convenience, inclusive and non-discriminatory, independence data collected showed that there is low use of such mobile learning systems. Investigation, on mobile learning sought the participation of users and availability of users, the mimicability of the class room, and the various implementations in institutions and attempts at synchronous collaboration in existing Mobile Learning based infrastructure. As seen in the research, the social aspect of smart mobile phones has not been leveraged to be incorporated in mobile learning infrastructure, where a class is seen as a social place. Mobile Learning has not allowed a collaborative (part of the social constructivism theory) approach to users of these technologies which have focused on technology other than the fundamental of teaching – collaborative pedagogy. Options that would enable group collaboration would be necessary to increase the quality of service for those teaching and learning in a mobile environment. With this lack of environmental feel, and exposing the services that are offered in the teaching business, service oriented architecture, a mature technology, was applied due to its seamless integration to business processes. Research explored; what standards have been proposed regarding Service Oriented Architecture (S.O.A. and M-Learning, how has time-based collaboration been archived in other m-learning systems and how can time-based collaboration, S.O.A. and M-Learning be wrapped around? An architecture based on the intersection of time-based collaboration, S.O.A., and M-Learning, then was designed and evaluated. Results of a user study comparing a mobile learning system integrated social collaborative pedagogical features suggest that an enhanced social presence was achieved where users worked together similar to a conventional classroom.

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Jahja, Bambang Hadi Sugito, Mamik

Dengue Hemorragic Fever (DHF) is one of health problems in Indonesia. DHF is often associated with climate change, because it usually occurs at the beginning and at the end of the rainy season. it is shown by the high rates of morbidity and mortality. the case of DHF tends to reach its peak on January each year, on wich the rainfall tends to fall. This research is observational analytic study using a case report. Samples of this study are all DHF cases in children aged 5-14 years during 2010-2012 in Haji hospital Surabaya. The result of spearman analysis showed r =0.383 (p=0.011) with the result obtained by linear regression=0.356, with R square = 0.025. There is significant relation between rainfall and DHF case. This proves that the amount of rainfall is not directly proportional to the case of DHF. The correlation of both variables shows that DHF case reaches its peak when the rainfall is in the mid-level (<400 mm3). Because rainfall is not proved to affect the case of DHF, future researchers are recommended to identify other variables, namely temperature.

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Andi Safriani, Syamsul Bachri, Abrar Saleng, Achmad Ruslan

This research aims to understand and analyze the autonomy-based higher education arrangements in Indonesia. This study was conducted at the Directorate General of Higher Education Jakarta, and in the autonomy-based higher education as legal entity higher education, respectively at Indonesia University, Bogor Agricultural Institute and Hasanuddin University using empirical-legal research. The results showed that the autonomy-based higher education arrangement as stipulated in Act No. 12 of 2012 on Higher Education, and essentially has accommodated the principles of education includes availability, accessibility, acceptability and adaptability. The strategies of higher education policy in the arrangement of higher education are divided based on the policies in academic and non-academic. The authority of government in the autonomy-based higher education is through institutional control and coordination.

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Dr. Peter Ashlame Agu, Dr. Dennis B. Kaduhur

Since the past two decades or so, the question of functionality of Nigerian educational products has been an issue of concern and a subject of discussion among educational analysts. This is against the backdrop that many students who graduate with admirable certificates from the nation’s reputable institutions are often unable to apply the acquired knowledge and skills to work situations. Contemporary societies all over the world require that preparation for work must become an integral part of a person’s total educational experience. One reason for this requirement is to equip their citizenry with employable skills to enable them produce and use the goods and services which any society needs for its socio-economic growth. This paper, therefore, examines the role of skill acquisition in the transformation of Nigerian economy and proffers suggestions on how it can be repositioned to transform Nigerian education.

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Erkan Ari, Noyan Aydin

In this paper, factors affecting the types of domestic violence against women was determined by multinomial logistic regression model. In this context, we used the data of “Research on Domestic Violence against Women in Turkey” that was applied by Turkish Statistıcal Institute in 2008. In the study, the variable of the types of domestic violence against women was used as dependent variable that has four levels. In addition, twelve independent variables were used removing irrelevant variables from the data set via chi-square test of independence. After that, the maximum likelihood estimates and the odds ratios of the variables of the model were obtained. Besides, the validity of the model was tested by likelihood ratio test. At last, comparisons were made for three categories depending on the odds ratio according to the selected reference category. In terms of odds ratios, the variables of “education level of woman” and “husband's work sector” were statistically significant in only comparison one; the variables of “agnation with husband, “education level of husband”, “frequency of seeing drunk husband”, and “frequency of gambling of husband” were statistically significant in both comparison one and three; the variables of “region”, “deceived by husband”, “common-law female for husband” were statistically significant in all comparisons.

