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IJSTR Volume 2- Issue 10, October 2013 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Kifah Q. Salih

Abstract: We have been proposed a treatment method for the visible photoluminescence enhancement of SiO2 layer thermally grown on Si<100> wafer by surface texture modification. We have used liquid nitrogen (LN2) as treatment method. That method applied at different exposure time from 10min to 30sec.Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of treated SiO2/Si samples was studied using the 514.5 nm line of an Ar+ Laser.PL signal in the wavelength rang 530-880 nm was observed .AFM and SEM have used to study the surface texture change. Samples of an exposure time (1 min, ±30sec) show emission at 580-880 nm with a maximum PL intensity .We have observed the PL intensity and spectra shape of treated samples are dependent on the surface texture modification. The visible PL is enhanced 2-fold by the surface treatment. The origin of the visible PL emission of SiO2 has been investigated on QCLC model.

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Aliyah, Elly Wahyudin, Cahyono Kaelan, Mappatoba Sila

Abstract: Supplementary feeding mixed with paliasa leaves (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) to the honeybees Apis mellifera L. is expected to produce honey, which have properties of paliasa naturally. Four colonies of honeybees were fed a mixture of syrup and paliasa leaf decoction with four different concentrations, one for each colony, to produce honey essence of paliasa (HEP). In general the bees liked the given supplementary feed. Differences in color and aroma of HEP did not depend on the amount of feed consumed but were influenced by the concentration of paliasa in the supplementary feed given. The higher concentration of paliasa resulting in HEP with the darker color, the more real aroma of paliasa, and the more viscous consistency. The HEP had a sweet and sour sweet taste with pH between 4.90 and 5.15 and water content between 19.51 and 21.67%. The qualitative analysis showed that the HEP produced by bees fed without paliasa gave only positive reactions for alkaloids, while the HEP produced by bees fed with paliasa gave positive results for alkaloids, polyphenols and flavonoids. This indicated that the chemical components of paliasa were transformed by the bees into the HEP. The higher concentration of paliasa the higher level of total polyphenols and total flavonoids of HEP with the amount of total polyphenol contents was greater than the total flavonoid contents.

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Vishal Jain, Dr. Mayank Singh

ABSTRACT: Now days, a large amount of data is available on the internet in the form of structured, un-structured and semi-structured data. Basically, today lots of data is available offline and online in the form of data, collection of tables, rows and columns. But now in the era Web 2.0, we have one other mechanism to store the data in the form of ontology, which are very useful for a community as a way of structuring and defining the meaning of the metadata that are currently collected and standardized. In this paper, we are going to discuss various techniques for mapping between the database and ontology.

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P.Y. Andoh, F. Davisand Y.A.K. Fiagbe

ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide is used as a preservative and taste parameter in the soft drink industry. It has many other commercial uses with new applications continually being created. Carbon dioxide may be used in either a vapor, liquid, solid or supercritical state in a given applications such as carbonation of beverages. Improper combustion of air-to-fuel ratio in the combustor during carbon dioxide production can result in high cost of production and also affect quality of product. In this work, factorial design technique is utilized in studying the effects of fuel rate, air pressure and fuel quality on carbon dioxide production. A model is then developed to monitor the level of carbon dioxide produced in the flue gas of a carbon dioxide production plant at a coca cola bottling company. It can be concluded that all the three process parameters have significant effects on the production of carbon dioxide gas. The model obtained can be used to predict and monitor the quantity of fuel and air required, thus improving the efficiency and quality of the carbon dioxide produced.

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Mohammed Rizk Awad, Prof. Dr. Taymoor Nazmy, Prof. Dr. Ismael Amr Ismael

Abstract: Investing in the bulk carrier market constitutes risky investment due to the volatility of the bulk carrier earning rates. Ship-owners invariably take several quotations before making an order for building a new ship. Shipbuilding process has indeed swung upwards or downwards depending upon the number of shipyards competing for a given volume of orders, and the shipyard region. The decision makers for strategic purchasing greatly require an efficient, valid and fair tool to assist them in determining the best region to build from forthwith. In this paper, we concentrated a suitable shipbuilding Dry-cargo Bulk Carrier region for decision makers, which belongs to Multi-Criteria Decision Making and attempted to uncover the benefit of using integrated Fuzzy set theory with AHP methodology to decrease the influence of decision maker's subjective preference, and control the uncertain and imprecise variations during evaluation process. The degree of confidence and risk index are also joined, so that decision makers can adjust them to match real context. Finally, the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was applied to the final rank of alternatives. The data were collected from "Clarksons Research Studies" (CRS) for quantitative variable which provides a statistical and research service to Clarkson brokers, their clients and the shipping world in general. Four decisions makers in marine strategic purchasing were invited and asked to give the qualitative variables (intangible criteria). Another methodology was employed for the same object called Consensus Group Decision Making (CGDM), with addition of threshold to simplify the process iteration of the methodology and it gives the same rank [21]. The advantages of FAHP is mainly depends of tangible criteria that have accurate values and intangible criteria which Fuzzy theory was used to deals with, compared with the CGDM that mainly depends of experts that may be high risk and have confidence degree of their opinions.

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M. Durairaj, V. Ranjani

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we have focused to compare a variety of techniques, approaches and different tools and its impact on the healthcare sector. The goal of data mining application is to turn that data are facts, numbers, or text which can be processed by a computer into knowledge or information. The main purpose of data mining application in healthcare systems is to develop an automated tool for identifying and disseminating relevant healthcare information. This paper aims to make a detailed study report of different types of data mining applications in the healthcare sector and to reduce the complexity of the study of the healthcare data transactions. Also presents a comparative study of different data mining applications, techniques and different methodologies applied for extracting knowledge from database generated in the healthcare industry. Finally, the existing data mining techniques with data mining algorithms and its application tools which are more valuable for healthcare services are discussed in detail.

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Ambika R, Kiran Jose, Priyadharshini. K, Priyanga S Kumar, Ramyashree

Abstract: Health monitoring is one of the main application areas for ubiquitous computing. The potential for ubiquitous computing is evident in almost every aspect of our lives including the hospital, emergency and critical situations. The use of this technology in the field of health and wellness is known as pervasive health care. The proposed project, Wireless Remote Healthcare System, is a smart and personalized means by which a patient can get medical health feedback and helps in saving Valuable Time, Ensures remote monitoring of vital statistics such as Pressure, Temperature and Pulse Rate and helps in Lowering the cost of Long term medical Care. It introduces the concept of tele-care - Allowing doctor patient interaction at a distance and not in the conventional setting of the hospital. The proposed WRHS integrate a set of interacting portable devices, while preserving mobility and independence and providing medical support in certain critical situations.

