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IJSTR Volume 3- Issue 10, October 2014 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Dr. Nameer A. Alwash, MajidAdhabJaber

Abstract: Composite structures are widely used in civil engineering projects. The present research consecrated to study the behavior of (steel-concrete) composite girders consisting from high strength concrete deck slab integrated with two steel I-beam by headed steel stud connectors. The present research implemented experimental and theoretical investigation. In the experimental investigation, five models were constructed as test samples. The test samples designed to be tested and failed in flexure. The dimensions of deck slab for each sample are (1000×2000×70mm: width×length×thickness), while the dimensions of each I-beam are (142×2000mm: depth×length).The test samples un-strengthened and strengthened externally by CFRP sheets with different manner and using and un-using CFRP bars instead of ordinary steel reinforcements.Theoretical investigation conducted by modeling the test samples numerically and analyzed using finite element method. The numerical models were carried out in three dimensions by software package (ANSYS 12.1, 2009). Verification of the numerical results was done by a comparison with experimental results. It is concluded that the strengthening of bottom face of concrete slab and bottom face of the bottom flanges of the steel beams by CFRP sheets increases the ultimate load values by (4%) but there is no considerable enhancement in the deflection and slip values. There is a slight structural advantage in case of using CFRP bars instead of ordinary steel bars reinforcements.

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1-11  



A. Ishak, M.Rusop

Abstract: The nitrogen doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) thin films were synthesized for the first time by using mixing of nitrogen gas, argon and ethanol precursor by bias assisted pyrolysis-CVD in the range of 250oC to 550oC with fixed negative bias of -50V in 1h deposition. The a-C:Nthin films were characterized by current-voltage measurement, UV/VIS spectrophotometer, surface profiler, and atomic force microscopy. The resistivity of a-C:N thin films in the range 250oC-550oC was 4.97x107Ω.cm, 2.66x105Ω.cm 1.974x104Ω.cm,3.63x103Ω.cm, and 4.44x103Ω.cm, and 1.73x104Ω.cm, respectively. It was found that a-C:N thin filmshave responded with photon by created electron hole pair where the highest photo responseof a-C:N film was found at 350oC.The substrate of deposition temperatures with the help of constant dc voltage influenced the electrical properties of a-C thin films.

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12-15  



Zainab Murtadha, Mohammad Amin Roshanasan

Abstract: Cloud Computing is the new field that was invented and developed during a period not so long ago. It has a lot of benefit such as decreasing the cost that the user needs, process the operation faster and keep the information secure. The security of cloud is the most important issue for several sensitive occupations, for web base information using this kind of computing does not need more than a computer and high speed internet to use application which is developed by cloud computing. This paper presents a model of web based information system at Amazon Web Services using visual studio to build a website with cloud data service which takes data from the instance in EC2 on Amazon Web Services (AWS), then lets AWS host data services from the cloud. The environment used, is EC2 (Elastic Cloud Computing) on AWS (Amazon Web Services) as host for an application which has several services to allow each user use the application separately and securely. AWS configuration and the way of using virtual server which it’s given by EC2 will be pointed out in this paper.

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16-20  



Rinani Shima Abd Rashid, Farah Salina Hussin, Masniza Mohamed, Mohd Azemi Mohd Noor, Rosma Ahmad

Abstract: Experiments were conducted to study the potential of sago starch short chain oligosaccharides to enhance the growth of L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus and L. casei. The sago starch was hydrolysed by 1% (v/w) -amylase (Termamyl 120L) at 65°C for 0-48 h. Hydrolysis resulted in sago starch short chain oligosaccharides (SCO) with DP1 up to DP5. The fermentations of sago starch SCO at various concentrations; 1%, 2%, 4% and 6% (v/v) by Lactobacillus spp. were studied. Results showed that the growth of all Lactobacillus sp. were positively correlated with SCO concentration up to 4% (v/v) but no further improvement on the growth with inclusion of 6% (v/v) SCO in the media. L. casei showed the highest growth compared to L. acidophilus and L. bulgaricus in all fermentation conditions. Comparison studies of Lactobacillus sp. growth on commercial prebiotics; fructooligosaccharide and inulin showed that growth in sago starch SCO was as good as in commercial prebiotics. Conclusively, sago starch SCO had an effect on Lactobacillus sp. growth and thus its potential in serving as prebiotics is worth to be explored.