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Lariman, Wawan Kustiawan, A.Safei Sidik, Sigit Hardwinarto

Batu Bumbun Sanctuary (Middle Mahakam Lake) is very important for the fishermen community and Mahakam Irrawaddy Dolphin life concerned to its function as the source of fish and as the feeding ground of Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris). The changes in the forest function and the climate (such as rainfall and water surfaces) are predicted to have caused suppression in the ecosystem of Batu Bumbun Sanctuary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current ecosystem changes of Batu Bumbun Sanctuary and suggest a suitable management strategy as a way to conserve its function. The research was conducted during the dry season (April – June) and rainy season (November – December) 2014, by using survey methods. The measured parameters were including water quality (DO, pH, temperature, TSS, TDS, alkalinity, and clarity), vegetation composition, rainfall, water surface elevation, and sediment. The data of fish community were analysed by using Shanon-Wiener index. The result showed that: (1) The current condition of Batu Bumbun biophysical ecosystem has been experiencing a heavy degradation, showed by a high fluctuation of the water surface in two extreme seasons such as the flood in rainy seasons and silt up in the dry season. (2) The vegetation composition in the riverbanks was composed of five species including Bungur (Lagerstroemia speciosa), Rambai Punai (Chaetocarpus Castano carpus), Kendikara (Dillenia excelsa), Kademba (Mytragina speciosa), and Rengas (Gluta renghas). The dominant tree species was Putat (Barringtonia asiatica) and Perupuk (Lophopetalum javanicum). (3) Batu Bumbun Sanctuary has been experiencing a heavy siltation caused by silt material that piles up the weeds during the rainy season. Since 1985, Batu Bumbun was predicted to have rates of silting around 8 cm/year. From those result, it can be concluded that Batu Bumbun has been experiencing a heavy degradation showed by a high fluctuation of water surface, vegetation composition, and heavy siltation. Then, the most suitable suggestion for its management was (a) dredging, (b) revegetation, (c) restocking native fish, (d) establishing an appropriate institute, (e) preventing illegal fishing, and (f) increasing its security.

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Nelfiyanti, Ery Diniardi, Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan

Refilling of fire extinguishers is a key activity in PT Pinaco Utama Indonesia. In these activities, the workers doing the work manually with ergonomic postures that can cause a complaint to the musculoskeletal system. In a preliminary study, a questionnaire used Nordic Body Map is used to identify specific problems in parts of the body and using REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) to determine the level of risk working posture. This preliminary study shows that workers have a lot of complaints on the part of their body with a high level of risk and very high. For that we need a tool that can reduce the complaints of the musculoskeletal system. Tools in the form of work chair. The purpose of this study was to design an ergonomic office chair and is equipped with several features to accommodate the needs and conditions in PT Pinaco Utama Indonesia. The first step of this research is to develop the expectations of the office chair features information then is poured into a design concept. Furthermore, this concept is manifested in a more specific design taking into account the anthropometric dimensions of the workers. Making the design and production cost calculation is made to perform a feasibility analysis in this research.

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Orji, J.O., Nnachi, A.U., Ojiochie, C.O., Egwuatu, C.C., Efunshile, A.M., Ezejiofor, O.I., Ezeama, C.O., Nwaneli, C.U., Mbachu, I.

Food security has been a major challenge to the world populace over the last few centuries because of the alarming concern of disease outbreak caused by consumption of contaminated food and food products. This study determined the bacteriological quality of fermented cassava (garri) sold in Okwor and Nkalagu markets in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A total of sixteen (16) samples (8 white and 8 yellow) were purchased from the two markets and processed using standard procedures. The results revealed a high microbial burden in the garri samples examined ranging from 6.6 x 106 to 1.07 x 107 Aerobic Plate Counts (APC). The pH values of the garri samples purchased from both markets ranged from 5.47 to 6.61. Out of the sixteen samples, a total of 32 bacterial isolates were obtained, out of which 14(43.8%) were Staphylococcus aureus, 6(18.8%) Escherichia coli, 5(15.6%) Bacillus cereus, 4(12.5%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2(6.2%) Streptococcus species, while the least occurring isolate was Yersinia species with recovery rate of 3.1%. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus species were isolated from Okwor market while Yersinia species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from Nkalagu market. The study reveals unacceptable bioload in garri from both markets. The heavy bacterial contamination and vast array of bacteria isolated from the garri sold in both markets portend alarming danger posed by consumption of garri sold in these markets. Therefore renewed vigilance on the efficacies of food processing conditions, handling techniques and handlers technical knowhow, personal hygiene practices and safety of finished products are hereby recommended.