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Neena Priyanka, P. K. Joshi

Abstract: Invasive species that alter fire regimes are widely recognized as some of the most important system-altering species on the planet. Lantana camara, a pervasive invasive species, is hypothesized to alter fire regimes to greater extent causing damage to ecosystem properties. Thus, to elucidate its relationship with fire, if any, study on species presence and fire occurrences were carried out in present study. Venn diagrams and distance matrix analysis were employed to discern relationship between the two. The study revealed that more than 75% of the fire occurrences overlapped with Lantana camara presence with overlapping percentage exceeding 50%. Also, these regions were characterized with open forest canopy and dense Lantana camara infestations. The distance matrices of fire occurrences and Lantana camara presence ascertained that around 63.33% of measured distances between the two varied between 0-15 km only in both national parks. This confirms that reported occurrences of fire were found to be in close vicinity of species presence. Also, due to Lantana camara close proximity to fire occurrences, propulsion of further fire by providing fuel loads cannot be ruled out. These empirical evidences to some extent support the hypothesis that fire may be driven under presence of invasive species such as Lantana camara and vice versa holds true. The information presented in this research along with further comprehension of the relationship dynamics will allow for better management of Lantana camara invasions that have major ecological, economic and societal implications.

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Mishko Djidrov, Dejan Mirakovski, Simeon Simeonov, Slavco Cvetkov, Zlatko Sovreski

Abstract : The connection between economic freedom and conflictis seen differently by different researchers. This paper explores the relationship between economic freedom and conflict and the tendencies in the Balkan region. The economic freedom index by Heritage foundation was used and it was related to the data from Heidelberg Institute of International Conflict Research (HIIK) and their conflict barometer. The analysis was done in order to determine the current tendencies in the region for the period from 1995 to 2012. The results showed that there are no countries in the groups of "Mostly Free" and "Free" countries, but there is a constant growth in the economic freedom index in the recent years. The analyzes of the conflicts showed that most of the countries are in the group of "Moderately Free" countries with at least one conflict, with high percentage of conflict occurrence and difficulties in finding resolution for long period of time. The relationship of the conflicts and economic freedom showed that Balkan countries have tendency to become economic free countries with less conflicts.

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Ijeoma, N., Bilesanmi, A. O., Aronu, C. O.

ABSTRACT: Human resource accounting is viewed as the process of identifying, measuring and communicating information about human resources in order to facilitate effective management within an organization where, the various decisions relating to hiring, training, developing, conservation, recruiting, allocation and selection of employees have to be made by the top management of any organization. This study examines the contribution of human resource accounting on the financial statement of banks in Nigeria using the Mantel Test Analysis. The method of data collection used in this study is field survey method which involved the use of questionnaire and interview. From the findings, it was observed that there exist a strong positive resemblance between the responses of Zenith Bank Plc staff and responses of First Bank Plc staff with an association of 98.43% and a p-value of 0.00 which falls on the rejection of the hypothesis assuming 95% confidence Interval. Also, it was concluded that the application of human resource accounting measures, management of banking Institutions will see its human resource as assets to be maximized rather than expenses to be minimized, which will lead to greater productivity in most of the key areas that guarantees the success of the institution.

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P.Y. Andoh, Y.A.K. Fiagbe, F. Davis, S. Asaana

ABSTRACT: Improper wash of reused bottles in beer and soft drink production plants can result in high cost of production and potentially dangerous health hazard to customers. It is shown that when machines are used over a period of time, they are not able to perform at their best, for which there are many root causes. This paper developed a mathematical model to predict and monitor the amount of Dirt Defect and Caustic Residue Defect in a washed bottle in a beverage bottling company. In this work, a 23 factorial design is applied to investigate the effect of Pressure, Temperature and Caustic soda concentration, on two washing responses namely: bottles with Caustic Residue Defect and bottles with Dirt Defect. A model was generated for the washing responses to the washing variables. The generated models can be used to aid the quality improvement and reliability in the washed bottles for the beverage companies in Ghana.

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Ogori Akama. F

ABSTRACT: The research work is on physiochemical quality of traditionally processed cassava ball and chunks flours ,lending credence to home use ,small scale or meduim enterprise/factories on the potential of the chunk and balls flours in the market .The quality characteristics properties of cassava flour from meal of retted dried balls and chunks from randomised sampling had their physical , physio-chemical and chemical characteristics analysed using standard method. Physical properties of flour had (2.50-11.25) g/g water binding capacity, (2.15-18.0) w/v gelation capacity and (25.75-45.35) viscosity.physio-chemical properties of flour had titratable acidity (0.011-0.125), (4.07-4.99)pH and (1.85-8.75) mg/100g hydrocyanic acid content from meal of retted balls flour which agreed with standard. Chemical propertis had (1.05-1.53)% crude protein, (3.75-7.0)% ash and (2.87-3.78)% crude fiber. The (79.38-83.1) carbohydrate and (324.49-345.0) energy value from dried chunks flour were high and compared favorably with standard.

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Lynet Nyakudya, Danai Tavonga Zhou

Abstract: A physiological increase in serum total cholesterol levels occurs during pregnancy. This hypercholesterolaemia may lead to metabolic disorders in the foetus and the mother. Little information is available on pregnancy-induced lipid metabolism disturbances in the Zimbabwe setting. A cross-sectional study of total serum cholesterol levels in pregnant women who attended Chitungwiza Central Hospital Antenatal Clinic between 24 January 2013 and 14 February 2013 was carried out. All recruited women were either in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Samples were analysed using a BS120® Chemistry Analyser. The paired t test proportion was used to test the hypothesis at 5% significance level.There were a significant proportion of women with moderately elevated total serum cholesterol compared to pregnant women reference ranges but it could not be determined whether the elevations were pathological or physiological hence further studies are required to determine whether this could develop into overt hypercholesterolaemia post- partum.Of significance, in this study the third trimester women had significantly higher mean total cholesterol levels compared to the second trimester women, p value = 0.0033 (p< 0.05).