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21-23  



Arati Singh, Sachin Pandey

Abstract: Advanced Centralized RTO is a project in which the traffic is regulated depending on the vehicle density .It also consists of detecting those vehicles which break the signal and the message will go to owner that he has break signal and suppose to pay fine within limited interval of time. In case if fine is not paid then petrol tank will automatically get locked. For tracking vehicle density there will be 16 sensors on 4 way road such that 4 sensors on each road. If sensor one detects the vehicle then the signal will be on for minimum time and if all 4 sensors detects vehicles then signal will be on for already set maximum time. It can be further used to collect toll tax automatically, Reduce bribery among traffic personnel, To keep track of vehicles violating speed limits, Car theft can be easily found out, Exact location of car can be detected if GPS is installed.

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24-26  



Galal A. Hassaan

Abstract: Robustness is one of the requirements used in controllers and compensators design. The designs presented in the previous papers did not consider the robustness of the controller or compensator. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the robustness of I-PD, PD-PI and PI-PD controllers used to control second-order processes against uncertainty in the process parameters. A variation of ± 20 % in process parameters is considered through simulation to study its effect on the system performance parameters using the tuned controllers. With I-PD controller controlling an underdamped second order process, the variation in process natural frequency and damping ratio has almost no effect on the maximum percentage overshoot , maximum percentage undershoot , settling time and the phase margin of the control system. The variation of the process natural frequency produced a maximum change of 33 % in the system gain margin. The damping ratio change does not affect the gain margin of the system. With PD-PI controller controlling the underdamped second order process, the variation in process natural frequency and damping ratio has almost no effect on the maximum percentage overshoot , maximum percentage undershoot , gain margin and the phase margin of the control system. The variation of the process natural frequency produced a maximum change of 56.5 % in the system settling time. The damping ratio change does not affect the settling time of the system. With PI-PD controller controlling the underdamped second order process, the variation in process natural frequency and damping ratio has almost no effect on the maximum percentage overshoot , maximum percentage undershoot and gain margin of the control system. The variation of the process natural frequency produced a maximum change of 5.2 % in the system settling time and 3.67 % in the phase margin. The variation of the process damping ratio produced a maximum change of 0.05 % in the system settling time and has no effect on the system phase margin.

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27-31  



Rhowel Dellosa, Jon Edward Hernandez, Richard Mangay, Rockie Robles

Abstract: The researchers aimed to design a system that is capable of filtering the contaminants in water. The system provides better tasting and better smelling drinking water by removing chlorine and bacterial contaminants. The system also removes the unwanted color of the water. In terms of accuracy for determining the desired volume of water in the container, the system was set to a specified period for how long it is designed to stop and switch the source of water. The water per container cannot overflow. The machine is a fully automatic filtered drinking water vending machine, offering a touch less faucet that you can use it without a switch. Furthermore, by the use of the Microcontroller Based Wastewater system, accuracy is obtained. It is an automated device that can provide a safe, affordable and readily available drinking water.

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32-36  



Raja Vikramdeep Singh, Navneet Randhawa

Abstract: Automobile Number Plate Recognition and Extraction System using Optical Character Recognition Methodology is one of a kind Intelligent System and is of considerable interest because of its potential applications in highway electronic toll collection and traffic monitoring system. This type of application puts high demands on the reliability of the System. A lot of work has been done regarding license plate recognition systems for Korean, Chinese, European and US license plates that generated many commercial products. However, little work has been done for Indian license plates recognition systems. The purpose of this research is to develop an application which recognizes license plates from vehicles. The system takes images of automobiles as input and processes them. Once a license plate is detected, its digits are recognized and displayed on the User Interface. This work focuses on the design of a single algorithm used for extracting the license plate from a single image, isolating the characters of the plate and identifying the individual characters.

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37-39  



Dr. Shantharaja M., Mr. Sandeep G. M.

Abstract: In this experiment on the propagation of stress waves on sheet metal of different material andtheir effect of casing is studied and reported. Steel and aluminum are the two different types of materials which are considered and instrumented with the strain gauges. Metal foil gauges are most commonly used to measure the strain accurately. It is then externally impacted by the ball pane. The output that is obtained is in the wave form and is stored in the oscilloscope. The stress waves are induced in sheet metal, due to the impact of ball pane. The amplitudes of stress waves which are obtained from the oscilloscope, are studied and to determine the velocity of stress wave propagation and damping capacity of the material. Propagation of stress waves are obtained from the experimental and numerical methods are then compared it with the analytical methods.