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Ery Diniardi, Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan, Hasan Basri

The world oil industry are common in offshore areas that are included in a corrosive environment, so that the low-carbon steel bolts A325 will gradually corroded. Therefore, an alternative that can be done to reduce the corrosion rate that is by coating with a Hot dip galvanizing method. The purpose of this study to improve the quality of products from low carbon steel bolts A325 with the addition of Zinc Aluminium alloy on the results of the Hot Dip Galvanizing. Results of testing the hardness of the lowest obtained in quenching time of 30 seconds is 162 037 HVN and the highest hardness obtained on quenching time of 60 seconds is 203 688 HVN. To microstructure shows that the phase Eta which is soft on the surface of the outermost started a little not as much time quenching 30 seconds so that the nature of its decline and violence increased, the phase Zeta that are hard are widely spread meet the layer of phase resulting in hardness of the coating while quenching 45 seconds exceed the hardness of quenching time of 30 seconds. Results of analysis of the rate of corrosion that galvanized coating on each test is different and the structure of ferrite and pearlite, it looks clear. For quenching time of 30 seconds obvious difference in galvanized layer thicker than quenching time of 45 and 60 seconds. This happens because of the influence of factors zinc layer that coats the base material, so that decreased levels of corrosion (%) is comparable to the time Salt Spray Test (SST) performed.

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Eke, Peter Ogochuku, Okeke, Francisca Nneka

Potential hydrocarbon regions in the southern region of the Niger delta Basin of Nigeria have been identified from gravity and magnetic data. The enhanced residual data obtained from least square analysis method was interpreted by inverse and forward modeling techniques using Potent-3D software. The results reveal potential hydrocarbon environment at depths of between 1,000 m to 3, 500 m from the gravity data and depths of 2,183 m to 4,385 m from the magnetic data. The identified structures trend in NS, EW and NE-SW directions of the basin.

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Muhammed Maruf Ozturk, Akif Akgul, Sezgin Kacar

To manage file transfer operation, various tools have been developed so far. However, these tools can not respond adequately for conduct a secure transfer. Also few works have been done using encrypted voice controlled system yet. By regarding this lack, we investigate how to built a useful and secure tool. This work presents a novel improved voice controlled FTP tool (Wb-CFTP) using chaotic system. A chaotic system called as logistic map is associated with Wb-FTP designed on the basis of Asp.Net and C#. Here we depict the prominence of encryption in voice controlled systems.

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Abhishek Sharma

Many people at the time of their death regret of them not doing certain things in their lives. So why not grant them another chance to live their lives upto their expectations. Why do we die? The answer is because our cells stop dividing. Why does cell stop dividing? Because the telomere protecting the DNA at the ends of the chromosomes is reduced to a number after which it doesn’t allow any further division, leading to senescence. The telomere can be regenerated by different techniques like iPSC’s or CRISPR CAS 9

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Neeraj A. Sharma, Arjun Pillay, Mohammed Farik

Computing technology has evolved in such dramatic ways that a child can use such technology and their features. Internet is one such technology which allows peripheral devices to be connected to each other, creating a network to share information. In the same way information can be attacked. In this paper we will be discussing the different types of cyber-attack that recently took place in Fiji. Common attacks discussed in this review paper are phishing, email scams, website defacement, and skimming. Apart from common preventative methods, some novel recommendations have been made. We believe the Fiji experiences and recommendations will assist technology users prepare better against such attacks.

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Neeraj A. Sharma, Mohammed Farik

Authentication factors refer to user login credentials that a user supplies to an authentication process for it to decide whether to grant or deny access. While two-factor and three-factor authentication generally provides better security than one-factor authentication, the aim of this paper is to review, security in individual authentication factor credentials that are in use nowadays. These credentials will be discussed in factor categories � knowledge factor, possession factor, and inherence factor. The paper details current security gaps and some novel approaches to diminish the gaps in these authentication factors. We believe that our recommendations will inspire development of better authentication credentials and systems.

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Abdullah Cakan, Umit Onen

This paper presents a controller design for position and sway control of nonlinear gantry crane system. Two-dimensional crane system is modelled by using MSC ADAMS. A realistic model is obtained since there is no simplification and linearization on the model. All mass and inertia properties of system components were taken into consideration as were in reality. The hoisting cable was treated as elastic and the first six modes are used in calculations. PD controllers are designed in MATLAB/Simulink for trolley position regulation and sway control of crane system. Performance of the proposed control scheme is tested for different inputs. Simulation results are given for evaluation and discussion.

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Falguni Patel, Mohammed Farik

Ciphers are the encryption methods to prepare the algorithm for encryption and decryption. The currently known ciphers are not strong enough to protect the data. A new substitution cipher – Random-X, that we introduce in this paper, can be used for password encryption and data encryption. Random-X cipher is a unique substitution cipher which replaces the units of plaintext with triplets of letters. The beauty of this cipher is that the encrypted string of the same plain text is not always same. This makes it strong and difficult to crack. This paper covers the principle, the implementation ideas and testing of Random-X cipher.