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Ronald Chikati, Nkosinathi Mpofu

Abstract: Today the general business environment is inundated with a plethora of challenges that can spur only those businesses sound strategies have chances of surviving the competition. The higher education landscape is facing fierce competition from some institutions that have introduced duplicate or differentiated educational programmes and courses. Knowledge management (KM) plays an indispensable role of acting as a precursor to attaining a more comprehensive and sustainable competitive advantage. It is imperative therefore that each and every organisation takes as a necessary step, self-reflection and audit areas of its gain and those that require redemption and correction. In the majority of cases this information is evident in the organisation's knowledge management repositories. Having this information and being able to harvest actionable information is the greatest challenge faced by the business world. Managers and strategy implementers need to be schooled on how to exploit the massive mountains of data that are already archived and those that are being generated on daily basis. Knowledge is fast becoming a strategic organisational resource that must be tapped and converted into competitive advantage [1]. The use of information technology (IT) and relevant information systems (IS) has helped organisations generate relevant information that an organisation needs to use to make informed decisions. Knowledge management system (KMS) be used to produce information that can give some insights about business performance and the organisation can whack into these skills and expertise to bolster its competitive advantage over the external competition. This work advocates for knowledge management to be implemented in an organisation as a guaranteed strategy to survive the dynamic changes currently redefining the turbulent business landscape.

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Ogundipe, Olumide Moses

ABSTRACT: This study involves the collection of clay sample at a site along Ise / Ikere Road at Ikere-Ekiti region and evaluation of its properties in natural state and after stabilization with lime. The major objective of the study is to determine the optimum lime content that will stabilize the clay soil adequately. Also, it investigates the level of improvement that could be achieved by stabilizing clayey soil with lime. The tests carried out include mechanical sieve analysis and hydrometer test, specific gravity, moisture content, Atterberg limit test, compaction test, and California bearing ratio test. The high moisture content of the natual clay soil clearly shows its high water absorption capability. The addition of lime reduces the plasticity index at 8% and 10% lime content. The maximum dry density (MDD) increases with an increase in lime content from 0 to 8%, while a reduction in the MDD was observed at 10%. The maximum optimum moisture content (OMC) was recorded at 10% lime content. The California bearing ratio (CBR) of the lime stabilized clay increases for lime content of 2% to 8%, with the maximum value obtained at 8%, while a reduction in the CBR was observed at 10%. The reduction in the CBR at 10% might be due to the excess lime in the clay not required for the early strength gain as a result of flocculation.

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Nkosinathi Mpofu, Ronald Chikati

Abstract: Education aims to shape human behaviour so they can be able to socialize in the community and adjust to the environment in order to maintain the continuity of life, both personal, group, or society as a whole. UNESCO [1] sees education as a part of the culture because education is an effort to provide basic knowledge in preparation of life. To enhance the learning experience and the entire education process, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been adopted, however, only a certain population enjoy the benefits which come with the ICTs. This paper seeks to describe the education value chain and how digital divide has impacted to it. It concludes by proposing strategies that can be used to minimize the impact of the digital divide to the entire education value chain.

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Girish Narayan, Tapan Kidambi, Abhishek A, Abhishek Hariths

Abstract: Objective: The objective was to obtain a sound casting with focus on optimization of molten metal consumption while simultaneously achieving a uniform ferrite structure in the casting. Methodology: To obtain the required microstructure, a water jacket was introduced into the mould to achieve the desired solidification rate. This was found to enhance the formation of uniform ferrite structure in the casting body and reduce the molten metal requirement. Controlled solidification is dependent on the geometrical modulus of the casting. The modulus decreases as the metal solidifies during the process of casting. After calculating the modulus of the specific job the hotspots of the body and the in-gates were identified. Based on this analysis an improvised water jacket circuit was provided in the mould. The water flow rate was designed as per the molten metal requirement of the casting. Experiments were conducted on a particular job for various water flow rates and moduli to achieve the required micro-structure. Results: The introduction of cooling line inside the mould showed significant improvement in formation of Ferrite structure. At higher solidification rates, the requirement of molten metal was found to reduce drastically. This process increased the efficiency of the risers with improved flat feeding. The cavity formation was less and safety margin (normally considered 25mm) was found to reduce to 15 mm. The decline in pearlite (black regions) & enhanced uniformity in ferrite (white regions) structure improves the quality of casting in terms of strength, ductility & toughness.

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Vincent Omollo, Dr. K. Langat, Dr. S. Musyoki, E. Ogari, P. Nyakomita

Abstract: The security of data is a very important aspect of every institution. One of the methods of boosting data security is by use of routing stack transformation. This approach successfully hides router inter-networking operating system from potential hackers by giving wrong or inaccurate results about the target operating system (including its manufacturer, model and version). This process normally involves changing the system kernel and modifying the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) parameters. In this paper, we investigated the effects of the above changes in data transmission rates (bit rates). This was done by use of experimentations before and after these alterations. A number of packets were sent from source and the time they take to reach the target is measured. This information was then used to determine the access rates in kilobits per second across a given communication link. We found that the network speeds were slightly reduced due to the TCP/IP and kernel changes. This could be attributed to the fact that network devices now took a long time trying to learn the format of the new packets, hence the subsequent delays. Due to this, a number of ways of boosting network speed are suggested. The simulated results tend to agree with the real trend observed in that in both scenarios, network access rates were reduced after routing stack transformation.

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Dr. Bichanga Walter Okibo, Steve Lucky Ogwe.

ABSTRACT: Quality customer care services is a significant basis which customers use for differentiating between competing services of different company offering same product and services, second only to market share hence the purpose of the study was to examine factors affecting quality customer care service in Telkom industry in Kenya: a case study of Telkom Kenya, specific objectives were to determine how staff training, accessible customer care centres, organisation customer care policies and guideline, agility supply chain of products and service affect quality customer care services in Telkom Kenya. The problem statement were Telkom Kenya has lost most of its customers to its competitors mainly due to poor customer service skills, policies and provision by the organisation, poor agility supply chain management of its core products and services and lack of strategic business customer care location on a decentralized business system for easy accessibility by its customers.

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Nwosu O.B, Umego M.N, Onuba L.N

Abstract: The new high resolution aeromagnetic data have been used to re-evaluate parts of the Middle Benue Trough Nigeria using spectral analysis technique in order to appraise the hydrocarbon accumulation potential of the area. The regional field was separated with a first order polynomial using polifit program. The residual data was subdivided into 16 spectral blocks allowing spectral probe of 12.5km by 12.5km area for 15minute by 15minute windowing using OASIS MONTAJ software program. Two prominent magnetic depth source layers were identified. The deeper source depth values obtained ranges from 2.33km to less than 5.66km with an average depth of 3.65km as the magnetic basement depth while for the shallower sources, the depth values ranges from 0.07km to less than 0.42km with an average depth of 0.21km. The shallow depth source is attributed to the volcanic rocks that intruded the sedimentary formation and this could possibly be responsible for the mineralization found in parts of the study area. The significance of the magnetic depth value indicate that the sedimentary layer of the Albian Age, Coniacian - Turonian Age, and Turonian - Senonian Age is thick enough to generate hydrocarbon if other conditions are met.