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40-42  



Rustem PACI

Dose Assessment Of Public From Radiology Examinations Is A Very Important Element For Understanding The Risk Coming During The Radiographic Examinations In The Medical System . The Purpose Of This Study Is To Know How, The Different X Ray Machines In The Country Contribute To The Dose Populations. This Study Also Take Into Considerations Elements F The X Ray Room Like Thickness Of The Wall And Type Of Constructed Material Etc. These Doses Are Calculated For The Pubic, And Taking Into Account Other Factor Related To Occupancy, Dose Rate, Time Of Exposure Etc. PUBLIC EFFECTIVE DOSE FROM X RAY MACHINES In Radiology IN ALBANIA

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43-44  



Md. Abdul Hai

Abstract—The aim of this study was to shed light on the predicaments of the street children in their street life, their coping mechanism in response to innumerable problems and survival status. Pondering the gravity of the research topic qualitative method with the juxtaposition of FGDs (focus group discussion) and case studies was employed to generate descriptive data. With the organizational support of Underprivileged Children's Educational Programs (UCEP) 4 FGDs were administered on a total respondent size of 74 beneficiary and non-beneficiary street children in Mirpur and Lalbagh areas in the Dhaka city of Bangladesh. Meanwhile, 9 case studies were conducted that gave extra flavour in the research to present more vivid and cross-checked data. The findings drew the flamboyant picture of the ongoing endangered livelihood mostly and mainly triggered by poverty, insecurity, powerlessness, weak or no social network and social capital, insufficient institutional support etc. Since the respondents lacked proper capabilities to secure a descent job, they had to endure oppression, torture, insecurity and other problems to survive on the streets. Drawing upon their problems this research finally dismantled some specific coping mechanisms adopted by the street children whether by avoidance of or approach to the predicaments and stress they face to survive on the street.

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45-56  



Kamoga Omar Lwako M., Kirabira John Baptist, Byaruhanga Joseph K

ABSTRACT : The anxiety about the future supply wood as raw material for pulp has caused fresh search in non-conventional fibrous materials for pulp and paper production. But the quality and quantity of pulp and paper depend on the pulping methods and conditions. This study evaluated the pulping techniques and conditions for Cymbopogon Nardus and Paspalum notatum grasses. Soda and Kraft pulpingtechniques were evaluated at varied liquor charges and temperatures using the kappa number as the main response which significantly correlated with both control variables. Appreciable lignin removal occurred at soda charge of 15%. Kappa number of 24.4 was achieved for the two grasses at the soda charge of 25% and 160oC; and 31.0 and 25.9 at a sulphidity of 30% and active alkali of 20% at the same temperature for Cymbopogon Nardus and Paspalum notatum respectively. The model equations agreed with experimental data. The two methods and conditions did not significantly differ for the two plant materials.

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57-65  



Eze Chika Victor, Adeniji Oluwashola David

Abstract: Generating certificates for the graduating students is an area of administration that requires significant amounts of time and effort in a university environment, largely due to the number of students that graduate each year from both the full-time and the part-time studies. Students are expected to complete their clearance manually before receiving graduation certificates; this turns out to be very strenuous as much time and effort are wasted in accomplishing such. However, the certificate itself is the problem. It is of very low standard and quality, little or no integrity, very easy to forge, and not befitting for an institution such as the University of Ibadan. There is need to make use of vast growing radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to automate the graduation certificate system, which would not only standardize the format of the data collected by the university, but would also protect and secure the integrity of the university’s graduation certificates, reduces administrative work, and improve graduate’s creditability ratios. The objective of the research is to provide an efficient software that can protect the integrity of graduating certificate by embedding an encoded RFID tag using character proximity on each certificate before it is being issued in order to reduce, if not eradicate, the problem of forgery and fraudulent activities on certificates.

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66-70  



Ayman Zohbi, M.A. Hasan

Abstract: This paper reports the design, fabrication, and results of thin film Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) for mid-infrared spectroscopy application. The system is designed to be integrated in a small portable spectrometer for the measurement of molecular absorption or emission as well as substance that has an infrared signature. The filter is based on Fabry-Perot interferometer and the wavelength of interest is in the mid-infrared (5 to 15 micrometers). The layers were selected carefully to minimize the thickness required to meet the quarter-wave optical-thickness criteria for the interferometer.