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Zoebur Rahman, Kamal Hossain, Atef Hasan

Ethical gaps in the Ready-Made Garment industry of Bangladesh has emerged as a growing concern for the nation and the economy. The industry that is regarded as the backbone of the economy has come under global criticism for negligence in the fields of Corporate Social Responsibility. Although recent catastrophes has led to improvements in compliance, there needs to be further understanding of what areas of CSR needs to addressed intensely with regard to sustaining the industry in the competitive global markets. This paper analyses the relationship of the critical factors of internal and external factors of CSR linked to consumer behavior in the RMG industry of Bangladesh. The study has been developed using a myriad of supporting information gathered from consumers at notable stores located at Dhaka, Bangladesh. A vast pool of publications has been reviewed and evaluated to identify the key CSR factors that impact consumer behavior and a survey has been conducted with 110 respondents to accumulate realistic insights regarding the consumer trends in the industry with correspondence to CSR initiatives of the firms.

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Samar M. Sheweka, Mahmoud F. El-Sayed

Nowadays, the most important problem facing the world is the problem of energy. Egypt needs about 20% more than the power station provides to avoid the electricity shortage [1] But it is not only about energy production; a part of the current problem solution is to save energy and reduce the energy consumption through the building envelope. At this study the researchers are intending to reduce the heat transfer from outside the buildings to inside through the walls, by using different types of thermal walls insulations. A discussion for each type will be held with its impact on energy consumption rate used in cooling process. Building “B” at the British University in Egypt has been selected and thermal wall insulation strategies were applied to achieve the best kind of thermal wall insulation preventing the heat transfer from outside to inside the building. A simulation study has been conducted to calculate the amount of heat entering the building in the summer, and how much energy does the air condition consume to cool the building spaces for each kind of thermal wall. The research ended up with different recommendations and conclusions for buildings with sustainable approaches in arid climate regions.

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Jesusa L. Alimes, Grace Santa D. Daclan, Gloria P. Gempes

The main purpose of the phenomenological study was to determine the experiences of the parents who had uncompleted basic education but have professional children. It also investigated the parents’ coping mechanism in sending their children to school and their insights as parents who did not finish their basic education but have professional children. Qualitative phenomenological design was used with validated interview guide as the tool in gathering the responses of the subjects of the investigation. The study employed the in-depth interview and focus group discussion with 14 parent participants employed in the Department of Public Works and Highways of Tagum City for the year 2015. The parents shared that their sad experiences were about deprivation, wrong choices, insecurity and self-doubt, grit and determination, and financial difficulties. However, they felt some pride in surpassing all the challenges having professional children. The parents also expressed their coping mechanisms in order to survive such as their dependence on loans, strategies on income augmentation, prudence in spending and resourcefulness.

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Budi Utomo, Afifuddin Dalimunthe, Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar, Christovorus Sintong Situmorang

Now the flood has become a regular thing every rainy season arrives. But the longer, apparently extensive flood-affected areas is increasing with duration longer time. Even now in certain areas, the rain which lasted 1 hour is sufficient cause inundation. There are continuous efforts to overcome the flooding problems, but it seems the problem of flooding rather than diminish even more to improve the intensity, frequency and spreading. We tried to learn about the condition of undisturbed natural forests and how to treat rain forest. The study was conducted in the undisturbed natural forests namely Simpulan Angin forest situated in Deli Serdang, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The results show the undisturbed forest has 4 stratum layer of vegetation canopy. Humus in undisturbed forests has a thickness of 9-14 cm evenly distributed on the forest floor that serves as a giant sponge to absorb and store rainwater. This means that the undisturbed forest can absorb rainwater> 3,000 tons m 3 ha-1 every time it rains.

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Rajabu Ally Mtunge, Samuel Obino Mokaya

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of leadership in the implementation of community development projects by local non-governmental organizations in Arumeru District, Tanzania. The study applied survey design, which covered the sample of 46 respondents including District Executive Director, District Social Workers, Non-Governmental Organization leaders, workers and volunteers and community members in Arumeru district, Tanzania. The study employed simple random sampling technique in order to ensure equal chance of an individual being involved in this study as inferential statistics considered. Data collected from a sample of 46 NGOs’ employees using a semi-structured questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The collected data analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistical tools used included frequencies, mean and standard deviation while inferential statistical tool used was correlation. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 used for analyzing the data collected. The study achieved a response of 46 out of a sample of 47, representing a response rate of 97.87%. The results show that a significant number of NGOs (34.8%) had not completed their projects, 21.7% stated that less than five projects were complete and 43.5% of the respondents confirmed that more than five projects not completed over the last one year. Regarding the influence of leadership on implementation of project; spearman’s rank correlation revealed a very strong positive correlation (0.910) between of leadership vision and implementation of community development projects, a strong, positive correlation between communication and implementation of community development projects (rho = 0.730, n = 46, p < .001), strong positive correlation between commitment and implementation of community developmental projects, which was statistically significant, rs = .601, p = .000 and a positive correlation between accountability and implementation of community development projects which was statistically significant, rs = .355, p = .015. The study concludes that the implementation of community development projects in Arumeru District by NGOs was below average and greatly influenced by leadership vision, communication, accountability and commitment. There is an urgent need to take NGOs performance assessment seriously in order to justify activities with substantiated evidence rather than with anecdote or rhetoric. Further investigations need to be conducted to establish the challenges facing NGOs in the implementation of the projects.