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Ranjeeta Soni, Dr. Shikha Modi

Abstract: Red Mud is a very fine material (particle size of which is generally below 75μ) and high specific surface area (around10 m2/gm). It is mainly composed of iron oxides and has a variety of elements and mineralogical phases. The variation in chemical composition between different red muds worldwide is high. The removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by using the original and activated red mud forms has been studied by many researchers (Lopez et al., 1998). The fluoride adsorption capacity of activated form has been found to be higher than that of the original form. The adsorption is highly dependant on PH. Researches have revealed that the maximum adsorption of fluoride is at pH 5.5.For pH greater than 5.5 fluoride removal decreases sharply. The sufficient time for adsorption equilibrium of fluoride ions is 2 hrs. The possibility of removal of fluoride ion by using red mud is on the basis of the chemical nature and specific interaction with metal oxide surfaces (Yunus et a1. 2002).

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Roshan Kumar, Jeevith Bopaiah, Pranjal Jain, Dr. Nalini N, Dr. K. Chandra Sekaran

Abstract: In recent years, cloud computing has become increasingly popular. Many application developers are now switching to cloud platform. Thus there is a need to develop a framework that guides the software development process for cloud software. Model driven architecture is a software development process that models the system at different levels of abstraction and uses transformation tools for model-model or model-code transformations. In this paper we have presented an overall generic framework using model-driven approach which creates software applications that are robust and flexible in nature. The applications are developed at a platform independent level so that they can be easily adapted to different cloud platforms.

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Donde Oscar Omondi, Muia A. Wairimu, Shivoga A. William

Abstract: This study investigated the temporal variation in community water source types within Lake Naivasha basin; borehole Direct (Dir), boreholePoints of Access (POA), and surface sources between April and July 2011.This was done through determination of the concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, intestinalenterococci, C. perfringens and HPC in Lake Naivasha, Rivers Malewa and Gilgil and borehole water samples using Membrane Filtration Techniques(MFT) and Pour Plate Procedures. Physico-chemical parameters were also determined insitu for all water sources. Most of the physicochemical parameters did not show variation with respect to sampling time (months) except temperature and conductivity from borehole direct and borehole points of access (P<0.05). Surface sources recorded higher values in all the four months for all the parameters than borehole direct and POA sources. E. coli and C. Perfringens showed significant temporal variation only in the surface sources but not on the two borehole sources (p<0.05) while total coliforms and intestinal enterococci did not show any significant temporal variation in all the water source types (p>0.05). In conclusion, the study indicated presence of temporal variation in some microbiological parameters and recommended that other environmental parameters such as rainfall patterns be included to better understand and interpret the results.

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O. I. Sekunowo, S. O. Adeosun, G. I. Lawal

ABSTRACT: The imperative of secondary corrosion response evaluation in real-time to prevent catastrophic failure in service continues to be at forefront of research efforts. In this paper, electrochemical polarisation response of mild steel in acid and seawater media was studied. Specially prepared mild steel plate coupons were immersed in seawater and 1M hydrochloric acid respectively at a scan rate of 0.2 volts per second while the corrosion potentials varied from -0.6 volts to +1.6 volts. The electrode polarisation response data obtained is used to analyse the material relevant electrochemical parameters. The results demonstrate the well established corrosion phenomenon of carbon steel (mild steel) occasioned by chloride ions aggressiveness coupled with the acidic nature of the corrosion product. Thus, the continuous corrosion without any passive time-lag of the mild steel in seawater is predicated on the large concentration of chloride ions. It is concluded that corrosion mitigation of mild steel in seawater and hydrochloric acid entails either an entire prevention of accumulation of corrosion product or an efficient neutralisation of its acidic nature.

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D. L Jayamohan Das, DR R Rajeev, DR R. S Rajeev, DR K. S Santhosh kumar

ABSTRACT: A bisphenol-A-aniline based Polybenzoxazine was synthesized by reacting bisphenol-A with formaldehyde and aniline. The chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR analysis. The polymerization behavior of the monomer was monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and FT-IR. The curing kinetics was studied by non-isothermal DSC and kinetic parameters were determined at heating rate (5, 10,15and 20˚C/min) from RT - 400˚C. The kinetic of thermal decomposition was investigated with thermogravimetric analysis by conducting the measurements at four different heating rates (5, 10,15and 20˚C/min) from RT - 900˚C/min. Different kinetic models such as, Flynn-wall-Ozawa method, Kissinger method were adopted for both non-isothermal curing kinetics and decomposition kinetics.

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Yaser A. Yousef

Abstract: This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining fluorescence lifetimes in the sub-nanosecond timescale using excitation light pulses with few nanoseconds width. Measured and calculated fluorescence lifetime values where confirmed using more sophisticated systems with pico-second and-femto second pulse width excitation sources. For demonstration purposes the variation in fluorescence lifetimes for -tocopherol in polar and nonpolar solvents is presented.

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Adejumo B. A

Abstract: Preliminary investigations on the Comparative Tensile Strength (CTS) and Percentage Elongations (PE) of some selected plastic materials used for gari packaging and storage was carried out. With the initial CTS and PE determined, 500g each of freshly produced gari were packaged in a 20 x 40cm polyester, polypropylene and hessian bags respectively. The CTS and PE were determined on monthly basis for 6 months at three replicates each. The results show that the polyester, polypropylene and hessian bags had initial CTS of 0.98, 3.19, 3.68 and PE of 57.0%, 17.0%, and 14.0% respectively. The CTS of all the packaging materials decreased with increase in storage duration. PE decreased by 75% and 53% for polyester and polypropylene bags, while it increased by 7% in hessian bags. CTS and PE of packaging bags were significantly lower (p<0.05) than their initial values. The CTS of polypropylene and hessian bags were lower than their threshold values of 1.49 and 1.2N/mm indicating their unsuitability for long term storage of gari, while for polyester bag it is still within the threshold value. However, further work should be carried out to ascertain the probability of the effects of the composition of gari on the effects of these mechanical properties.