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71-76  



Yogesh Ramdas Mahulkar, Dr. C. M. Sedani

ABSTRACT: In Industries for cooling the different components of electronic equipment and desktop computers, devices like fans, blowers, capillary pumped loop and loop heat pipe (LHP) are used. A literature study provide information that loop heat pipes are highly efficient heat-transfer devices capable of possessing mechanical flexibility and high adaptability to various operating conditions. A new generation of these devices, miniature heat pipes can solve the problem of cooling of promising electronics and computer equipment with heat dissipation levels which are forecast to rise from current levels to high. The possibility of carrying research of miniature LHP parameters provides effects on the performance like choice of the working fluid, the fill charge ratio, the porous wick geometry and thermal properties, etc for capacity improvement. Present research work aims to design and carry performance analysis by using several methodological techniques leading to improve the performance of miniature LHP. The recent research work also suggests that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software which will predict different parameters and design components to be validated. By observations and results can be served as efficient parameters to solve complex heat and mass transfer problems. The present work will be supported with the aid of several statistical techniques to provide the empirical analysis and generate the conclusion.

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77-83  



Abdelrasoul Jabar Alzubaidi, Arwa Abdel Mohsen Ahmed Hassan

Abstract—Today’s traffic light system has a lot of limitations at road junction. The system is not flexible or in other words cannot modify on real time . The static traffic control have fixed timing for the three traffic lights “the green , yellow and red “.The cars waste a lot of fuel and surely the driver waste a lot of time . To solve and monitor the traffic light system and make it more efficient , we have to use an intelligent technique taking the advantage of the sensors, microcontroller and the GSM modem which could add the real time benefit to the system. This paper explores the design of semi automatic traffic light control system. The traffic light is designed using microcontroller ATMEGA32 programmed by BASCOM AVR , power supply , IR sensor and GSM modem . The system solves the wasting time and fuel problem and the problem of the emergency car which waits a lot in the road intersection as well as it solves the problem of the congestion that occurs when an accident in the path happens. The system can be used for the traffic at the road intersections.

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84-86  



Dr. Anil Gupta, Jyoti Khatri

ABSTRACT: Flavonoids tricin, iso-orientin, vanillin, iso-vitexin, apigenin, 8-hydroxy flavones, 4’-hydroxy chalcone have been isolated from leaves of early stage triticum aestivum. Their quantitative analysis has been done through elemental and spectral analysis.

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87-88  



Ibrahim Elnour Ibrahim, Mohammed Ahmed Al-feel, Adam Elhag Ahmed

Abstract: This paper was aimed to measure technical efficiency and identifies eeficiency determinants in groundnuts and sesame crops production in rainfed sector area of North Kordofan State of Sudan. Random sampling technique was used to select 205 crop farmers from which input-output data were collected based on 2011-2012 cropping season. Technical efficiency has been estimated using stochastic frontier production function analysis. The results revealed that the technical efficiency of crop production range from 3% to 100% with mean of 40% for groundnuts, and from 11% to 100% with a mean of 84% for sesame. The average technical efficiencies indicate that there are scopes for increasing groundnuts and sesame production by 60% and 16%, respectively, from a given mix of production inputs via adopting the existing technologies used by the more efficient farmer’s. Also the results indicate that farmers in North Kordofan state are more efficient in technology and resources utilization for sesame production compared to groundnut. Contrary to expectations, all the inefficiency model parameters for both sesame and groundnut production were found to be insignificant with exception of the framer age for sesame crop. It could be concluded that there is a possibility of technical gain from enhancing sesame and groundnut farmers' technical efficiency in the study area.

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89-94  



Farjana Akhter, Mohammad Abul Hossen

Abstract: Analysis of the impact of land use changes on the hydrology is a key issue to set up a proper land-use planning project. In this study one distributed model, MIKE SHE, was applied to the hydrological system of the Grote Nete catchment, a medium size catchment in Belgium. The existing Grote Nete MIKE SHE model was calibrated and validated using some additional parametersets (sensitivity analysis) which had not been tested and used in the initial model calibration to simulate the land use change impact on the hydrology of this catchment. The modelling results (calibration & validation) were verified by comparing with observed river discharges (4 discharge stations) and groundwater heads (10 wells of 4 geological units). In MIKE SHE, total 17 scenarios had been developed by changing the land use classes according to 4 hypothetical scenario categories and compared with the result of original (reference) calibrated model. The effect on discharges were analysed in terms of hydrological extremes (peak flows and low flows) that had been calculated applying Water Engineering Time Series PROcessing tool (WETSPRO tool) and the impact on groundwater conditions was expressed by the average monthly heads that were simulated by MIKE SHE. From the result of the hydraulic extremes it can be said that peak flows and low flows may increase or decrease with respect to the current (reference) scenario. The changes in groundwater heads, simulated by the MIKE SHE model, were insignificant. It was found that groundwater heads were negatively affected (up to - 1m decline) in summer and less affected (0.2 m decrease) in wet periods for all geological units. The drier groundwater conditions might have severe agricultural and ecological implications, as well as affect river low flows in all geological units. In this study, the hypothetical land use scenarios had been developed to see the impact on the hydrology of the Grote Nete catchment, although some scenarios did not give the expected results. So, future research may be concentrated in refining the presented approach to reduce the effects of the main uncertainties identified in the present study.