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Robert Pumarejo

I would like to describe an idea which to me appears to be in direct correlation with the Holographic Principle as well as Einstein's cosmological constant. In essence the suggestion will be to inspire the notion that Einstein's constant is a deliberate manifestation from resonating neatly stacked, topologically Conjugated and embedded fields set on a Higgs platform utilizing a projected "Bosonic holographic Closed String Theory" as its cosmological skeletal structure. In addition an introduction to a Holographic Skeletal Modular Function known as the "EMMITT" that appears to be demanded in "The Holographic Principle" as well as Quantum Gravitation will be given.

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Dr Serah K Mbetwa, Dr R Silumbe

Entrepreneurs have emerged as market leaders in today’s business world amidst the numerous economic turmoil constantly affecting economies on a global scale. This research paper is on entrepreneurship and business management and its linkages to other business stakeholders. The research paper therefore, discusses entrepreneurship and business management; exploring the linkages to available financing and potential institutions for startup capital, by linking entrepreneurs to the government, financiers and the public clientele. It is believed that this can bring about achievement of sustainable development goals translating into sustainable development and hence economic growth. The idea of funding is echoed by Robert Rice (2016) ‘An entrepreneur without funding is like a musician with no instruments’. Sustainability and entrepreneurship ‘sustainopreneurship’ is made possible with availability of information on linkages between entrepreneurs and financial lending institutions as well as government policy. It is hoped that the research will add to the existing knowledge and help entrepreneurs with funding options for their business ideas to come to life. Findings show that the government, financial lending institutions and the public are the major linkages between entrepreneurship and business management and are critical for attaining sustainable development goals and achieving economic growth.

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Cole Thrasher

There are approximately 157 million women in America, many of which use cosmetic products daily for anti-aging treatments and overall charismatic improvement in physical appearance. Breast cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer among women in America, slightly trailing behind skin cancer. The research scientists, oncologists, and dermatologists of today have neglected the possible correlation between these cytologic illnesses and the daily behaviors of American women. This research paper is designed to promote awareness among American women and physicians so that modern women are educated on the role of their daily routine in breast cancer development. The integrity of cosmetic products is founded by common ingredients such as parabens, retinol, and even soy. The daily exposure of these potentially toxic substances can result in hormone imbalances, mitotic disruptions, genotoxic influences, and collagen overproduction. Due to these circumstances, the prognosis for most cosmetic-consuming, modern women is grim in terms of breast carcinogenesis.

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Muhammad J. Wartabone, Achmad Ruslan, Abdul Razak, Hamzah Halim

The Budget Committee is the region representative fittings that are fixed and established by region representative at the beginning of membership of region representative. Therefore, the Budget Committee of region representative in this reform era occupies a very strategic position. This study was carried out at the Region Representative Council of Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The results shows that one obstacle that affect the budget function of the Region Representative Council in establish local budget is due to lack of planning in budgeting. An arrangement model of ideal budget is necessary supervision, should the Region Representative Council as the representative body can optimize the full potential of available resources.

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Nikollaq Pano, Ira Zoga (Gjika)

Although Brexit did trigger some discussion about the European Single Market future, The Commission strategy for an area without internal frontiers, in which the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital is ensured, remains the same and increasingly attracts the attention and interest of policy makers and researchers. The digital single market, a recent concept developed in the context of the European Union, goes beyond the Cloud computing, IoT and Big Data, that are present-day words frequently mentioned in country strategies. The aim of coming together into a single market is to maximise the benefits of technology while simultaneously preserving values we hold timeless. Expanding this concept and considering the configuration of a digital market in Albania is the underpinning of this paper. Goods and services provided “on-line” will grant a better access and improved service to the benefit of customers under conditions of fair competition and a high level of consumer and personal data protection. A single platform, necessarily digital, can incorporate the banking, industrial, education, investment markets and contribute to their unification. This first step of placing the idea should be followed by considering components like digital infrastructure development, digitally educated people, collaborative economy and others. There is a vision for the country development with no timeline, yet, above and beyond the brainstorming approach.

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Shnekeev Jumaboy Kalimbetovich

In the article on the example of archaeological materials the medieval architecture and construction of dwellings is analyzed in the territory of Karakalpakstan. It was attempted to learn that the comparative analysis of results of ethnographic research, the traditional relations and way of life of the population of Southern shore of Aral Sea region by the example of the settlement Mizdahkan. The given typology based on house planning, also the internal decoration of the home were considered, from the point of view of modern town planning.