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H.A. Affum, I.I. Mumuni, G.K. Appiah, S.Y. Adzaklo, M. A. Addo

ABSTRACT: Risers are considered vital parts on fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) conversion units. It is inside the riser that the heavy hydrocarbon molecules are cracked into petroleum fractions such as gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A simplified kinetic flow model in combination with the Tank-In-Series model was used to predict the conversion response of an FCC riser to changes in feed temperature, feed flow rate as well as riser diameter and height. The various Residence Time Distribution (RTD) functions and flow-model parameters are used in the characterization of the mixing regime of the riser and the degree of any non-ideal flow behaviour. Conversion was observed to increase with increasing riser height and diameter with values of 95.16% and 94.0% at a riser height of 80 m and diameter of 1.0 respectively. Conversion also increased with increasing feed temperature. A feed flow rate of 10 m3/s is converted at 95.95 % whiles a feed flow rate of 40 m3/s is converted at 89.72%, indicating an inverse relationship between conversion and feed flow rate. The simulation also revealed that the riser reactor is equal to approximately 1-2 perfectly stirred tanks in series as conversion started to decrease after an N, the number of tanks in the Tank-In-Series model, of 1.5.

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Md. Emdadul Haque, M. Nairuzzaman, M. Hasan Imam

Abstract: The clay and non-clay minerals have been identified by XRD analysis. The non-clay minerals include quartz, crystobalite, orthoclase, microcline, plagioclase, calcite, siderite and dolomite, and the clay minerals include kaolinite (52.39%), illite (36.39%) and illite-smectite mixed layer minerals (11.21%). Kaolinite is the most dominant component in the clay mineral assemblages. The clay minerals e.g. kaolinite, illite and illite-smectite have influences on the liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index. The higher amount of illite and illite-smectite will increase the liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index in the soil whereas higher amount of kaolinite would decrease the liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index. The higher the amount of illite and illite-smectite in the soil, the higher the activity in that soil. The clay minerals like kaolinite, illite and illite-smectite have marked influences on the shrinkage limit of the soil. The higher the illite-smectite in the soil, the higher the co-efficient of volume change (mV), compression index (CC), and preconsolidation pressure in the soils. The higher amount of kaolinite and illite decrease the co-efficient of volume change (mV), compression index (CC) and preconsolidation pressure. The increase of kaolinite and illite-smectite in the soil decreases coefficient of consolidation. But the increase of illite slightly increases the coefficient of consolidation. Illite influences the coefficient of permeability value less than illite-smectite, but more than kaolinite. Therefore, the clay minerals have significant influences on the geotechnical behaviour of the Madhupur Clay soil of Dhaka and Savar.

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Reagan Entigu Ak Linton @ Jerah, Samuel Lihan, Ismail bin Ahmad

Abstract: Ribavirin is a broad spectrum antiviral drug and has been used to treat various diseases. It has been used as a treatment for subacute sclerosis panencephalitis (SSPE) caused by measles virus infection. However, there were several adverse effects when receiving ribavirin treatment. Other than ribavirin and vaccine, there is no cure for the disease thus medicinal plants being studied for their potential active compounds to be used as either mono or combined treatment with drugs. The objective of this study was to test antiviral activity of octadecanoic acid, methyl ester (OA), extracted from Cymbopogon nardus (sweet lemon grass) against measles virus in both mono and combination with ribavirin. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activity were tested at low concentration for the compound (25, 12.5 and 2.5 µg/ml) and ribavirin (0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 CC50). The cytotoxicity result showed that the low concentrations of both compounds have low cytotoxicity on Vero cell although there was slight increment of toxicity when they were combined. However, the combined treatment showed higher antiviral activity (p <0.05) compared to single treatment of both compounds (OA12.5 µg/ml + RBV0.05CC50: 94.38 ± 1.5%, OA12.5 µg/ml: 67.09 ± 0.2%, RBV0.05CC50: 51.12 ± 2.1%). The result has also shown that decreasing of the concentration of the combination could still maintained the antiviral activity comparable to single treatment and less cytotoxicity toward Vero cell. This study has proven that OA can be combined with commercial drug such as ribavirin to produce higher antiviral activity at lower concentration for combination of both compounds.

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Kiran G Vetteth, Prithvi Ganesh K, Durbha Srikar

Abstract: The white cane is the most successful and widely used travel aid for the blind. This purely mechanical device is used to detect obstacles on the ground, uneven surfaces, holes, steps, and other hazards. The main problem with the white cane is that users must be trained. In addition, this device requires the user to actively scan the small area ahead of him/her, and it cannot detect obstacles beyond its reach of 1 - 2 m. Another drawback of the white cane is that obstacles can be detected only by contact. This can become inconvenient to the user and the people around the user. Guide dogs are very capable guides for the blind, but they require extensive training as well, and are extremely expensive. Collision Avoidance Device for the Visually Impaired is a hands-free and a hassle-free pedestrian navigation system. It integrates several technologies including wearable computers, image processing, audio processing and sound navigation and ranging. This device focuses on bringing about an approach which would make a visually impaired person to walk through busy roads and help identify obstacles without any trouble. The device uses a digital camera to capture the image frames directly in front of the user, and the processor implements image processing to determine the obstacle and a set of vibrational motors warns the user. The system also provides audio response. The sonar sensors detect obstacles in the user's immediate vicinity. Upon detection, the vibrational motors caution him/her regarding the presence of obstacles. Image processing is used to provide the lateral distance between the obstacle and the user, so as to provide distance perception. Being a real time system, it accounts for real time changes by processing on current frames and is reactive by providing instant responses.

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Desmond Asare, Godfred Etsey Sebiawu,Napoleon Jackson Mensah

Abstract: Fatigue is a growing problem in modern society. The incidences of insufficient sleep and circadian disruptions have become all too common in today's fast-paced world and these problems are increasingly taking their toll both in the workplace and in everyday life. Fatigue management is critical to shift workers as its effective management promotes an occupational health and wellbeing among workers including mining Shift workers. The case of this study was done at Newmont Ghana Gold Limited (NGGL) Ahafo mine. The conditions under which some of the segments of the company work make them very much susceptible to fatigue. The study revealed that the mining shift work is male dominated and made up of the youth and; that the causes of fatigue was as a result of travelling long distances to work on daily basis under strict national speed limits of Ghana. Quality of sleep among respondents was insufficient and disturbances due to extra responsibilities as family heads. Lack of fatigue management training, noise from hauling activities and the monotonous nature of their jobs constitute the causes of fatigue among this shift workers investigated. The study recommended that more females should be given the necessary training and education for them to become employable at the mines, Newmont as a mining company should create residences for workers in neighbouring communities and also offer more training and education programmes on how fatigue should be managed by mine shift workers in the mining industry.