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95-99  



Anukriti Singh, Shruti Nagpal

Abstract: We have been using ERP since decade but it never got so much attention which it got with cloud computing. In this paper we will be discussing and analyzing the issues concerning with the execution of Enterprise Resource Planning in cloud computing. As a lot of the researches concentrates on one of the topic and few of them have taken both as a study. In this paper I will be discussing implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning in Cloud Computing. In this I have covered diverse aspects of both ERP and Cloud Computing and after studying their major advantages and disadvantages I have suggested few recommendations.

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100-103  



M. E. Ghanjaoui, M.L. Cervera, M. El Rhazi, M. de la Guardia

Abstract— A methodology based on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) after microwave assisted acid digestion has been developed and validated to determine the trace element content of traditional Moroccan cosmetic products like henna and takaout purchased in local markets of Morocco. Limit of detection values equal or lower than few µg g-1 were obtained for all elements under study. To assure the accuracy of the whole procedure, recovery studies were carried out on traditional cosmetic samples spiked at different concentration levels from 40 to 1600 µg L-1. Quantitative average recovery values were obtained for all elements evaluated, demonstrating the suitability of this methodology for the determination of trace elements in these samples. Accurate results were found also for a certified reference material NIST 1573a. Results obtained for henna samples were compared with those found by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency for products available in the Danish market.

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104-112  



Ernita, Firmansyah, Agus Al Rozi

Abstract: This research discuss about a variety of factors that might affect increased participation of members in cooperative. As the owners and users, the role of a member is decisive importance in business development of cooperatives. The importance of improving the participation of members as a solution in improving the performance of cooperatives, which is still low so far is need to be explored. The study was held in several municipalities and regencies in North Sumatera, by involving a hundred respondents. First, tested reliability and validity of an instrument, next test the assumption classical, includes of normality, multicollinearity, and heteroscedasticity. Next, the data is analyzed using Pearson correlation test and multiple linear regressions. The results showed that there is a significant correlation between all the independent variables with the participation of member, with the respective correlation level of r1 = 0.509, r2 = 0.672, r3 = 0.606, r4 = 0.713, r5 = 0.626, r6 = 0.709, and r7 = 0.660. The regression equation model is obtained as follows: Y = 0.859 + 0.089 X1 +0.122 X2 + 0.060 X3 + 0.199 X4 +0.138 X5 +0.096 X6 + 0.097 X7, and coefficient determinant R2 = 0.749. The research get a concept model for development participation members, where the factor is significantly affected by service quality (X4), motivation non material (X1), infrastructure (X5), motivation material (X2), management capability of the Board (X6), and education and training (X7), while perception member (X3) is not significant effected. This research concluded that the participation of the members of the cooperative can be enhanced by improving the quality of service to members, involve members in various activities, providing adequate facilities and infrastructure and enhance the capabilities of Board in managing, as well as provide a useful education and training.

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113-117  



Birender Singh Rawat, Brijesh Aggarwal, Dishant Passi

Abstract: There is significant increase in traffic on the network and hence its complexity increases . Due to which there is shortage of radio bandwidth. Wireless communication is something which has to be fast, safe, reliable and free from error. LI-FI or ‘light fedility’ is the method which is derived to overcome these problems.

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118-119  



Abolghasem Amirahmadi, Kazem Aliabadi, Maryam Biongh

Abstract: Carrying and spreading soil particles is called aeolian process and it is a main problem in arid and semi-arid regions in the world that threatens urban life, buildings, agricultural farms and even human health. This paper intends to evaluate sand dunes changes (determining of direct and amount of movement) in southwestern part of Sabzevar (Mazinan salt desert). IRS Satellites images (LISS III radiometer) of 2006 and 2013 with spatial resolution of 23.5 meters and also PNA radiometer images with spatial resolution of 2.5 meters have been used to perform this research. Change detection technique has been used by method of images differencing in MATLAB software environment that is one of the most useful techniques in remote sensing. Results of this research show that sand dunes direct to the west and the southwest, and amount of their displacement is in a range of 12 to 62 meters during a period of seven years in different areas of this region.