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Sri Wahyu Lelly Hana Setyanti, Lilik Farida

The objectives of this research were to analyze: (1) the effect of knowledge sharing on business performance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), (2) the effect of product innovation on business performance of SMEs, and (3) the effect of knowledge sharing on business performance of SMEs moderated by product innovation. Samples of the research consisted of 80 SMEs in East Java, Indonesia. Path Analysis was used to test the proposed hypothesis. Results showed that: (1) knowledge sharing has a positive and significant effect on business performance of SMEs, (2) product innovation has a positive and significant effect on business performance of SMEs, and (3) knowledge sharing has a positive and significant effect on business performance of SMEs moderated by product innovation.

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Urbanisasi, Aminuddin Ilmar, Syamsul Bachri, Abdul Razak

The purpose of this study was to determine and explain the mechanisms and the implementation of government share subscription in the implementation of SOEs; legal standing of the government shares subscription in the implementation of the state budget that separated in the implementation of SOEs and its legal implications of state loss or not; and also, legal accountability for losses arising out of shares subscription of SOE. In this study, the authors use normative legal research. The data obtained in this study will be analyzed using qualitative normative method with inductive logic. Results from the study indicate that state shares subscription in the establishment of SOE or limited company with funds derived from State Budget are separated. Thus, the government no longer has any authority in the field of civil law as a business entity. A clear separation of the status of country as business and as government organizer carries consequences. With the separation, then there is clarity about the concept of the state financial losses. SOE as one form of business entity that aim to make a profit is a separate legal entity and has responsibilities that are separately anyway, though formed and capital originating from the state finances and the loss of one transaction or in legal entity cannot be categorized as a state finance loss because the state has functioned as a private legal entity.

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Hrushikesh Nimkar, Bhavesh Munot, Saish Sali, Vipul Rathore

With the increasing number and complexity of network based applications, the need to easy configuration, development and integration of network applications has taken a high precedence. Trivial activities such as configuration can be carried out efficiently if network services are software based rather than hardware based. Project aims at enabling the network engineers to easily include network functionalities into his/her configuration and define his/her own network stack without using the kernel network stack. Having thought of this, we have implemented two functionalities UPNP and MDNS. The multicast Domain Name System (MDNS) resolves host names to IP addresses within small ad-hoc networks and without having need of special DNS server and its configuration. MDNS application provides every host with functionality to register itself to the router, make a multicast DNS request and its resolution. To make adding network devices and networked programs to a network as easy as it is to plug in a piece of hardware into a PC, we make use of UPnP. The devices and programs find out about the network setup and other networked devices and programs through discovery and advertisements of services and configure themselves accordingly. UPNP application provides every host with functionality of discovering services of other hosts and serving requests on demand. To implement these applications we have used snabbswitch framework which an open source virtualized ethernet networking stack.

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Dinara Nazarova

The article is devoted to the development of urban planning and architecture in the era of independence of Uzbekistan. There is also considered the issues of sustainable development of the regions and cities of Uzbekistan. In the realization process of above mentioned tasks first it is necessary to refuse old methods of functional urban planning design obtruded by the Soviet urban planning. In the XX century in designing master plans of cities development of new city parts was taken as a composition framework which neglected old city part that hasn’t received appropriate attention. This was the main mistake of the Soviet politics, which made cities lost historical city images, ensemble construction spirit.

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Samira Motamedi, Mohammad Teimouri, Marjan Mojtabavi-Naeini, Morteza Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Hossein Teimori

Transmembrane channel-like (TMC) gene has been already reported to cause nonsyndromic autosomal dominant and recessive hearing loss. Finding appropriate genetic Markers for mutation screening of the gene is crucial. The genetic information and population data for these STRs may be used not only in quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction assays but also in forensic studies and other genetic tests. In this study, the identity and characteristics of three CA short tandem repeat (STR) markers, including D9S1876, D9S1837 and D9S1799, related to this gene region were examined for further analysis in the Iranian population. Methods: The loci were genotyped by fluorescent capillary electrophoresis DNA sequencing. Results: Pair-wise linkage disequilibrium (LD) showed a considerable LD in paring markers Of D9S1876-D9S1837 and D9S1837-D9S1799. Based on haplotype analysis, eleven Informative haplotypes within markers with more than 5% frequency were observed in Iranian population. Conclusion: The introduced markers could be suggested as informative and reliable tools in Running linkage analysis of TMC1 gene mutations in the Iranian population.