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V.V.N.Goutham, M.V.K.Chaitanya, Kale Dasu

ABSTRACT: Background: Diabetes mellitus ,a chronic metabolic disorder, is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Measurement of C-peptide, which is co-secreted with insulin from beta cells of pancreas (proinsulin, insulin C-peptide) provides an index of endogenous insulin Production and pancreatic beta cell function. This study is to demonstrate or test the ability of serum C-peptide levels as a marker in initiating appropriate drug therapy and classifying newly detected diabetes in subjects between the age group 30 and 40 years. Aim: To investigate the ability of classifying diabetes mellitus with serum C-peptide levels in 50 young (30-40 years) newly detected diabetic subjects. To distinguish those who require insulin treatment from others who can be managed by diet, exercise and oral anti diabetic drugs as initial therapy. Method: This is a hospital based cross-sectional study has been carried for more than one and half year in the Department of General Medicine, Narayana Medical College & Hospital, Nellore involving 50 patients. Data collection was done by clinical history, examination and investigations. These details were recorded. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis for determining the significance of the results. Informed consent and their willingness obtained from these subjects have been documented. Results: Measurement of C-peptide levels in a young newly detected diabetic adult helps us a) to distinguish between type 1 behaviour and type 2 behaviour b) in initiation of treatment. Majority of the subjects who had low serum C-peptide levels also had low BMI, suggesting a positive correlation between C-peptide levels and BMI. Majority of the subjects with positive family history had normal or high serum C-peptide levels suggesting a positive family history favours type 2 behaviour. Conclusions: This study suggests measurement of C-peptide levels in newly detected diabetic subjects is of great value.

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Obinegbu I.R., Chiaghanam, O.I., Chiadikobi, K.C

ABSTRACT: Paleoenvironmental study of Paleocene to Eocene Sandstone in some parts of Anambra Basin was studied using textural parameters, which includes sieve analysis and pebble morphological methods. The sieve analysis suggested that the study area is basically coarse grained, poorly to moderately sorted sandstone, with mainly positively skewed, and its kurtosis ranging from very platykurtic to leptokurtic, while pebble morphological analysis suggested that the study area were mainly shaped in zone of interaction between wave and fluvial processes (Coastal Environment) generally suggesting that the paleoenvironment of the study area is a fluvial dominated, marine influence environment with tidal actions.

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Kalpana Sagar, Yasir Bashir, Mayur M Phukan, B. K. Konwar

Abstract: Production of valuable metabolites by micro-organisms has always been one of the main areas of intense scientific research over the years. In this regard, the present study was undertaken to isolate lipase producing bacteria from waste contaminated site and subsequent optimization of culture parameters (temperature, pH, incubation time, agitation speed, substrate specificity) for extra-cellular lipase production. Effect of carbon source, nitrogen source and metals ions were further assessed to determine the maximum lipase activity. Selection of bacterial isolates was achieved by culture in Tributyrin agar (a selective media for lipase producing bacteria). Out of 18 bacterial isolates, 2 isolates (TU-L1 and TU-L2) were found to be prominent with regard to lipolytic activity. The optimal temperature, pH and incubation time conditions for TU-L1 and TU-L2 were 45şC, 8.0, 18h; and 37şC, 7.0 and 24h respectively. The present study warrants the feasibility of isolation of industrially important microbes from waste contaminated sites.

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Nikhil Jindal, Ranjana Jha, Sarita Baghel

Abstract: This study is to enhance and to ensure the thermal comfort inside a building (i.e. room temperature 20 ± 2°C) by using variable glazing area on south wall of the building for two different kinds of climatic zones i.e. cold-sunny (Leh, -14°C to -2.8°C) and cold-cloudy (Shimla, 1.9°C to 8.5°C, Shillong, 3.6°C to 15.5°C and Ootacamund, 5.1°C to 19.9°C). In this study, single zone isolated house, having dimension 4m × 4m × 3m, has been analyzed. The periodic solution of the heat conduction equation describing heat transmission through the different building components, floor, walls and roof has been adopted. Ambient temperature and total solar radiation received by the building envelope have been represented through Fourier series. Traditional construction with 220 mm Burnt Clay Brick wall (BCB), plastered 15 mm on both sides and the other construction of same dimensions, but insulated with 10 cm of expanded polystyrene insulation on four walls and roof have been analyzed. It is found that for the four stations considered, the traditional building is not able to ensure thermal comfort with different glazing areas. To enhance the indoor temperature for thermal comfort for an insulated building, different glazing areas are required for different stations under consideration. It has been observed that for insulated building, 10%, 15%, 20% and 40% glazed area is required for Ootacamund, Shillong, Shimla and Leh respectively.

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P. S. A. Irabor, S. 0 Jimoh, 0. J. Omowumi, B. S. 0. Ighalo

ABSTRACT: The present work investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of some local gypsum minerals and to develop an appropriate process technology for their exploitation, refining and utilization in Nigeria. Though a number of gypsum deposits have been found in Nigeria, three varieties were studied in this work. The gypsum samples from lgbokotor and lbeshe villages in ogun state were observed via a manual pitting method while the third variety was procured from Potiskum in Borno state. The raw gypsum were beneficiated to remove obvious physical impurities and air-dried. In this experiment, the raw gypsum were analysed to determine their chemical constituents using the conventional wet silicate technique. The six major significant constituents, Carbon Dioxide (CO2); Calcium Oxide (CaO); Magnesium Oxide (MgO); Sulphur Trioxide (SO3); Ferrous Oxide (Fe203) and combined matter (Loss-on-ignition) were determined. Using an electrical Kiln with digital control, a calcinations sequence of 160°c - 30'c (temperature) range against 60minutes - 300minutes (time) was used during the heat treatment procedure. The results of the experiment showed that the optimum water - plaster ratio was 3:2 while the setting or hardening time was between 3.0- 8.0 minutes. Other physical properties such as the density, colour, particle size were found to be in agreement with literature. Consequent upon the investigation reported here, an adaptive refining process technology for Nigerian Gypsum mineral has been developed and the process development and description are presented.