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120-128  



U. Sajankumarji Rao, K.V. Sekharnath, H. Sudhakar, K. Chowdoji Rao, M.C.S. Subha

Abstract: Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) of Sodium alginate / Hydroxyl Propyl Cellulose (SA/HPC) blends loaded with Phosphotungstic acid (PWA) and cross linked with gluteraldehyde have been prepared by the solution casting technique. Pervaporation (PV) experiments have been performed at 300C to separate water – isopropanol feed mixtures containing 10-15 wt % of water. The membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction study(XRD) to confirm cross linking and assess the intermolecular interactions. Thermal stability and crystallinity were determined from thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. The morphology of membranes was characterized by SEM studies, which indicates good compatibility of these membranes. Sorption studies were carried out to evaluate the extent of interaction and degree of swelling of the membranes, in pure liquids as well as mixtures of water and isopropanol. The pervaporation performance was evaluated by varying experimental parameters such as feed composition, different polymer compositions and found to be potential membranes for separation of water- isopropanol mixtures. The results reveal that the MMMs of SA-HPC-3 shows flux is of the order of 0.3460 kg m-2h-1 and selectivity of the order of 1657.From this it is concluded that the present blend membrane is a promising candidate for dehydration of aqueous isopropanol. Flux of the blend membranes decrease with increasing concentrations of PWA; however, a significant improvement in PV performance was observed for PWA- loaded mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) compared to the pristine SA/HPC blend membrane.

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129-137  



Matthew Jian-qiao PENG, Jing-Ming WU , XiangYang JU , Dao-Zhang CAI

Abstract— Since three-dimensional (3D) hybrid detector 【CT+MR】 is not integrated well currently, this study aims to investigate a registration scheme for two-dimensional (2D) hybrid based on characteristic localization to achieve 3D-fusion from the images of CT and MR as a whole. A cubic oriented proposal of “9-point & 3-plane” for coregistration designs were verified to be geometrically practical. Human internal-feature points were sorted to combine with preselected external-feature points for matching process through 3D-reconstruction and virtual-dissection. By following the procedures of feature-extraction and image-mapping, the processes of “picking points to form plane” and “picking planes for segment” were executed. Ultimately, image-fusions were implemented at the real-time workstation Mimics based on auto-fuse techniques so called “information exchange” and “Signal Overlaying”. A complementary 3D-image across 【CT+MR】 modalities, which simultaneously presents anatomic structures of hard-tissue and soft-tissue, was created with a detectable-rate of 70%, this is equivalent to detectable-rate of 【PET+CT】 or 【PET+MR】 with no statistically significant difference. Our approach of “9-point & 3-plane” offers a fresh idea for integration of digital imaging in mathematic consideration, and it facilitates a 3D vision that isn’t functional yet for 2D hybrid imaging. This exploration is practical to those small hospital that are unable to afford expensive hybrid equipment.

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138-145  



Baha'a A. Abdul-Hussein

Abstract: The increasing in serum lipids and also the persistent hyperlipidemia concerned the main reason for many problems especially to the heart and arteries like atherosclerosis . Ginger or ginger root is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. Ginger has a cholesterol lowering properties.Aim of the study Its to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of ginger, and to compare the effect with the most known lipid regulating drug; atrovastatin. Materials and methodsA group of eleven New Zealand male rabbit (Oryctologus cuniculus) were subdivided into 3 groups each group included 4 rabbits; Group 1were received atrovastatin orally (1ml) for 10 days.Group2 were received zengiber (ginger) extract orally (1ml) for 10 days. Group 3 was control and received DW only, for 10 days. After the first 10 days; the fat was added to the diet (to induce increasing in blood cholesterol) and persisted to add daily for another 10 days, with continuation of atrovastatin and zengiber administration. Results Ginger extract caused highly significant reduction in cholesterol and level was 91.1±0.02 at 10th day. Also ginger highly significantly reduced the triglycerides and level was 95.2±0.01, the LDL was reduced by ginger highly significantly 51.1±0.01, the VLDL also reduced by ginger significantly 18.2±0.02, while the HDL level was kept by ginger extract, on the other hand the ginger extract was more efficient than atrovastatin in the lowering of lipids.