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Mohammad Teimouri, Hamidreza Kamrani

In spite of availability of moderately protective vaccine and antibiotics, new antibacterial agents are urgently needed to decrease the global incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Mur family is an important target for the development of new drugs as they are involved in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell wall. MurC-MurF ligases catalyze a series of irreversible steps in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan precursor, i.e. MurD catalyzes the ligation of D-glutamate to the nucleotide precursor UMA. Here, we developed a homology model of MurD from M. Tuberculosis and was validated by using rampage, Errat and ProSA online servers. Different nutraceuticals were tested and reported for their activity. Among the 14 nutraceuticals, Diosgenin, Xanthohumol, Capsaicin, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and [6]-Gingerol have best docking score. The best of all was Diosgenin with the docking score -14.22988, Xanthohumol with -13.923555, Capsaicin with -12.880404, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate with -12.573502 and [6]-Gingerol -12.349156 which will play a guiding role in the experimental design and development of mycobacterium tuberculosis MurD

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Umi Marfuah, Andreas Tri Panudju

Infrastructure development required was to be more effective and efficient. GANESHA ENGINEERING FABRICATOR Ltd.Tbk (GEF) is a company that plays a key role in the development of major offshore infrastructure projects in Bojonegara, Banten. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the implementation of HRD systems program for project staff on off-shore platform project. This is a quantitative descriptive research. The population was the entire project staff as much as 180 people, and the sample of 119 people. Data were collected through direct interview, analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results show either simultaneously or partially demonstrate the implementation of HRD has a significant effect on the performance of project staff. The implementation of HRD to explain the effect on the variable performance of the project staffs in the off-shore platform project are up to 61.0%, while the remaining 39.0% is explained by other variables not examined.

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Mahamat H.Abakar, Ellie O.Osir, Mabel O.Imbuga, Hector G.Morgan

The properties of a bloodmeal-induced trypanolysin from the midgut of the tsetse, G. m. morsitans was studied in vitro. The semi-purified trypanolysin from twice-fed tsetse had the highest trypanolysin activity against bloodstream trypanosomes followed by those once-fed and the unfed flies. Serum found to display trypanolysin activity. The trypanolysin had no trypsin activity nor even affected by the enzyme. In addition, trypanolysin was not affected by protease inhibitors such as soy bean trypsin inhibitor (STI), N-a-p-Tosyl-L-lysine chromethyl ketone (TLCK), phenylmethyl sulphonyl fluoride (PMSF), diisopropyl fluoro-phosphate (DFP) and tosylamide-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK). However, the activity was completely inhibited by diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) and partially by aprotinin. The induction of trypanolysin activity by bloodmeal increased gradually reaching a peak at 72-120 h after the bloodmeal, and then decreased rapidly, with only 25% of the peak activity remaining after 192 h. The trypanolysin was inactivated during storage at 27℃ and 4℃ after 15 and 32 days, respectively. Similarly, heating the midguts trypanolysin to 60 - 80℃ led to loss of activity. On the other hand, 50℃ was found to be the optimum temperature for trypanolysin activity. The activity was also unstable by freeze-thaw at 80℃, -70℃, -20℃ and 0℃ after 33, 41, 55 and 63 days, respectively. Trypanolysin caused lyses of bloodstream-form T. b. brucei, while the procyclic trypanosomes were unaffected. The highest trypanolysin activity in different tsetse species was found with Glossina longipennis, followed by Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans centralis, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. m. morsitans. When the midgut homogenate was separated by anion-exchange chromatography, the trypanolysin activity was recovered in the bound fraction. These results suggest that the midgut trypanolysin plays an important role in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse.

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Nilesh A. Lal, Salendra Prasad, Mohammed Farik

Authentication is process of granting a user access to an information system. There are three main types of authentication mechanisms – password entry, smart card, and biometric. Each authentication mechanism functions differently and has their strengths and weakness. In this paper we review different types of authentication mechanisms, their vulnerabilities, and recommend novel solutions.

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Desire Etaba Angoni, Minette Tomedi Eyango, Joseph Tchoumboue

The experiment was conducted in Nkolnkondi II, Central Region-Cameroon with the main objective of contributing to ameliorate the massive production of Oreochromis niloticus associated with Clarias jaensis in fertilized ponds. A total of 500 fingerlings of Clarias jaensis and 1000 fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus with their respective average weights of (20, 39±4,87g) and (15, 32±3,01g) were stocked in three treatments. The treatment (To) is a control not treated with fertilizers and the treatments (T1, T2) consist of a portion of fish fed with fowls and pigs droppings. The following results were obtained : final average weight, weight gain, daily weight gain and the specific growth rates of T0 in Oreochromis niloticus were : (147,45±0,07 g) ;(128,12±0,87g);(1,26±0,73g/j) those of T1 and T2were respectively (171,00±0,97g); (153,69±1,99g); (0,84±0,06g/j); (1,33±0,62%g/j) and (151,60±1,99g);(115,32±1,29g) ;(0,64±0,24g/j) ;(1,19±0,16%g/j). But those in Clarias jaensis were as follows ;T0 (138,20±0,92g) ,(124,42±2,51g);(0,38±1,08g/j), (1,13±0,51%g/j), T1 and T2 were (158,63±1,69g) ,(122,93±1,02g) ,(0,74±0,09g/j),(0,41±0,09g/j),(0,41±0,11%g/j) and (125,07±1,28g) ;(108,90±1,69 g) ;(0,21 ±0,03 g/j) ;(0,52 ± 0,35g/j) respectively. For survival rate, the followings [(82,15±1,06 %) ,(76,53±1,46%) ,(86,63±1,29%) and (96,20±0,12%) ,(92,36±1,02%) , (94,16±0,09%)] were respectively obtained in Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias jaensis in treatments T0, T1 and T2. It was observed that the treatment T1 from the portion fed with fowls droppings recorded a high significant value (p˂0.05) in final average weight, weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate of juveniles of Oreochromis niloticus with respect to T0 and T2.