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M.Bala Bhanu, P.Deepthi, K.V.Ramana Rao

Abstract: With the advancements of VLSI chips and powerful computational devices, new complex algorithms and systems are being devised to tap the available computational power and to get the maximum performance. One particular system is the signal processor of Pulse Doppler Radar. This paper aims at finding the range and radial velocity of a moving target using Pulse Doppler Radar for land surveillance. Different optimization techniques have been employed to increase the accuracy of the system. The design was tested on MATLAB for software verification.

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Isel Ramirez Berdut, Maria del Rosario Suarez, Joyce Zivanai

Abstract: The main aim of every university is to have well prepared graduates, ready to enter the world of jobs. Communication skills are very important for professionals and differ according to their professional profiles; that is why, generally, they have a subject devoted to this study in the curriculum of their careers. Nevertheless, once they are working, they face difficulties mainly when communicating orally about topics related to their jobs. In this paper, the authors present a set of tasks for the development of the learners' oral communicative competence about their professions, grouped according to various communicative professional profiles, which take into consideration the differences among their specialties. These tasks can be implemented by the Communication Skills subject and even by other subjects of each specialty. They are simulations, solution to problems, role playing, debates, roundtable discussions, and oral reports. An analysis of the results of the application of these tasks by means of pre-experiments in the Mathematics career at the University of Holguin, in Cuba and at Bindura University of Science Education in Zimbabwe is made. Before the introduction of these tasks into the teaching- learning process, the specialists were consulted and after the use of them in the lessons of Communication Skills, the opinions of the students were also valued. All these allow these lecturers to consider the proposal of tasks as pertinent. Besides the stimulation of the oral expression of the learners about their profiles, the tasks help the lecturers to do interdisciplinary work and to foster learners' values like autonomy in learning, responsibility, solidarity and creativity, necessary for their future work as teachers.

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Muhilan R, Arulselvi S, Kiran Kumar T.V.U

Abstract: As the Internet evolves into the global communication infrastructure, there is a growing need to provide a broad range of QoS guarantee for different applications, which brings forth the necessity of traffic management. The scheduling algorithm in the router determines how packets from different connections interact with each other by controlling the order in which packets are served. As one of the most important parts in traffic management, the packet scheduling plays an important role in the QoS provisions. The Packet Scheduling is the shared transmission resources should be intentionally assigned to some of the users at given time. The process of assigning users packets to appropriate shared resources to achieve some performance guarantee is so called "Packet Scheduling", which is done by the fair queueing methods.

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Maniagi G. Musiega, Dr. Ondiek B. Alala, Dr. Musiega Douglas, Maokomba O. Christopher, Dr. Egessa Robert

ABSTRACT: The research paper examines determinants among dividend payout of non-financial firms listed on Nairobi Securities Exchange. The NSE has 50 listed non-financial companies as per NSE 2012 report. Purposive sampling technique was used anda sample of 30 non-financial companies for duration of five years from 2007 to 2011 was selected. Secondary data was collected from audited financial statements of companies from Nairobi Securities Exchange website and the websites of non-financial firms' .Dividend payout ratio was dependent variable while independent variables were profitability, Growth, current earnings, and liquidity. Size and business risk was taken as moderating variables. Descriptive statistics and multiple regressions were used. Return on equity current earnings and firms' growth activities were found to be positively correlated to dividend payout Business risk and size,both the two taken as moderating variables increase the precision of significant variables from 95% to 99% hence among major determinants of dividend payout.

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Reuben K. Esena, Emmanuel Owusu

Abstract: This study reviews microbial quality of ready-to eat foods; specifically food safety, basic Hazard Analysis and Critical Point [HACCP] and public perception of food borne diseases. Others include the vulnerable group of food borne diseases, bacterial food borne diseases, causes of food borne diseases. The objective of this study is to review the microbial quality of vended foods in urban school canteens in Ghana. This study determines the microbial levels of vended foods sold in Schools to explore food borne diseases of vended food in relation to hygienic practices and to recommend measures that can be implemented to ensure microbial food safety in School canteens in urban areas. This is a descriptive desk review of facts from the literature. Information were obtained from health records the Ghana Ministry of Health (MOH), Ghana Health Service (GHS), Ghana Statistical Service, (GSS) Food and drugs Board and literature from International Journals and from the website. All these were analyzed and described.

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Reddy C., Pedduri S., Sistla K.C.

Abstract: A continuously variable transmission (CVT), in theory, has an unlimited number of gear ratios between the highest and lowest settings. But most CVTs are complex, expensive, have poor efficiencies, and aren't scalable. A new type of CVT, CONTINUOSLY VARIABLE PLANETARY TRANSMISSION(CVPT),combines toroidaltraction CVT with the versatility of the planetary gear arrangement to create a low-cost, highly efficient drive for human-powered and motorized vehicles.While the CVPT uses rolling traction to distribute torque like toroidal CVTs, it distributes the transmitted torque over several spheres in an inherently stable configuration. The rotating balls between the input and output section of the CVT tilt to vary transmission speed. As the balls tilt, they change their contact diameters to vary the speed ratio. This lowers contact pressures and improves durability, stability, and torque density. And since it uses a planetary arrangement, torque can be summed or divided.In the present work, a CVPT has been mounted to a bicycle for conducting the experiments. Normally tilting of spheres for changing gear ratios is done manually, however in our case, this has been obtained automatically. For automated shifting, a shift actuator, a controller and a battery to power this circuit is used.Also, results have been obtained with speed variations of a bicycle with and without CVPT. Graphs are plotted using the obtained results and analysed.

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S. M. Sharif, Z. A. Ahmad, M. R. Othman

Abstract: Tubular ceramic foams were prepared by using natural clay as starting material and 120 ppi polyurethane foam as template via polymeric sponge method. Samples were sintered with different temperatures from 1200°C to 1280°C. The result shows that 1250°C is the ideal sintering temperature where the highest compressive strength of 1.980MPa at 47.31% porosity is obtained. The highest value in compressive strength and the lowest percentage in porosity are attributed to the higher apparent density and crystallinity. These results lend support to the idea that the sintering temperature is important for the processing of tubular ceramic foam.