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146-149  



Lien Thi Quynh Le, Yoshiki Mikami

Abstract: The paper focuses on United Nations’ multilateral treaties adopted for the purpose of international cooperation in science and technology (S&T) to provide a detailed and up-close grainy picture of how the world cooperates to address a vast area of global issues. On one hand, the paper measures the degree of global joint-commitment by the international community for major S&T agreements. On the other hand, it suggests quantitative measure to analyze the policy making attitude of states as actors negotiated in these agreements. More precisely, it measures how quick a national response to the global call in solving the new and emerging threats. Moreover, the state’s readiness in policy making towards these cross-border challenges is also represented in comparative with its level of national human development. By providing the closer and combining look at these two aspects which are both immensely important to achieve global governance progress, the paper makes a number of important recommendations to increase the likelihood and the scope that states will act collectively at global level in addressing major crises. Based on that, widespread coordination and cooperation among states and international institutions can be strengthened and extended to ensure cohesiveness in global governance of S&T.

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150-160  



Omar Elahcene

Abstract: The following paper presents a determination of a relationship for estimating the suspended sediment load in the watershed of the Ebda wadi. To determine this, we have based our analysis on the exploitation of the data of instantly sampling of flow and the concentration of the carried sediments in suspension in the stream. The obtained results show that the correlation between the concentration of suspended sediment and the liquid flow is bad. The spring season is a season of floods. The relationship found is characterized by its shape power. The relationship is Qs = 1,88×Ql1,27 with R2 = 0,70 where R = 0,84 (84%). This relationship must be handled carefully to avoid errors that can be generated by the application. The importance of the relationship lies found to fill the gaps and to quantify the suspended sediment load in the Ebda wadi.

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161-165  



Mohammed Imoro

Abstract: The beauty industry though common in Ghana and source of revenue and employment, attention has not been paid to it. As such there is no formal regulation, education and research on equipment use and management in the sector. This study focused on assessing how equipment use and management promotes safety and quality service provision in the beauty industry. The descriptive studies was adopted with the cross sectional design. A sample size of 211 and 200 respondents for clients and practitioners respectively was used for the data collection while the focus group discussion targeted Beauty Associations. With questionnaires, interviews schedules and focus group discussions, the SPSS was used to convert data into graphs, charts and tables for the analysis. The findings revealed low literacy among beauticians with only apprenticeship as mode of training. Basic safety equipment such as fire extinguishers, first aid boxes existed only in very few salons. The absence of record keeping, occurrence of multiple usage of disposables and cover cloths, non-functioning sterilizers and poor disinfection were common defects. Cuts, burns and breakages were also common with poor knowledge on control measures. Accidents, electric faults, carelessness, overuse and poor quality were causes of equipment damage. There were generally irregular (undesirable) occurrences in salon operations while facilities and equipment availability was poor. However, there was proper equipment storage, high salon cleanliness and Safety feeling among clients. This demands the creation of beauty institutes, prioritizing disinfection, maintenance culture, developing guidelines and stepping up awareness creation for salon operation in the region. Stakeholders needed to set up inspectorate division for monitoring and ensuring compliance with regulations and also promoting collaboration between beauticians and State-related organizations in the region while registering and licensing all salon operators and making prerequisites available for salon businesses.

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166-177  



Aigbe H.I , Akindele S.O, Onyekwelu J, C

Abstract: Afi River Forest Reserves in Cross River State, Nigeria, was assessed for tree species diversity and density pattern. Multistage (3 stage) sampling technique was adopted for data collection. 10 tertiary plots were randomly established within the secondary plots and trees randomly selected for measurement within the tertiary plots (0.20 ha). Growth data including: diameter at breast height (dbh, at 1.3m); diameters over bark at the base, middle and top; merchantable height and total height were collected on trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm in all the 10 tertiary sample plots. The results indicate that an average number of trees per hectare of 323 (68 species) were encountered in the study area. Population densities of the tree species ranged from 1 to 29 ha-1. This means, some tree species encountered translates to one stand per hectare. Pycnanthus angolensis was the most abundant with a total of 29 tree/ha. The basal area/ha in the study area was 102.77m2 and the species richness index obtained was 10.444, which indicate high species richness. The value of Shannon-Wiener Index (HI) is 3.827 which is quite high. The results show that the forest reserve is a well-stocked tropical rainforest in Nigeria. The high species diversity and the relative richness in timber species of the forest reserve does not correlate well with the abundance because the abundance of each of the species was quite low and density poor. However, the presence of higher percentage of the lower diameter tree in the forest reserve indicates that the forest reserve is vigour and healthy.