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Crisostomo Castro Canencia

The study sought answers on the practices of the bioarts education at work in term of site selection, establishment process, conservation of rainwater, utilization of raintree leaves, the 4 R’s reuse-recycle-reduce and redesign, entrepreneurship and do-it-alone. (S.E.C.U.R.E.D) The study showed that site selection considered the topography, type of soil, vegetation, nearness to market, drainage, free from flood, water supply, easy means of transportation, supply of fish, poultry and livestock, cheap skilled labor, peace and order. The study also indicated that the establishment process included the sound site selection, planning-designing and lay-outing, labor and material inputs, fish-crop-poultry and livestock establishment, production-care and feeding , harvesting and marketing practices. The study further showed that it saved 400.80 cubic meters of rainwater used for fishponds, 14.4 cubic meters of garden soil used in a potted marcotted citrus for 4 years operation. With the applied 4 R’s, it saved 12,567.25 pesos from the market cost of 15, 530.00 pesos. And the do-it-alone saved 18,104.00 from the 240,649.00 development and operational cost and 53,850.00 from 96,000.00 expenses on the arts thus it provided 41% return of investment.

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Victoriano Joseph Pascual, Yu-Min Wang

The pressure to limit water supply in irrigated agriculture while producing more food with less water is being exacerbated by population growth and climate change. Rice is a very important and valuable crop to Taiwan’s economy; but production is being hampered by water shortage. This research was therefore conducted during the rainy season with the intent of saving irrigation and rain water while maintaining a suitable drainage depth for sustaining rice yield under SRI management. Three different drainage depths T2cm, T4cm, T6cm and a control Tsat was used alongside irrigation under a complete randomized block design having four replications. Results revealed water reduction after panicle initiation significantly affected plant height in T2cm and T4cm, and grain yield in T2cm. The lowest grain reduction (4.92%) and grain production loss (0.09 kg) was produced by T4cm.The highest total water productivity (0.52kg/m3) and irrigation water productivity (1.88 kg/m3) was produced in T2cm followed by T4cm (0.44 kg/m3) and (1.14kg/m3) respectively. The draining of excess rainfall at 4cm depth and providing irrigation of the same amount provided the best results under SRI management in terms of yield and irrigation water saving.

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Yousef Hashem Salameh Ali

now days more and more services are provided to citizens through web sites. These services are improving from the be-ginning of the application submission to get the product right up, to the stage of electronic payment and receipt of the product by delivery companies to homes. Electronic services led to a growing and high satisfaction from citizens about e-government services.

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Duong Dieu MD

Until 2011 there had been no full-time training course for dispensing optician diploma in Vietnam. Most of the practicing opticians with no qualification and formal training have learnt their skills through apprentice. In response to the demand of the industry, Nguyen Tat Thanh University (Vietnam) has teamed up with Bradford College (United Kingdom) to develop a curriculum for a of formal 2-year full-time training for dispensing optician. The curriculum is applied for 4 semesters, and graduate gets called Intermediate Professional Diploma, level included 4 semesters. (In VN after high school, students can obtain different many levels of study such as: Intermediate Professional Diploma; College; Bachelor; Master and PhD). The 1st semester is basis of Intermediate Professional Diploma level. The 2nd semester is the study of refractive error and primary care, each for 4 weeks (100 hours) in theory and primary eye care 4 weeks for theory (100 hours). Also in this semester, the learners have practiced clinical rotation at the Ophthalmic Hospital / Ophthalmic Service in General Hospital for 10 weeks. The 3rd semester is specialized of dispensing Optician included: Lenses, frame, contact lenses, and laboratory for optician. In the 4th semester, the training concentrates in the management of the eyeglasses shop and practicing in making spectacles for customers are in the 4th semester. The 1st intake of the course was opened started in 2011 and had 30 students graduated in 2013. This paper describes the experience of developing the curriculum in the context of a developing country where the industry is still under regulated and less developed. The first program optician that privileged on primary eye care will be satisfied for community (WHO 2020: 1 optometrist for 50.000 people and 10 ophthalmologists for 1.000.000 people). Some characteristics of first course’ students have been noted. The result of this curriculum will be evaluated in the coming time.

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