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V.D. Jadhav, S. M. Bhanuwanshe, S. P. Patil, D.V. Chaudhari, M.B. Adke

Abstract: Current study includes antibacterial activity of different plant and callus extract such as Momordica charantia (Karela), Cucurbita pepo (Pumpkin), Capsicum annum (Chilli), Coriander sativum (Coriander), Brassica nigra (Mustard), Nigella sativa (Black Cumin), Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) against eight pathogenic bacteria of which five are gram positive such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus sp, Bacillus megaterium and three are gram negative such as Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Plant materials were extracted using ethanol. All the extracts showed zone of inhibition against these pathogenic bacteria which were tested by agar well diffusion method. The leaf extract of Momordica charantia, Nigella sativa, Barassica nigra showed good zone of inhibition as compared to other extracts against S.aureus (13mm, 17mm,11mm), E.coli (13mm,10mm,18mm), P. aeruginosa (11mm,12mm,10mm), Streptocococcus (14mm, 15mm, 10mm), B.subtilis (10mm,17mm,10mm), P. vulgaris (15mm,18mm, 10mm), B.cereus (13mm,16mm,12mm), B.megaterium (12mm,15mm,10mm). Explants from in vitro grown plants were cultured on MS-Medium with different combination of IAA and Kinetin for callus induction. Among those combination of IAA and Kinetin (0.1 x 0.0), (1.0 x 0.0), (0.4 x 0.5), (1.0 x 0.5), (1.5 x 0.5), (0.4 x 1.0), (0.8 x1.0), (0.1 x 1.5) mg/L have showed maximum growth of calli.

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Oriaku E. C., Agulanna C.N., Edeh J.C., Nwannewuihe H.U

Abstract: Efficient separation of cracked palm nut shell from kernel has been an age long industrial problem. To a large extent this has hindered the production of palm kernel in large quantities to satisfy the yearnings of agro allied processing and manufacturing industries. Experiments were performed on cracking and separation of palm kernel from the shell by angular projection method and effect of projection angle on efficiency of separation investigated. This was carried out using a designed cracker-separator machine with a casing where cracking and projection are achieved with the aid of several blades. Varied angles of projection between 0-550 were tested and corresponding values recorded. Analysis of data generated showed 11oto be the best angle of projection to which 87% separation efficiency was achieved. This result is expected to aid small scale processors meet the demand of palm kernel processing in developing economies.

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Bouharati Saddek, Benamrani Hacen, Alleg Fateh, Benzidane Chara, Bounechada Mustapha

Abstract: These In terms of medical safety, the parameters affect nosocomial infections are characterized by their complexity. They become less amenable to direct mathematical modeling based on physical laws since they may be distributed, stochastic, non-linear and time-varying, uncertain, etc. The purpose of our study is to develop a predictive model of prevention these diseases. Like the data involved in the growth bacteria process occur in an uncertain environment due to their complexity, it becomes necessary to have a suitable methodology for the analysis of these variables. The basic principles of artificial neural networks perfectly suited to this process. As input variables, we consider the respiratory metabolism, temperature, water activity, sensitivity, and resistance to antibiotics. The bacterial genus is formulated and applied using MATLAB simulation for the system. The result output variable is the bacterial genus planned. It becomes possible to predict bacterial genus capable to proliferate in these conditions. Therefore, this will take the necessary decisions as a precautionary.

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Asma khan, M. Sc, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Ph. D

Abstract: The deficiency of selenium has been correlated with the accelerated development of prostrate cancer in transgenic mice whereas supplementary selenium has been found to reduce progression of lungs cancer in human. This study aims at exploring any association or otherwise of the blood selenium level in cancer patient with the cancer occurrence and the investigation of the selenium as a biomarker for malignancy. The 368 samples were collected including healthy and cancer patients. Results shows that the concentration levels of selenium in the blood of 16 to 70 years males and females both combined together weighted averages for control group are 0.121± 0.03 ug per ml (n= 170). Besides for lungs and breast cancer patients fall in the range of 0.057 ± 0.017 ug per ml (n= 119) and 0.056± 0.018 ug per ml (n= 198) respectively. In cancer patients the selenium levels were significantly lower than in control with a P> 0.05 and critical value are > 0.009 and > 0.01 for lungs and breast cancer patients respectively. Studies also revealed that there is a sharp decline in the blood selenium level of the cancer patients irrespective of the gender, age, and type of cancer as compared to controls.

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Prasanna Shete, Aditya Kurude, Mayur Bhole, Tushar Khose

Abstract: The paper discusses a new concept of analyzing the signal in frequency domain using an App based on Android OS. Analog input signal is applied to hardware signal conditioning block, where it is filtered to avoid the aliasing effect, programmable gain/attenuation is provided to the signal using an programmatically selectable amplifier /attenuator. The signal is digitized using internal ADC of ds PIC. Digitized samples are then transferred to the android device serially via Bluetooth, which is controlled by dsPIC. A java based application installed on android device accepts samples, performs FFT on them and display the signal in frequency domain. The performance of the proposed embedded system (i.e. Hardware & software) is then measured against some standard spectrum analyzer parameters. Greater cost reduction and smaller size of the embedded system offer advantages over conventional instruments.

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M. F. Edmund laal, K. Mahesh kumar, M. Suresh, G. Saravanan, G. Deenadayalan.

ABSTRACT: - Nowadays electric power has become a great necessity. Without electricity, it has become a difficulty to carry on human even day to day activities. So electric power consumption and the generation have a greater role to meet the demands. With this thought in my mind, this article is to develop a reasonable and affordable system to generate a sizeable quantity of electric power using closed loop water power plant system (clwpp). In this proposed concept, there is a possible for generating power with limited range o water. In hydro power plant generation of power depends on the water in the reservoir. So the generation of power only possible when the reservoir having maximum supply of water. So we achieve this the proposed concept did not need huge amount of water, it required some amount of water is enough for generation. More over construction vise also it's very simple. The concept consist of a total system water is in the closed loop within the two tanks with the help of external pressure. The external pressure is given to the tanks by the compressor. The generated power is stored in the batteries banks, the charged batteries bank, one is given to the compressor input. And other charged batteries banks are connected to the load. And this process is continuously happen with the fully automated system.

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Dhanalakshmi M, Angayarkanni, J

Abstract: The concept of biological control for health maintenance has received widespread attention during the last few years. The present work was focused on identifying the active substances that could be used as antibacterial agents. To achieve this target, five different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and ethanol) of Chlorosarcinopsis sp were examined. The extracts were tested in vitro for their antibacterial effects against the bacterial sp namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, Pseudomonas sp, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus sp, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia sp and Bacillus sp. using paper disc diffusion method. The methanol extract were observed to inhibit the growth of all the bacteria tested. A preliminary phytochemical test revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Anthraquinones, Cardiac glycosides, Flavonoids, reducing sugars, Saponins and Terpenoids.. The present study concluded that the active metabolites present in methanol extract of the microalgae were associated with their antibacterial property.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - October 2016 - Volume 5 Issue 10