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178-185  



Amna Riaz, Imran Ashraf, Gulshan Aslam

Abstract: This paper describes effects of Multi-media Database in learning & technology world in broad way and also shows that how positively it enhances the database and technology. Multimedia database is a backbone support and works effectively for large amount of good quality multimedia data. In comparison to traditional database, multimedia database has a strong effect due to its ability of handling various data types at a single platform. This paper describes tremendous innovations, applications and fabulous use of multimedia database e.g. creating virtual museum ,3D MURALE and MPGE 7, Supports English Distance Learning, Smelling Objects, 3D Crime Scene Representation and Analysis, GIS driven Internet Multimedia Databases, Trade mark registration, intelligent agent with MMDB etc.

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186-191  



R .Maharaja, S.Revathi, S.Suganthi

Abstract: Tremendous developments in globally available web-based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and it also make the availability of low-cost integrated General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)/Global Positioning Systems (GPS) modem helps to enable the development of city area monitoring systems with the embedded stand-alone technologies. In this paper we put forward to the design, implementation and testing of a city area-monitoring system by utilizing he online Map from a GIS which is straightforwardly available on the satellite-based GPS, and GPRS mobile networks. In this city area monitoring system over and above allows a home owner or the particular area monitor to tenuously monitoring the various significant home sensors conditions as well as those are tied to fire, flooding, and gas leaks to detecting burglars in their earlier stages and alert the people about the uncertain events. Home owners or the particular area monitors can monitor their homes or the particular exacting location via their mobile phone or by using the Internet. This system can also be used to alert the people about the security firms, civil defense organizations and municipalities to incessantly monitoring and locating the niggling spots in suburban neighborhoods and compounds using web based free GIS Maps application.

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192-195  



Rida Farida; Muhammad Ali Ramdhani

Abstract: This research is aimed at analizing the effect of environmental management policy implementation on water pollution control to improve the environmental quality. The analytical method used is this study is a literature review that uses effectual causal analysis approach based on literature review, with the object of research conducted in Garut District, Indonesia. The result of discussion shows that the implementation of environmental management policy affects water pollution control to improve the environmental quality.

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196-199  



Ismail.M.Ali, Dr. R.P.Phadke

Abstract: This study presents a new miniature - microbial fuel cell (MFC) platform which has been built by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The MFC design includes PDMS soft chambers featuring carbon cloth electrode, gold nanoparticles and a delivery system of electrolytes (mcL). Bioelectricity was generated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultivated on simple nutrient medium. P.aeruginosa in the anode chamber forms biofilm and generates electrons which flow from anode to cathode through external load and generates current while protons pass through the salt bridge to cathode chamber. These mini-MFC exhibited fast start-ups, reproducible voltage generation, and enhanced power densities up to approximately 2.1mV.

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200-203  



Junjun Xu, Yongli Zhao, Bingyu Li, Kangjing Song

Abstract: In a flexible bandwidth optical network, the necessary spectrum resources on a given route are sliced off into small slots from the available pool and adaptively allocated to the end-to-end optical path according to the client data rate and the available spectral resources. And efficiently assign spectrum slots would decrease the light path blocking probability and enhance the network performance. In this paper, we first defined a measurement parameter called contiguous spectrum segment value as the objective value during the resource allocation procedure, then we developed a novel spectrum resource allocation algorithm called MNACSS (Minimum Number of Available Contiguous Spectrum Segments) which based on the FF (first fit) algorithm. The simulation results show that MNACSS has a lower blocking probability when compared with First Fit allocation algorithm.

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204-207  



Marie Nejedla

Abstract: - The article discusses a promising method of creating documentation in design preparation of clothing production using the "Macro" module. Creation of the basic and model design solution of clothing and clothing parts, which is applicable for any design methodology, is concerned. The Unified Methodology by designing, using which preconditions for computer processing were set in the 90th of the past century, is applied for solving. The macros created in AccuMark CAD program can be applied for pre-defined size range and also for making clothes fitting to particular customer's dimensions. All of that can be done if the input bodily dimensions in the table bound to macro are kept. The sense and aim of macro creation is to make lengthy and repeated activities when creating design and technical documentation more effective and to show rational ways of their application in clothing production.

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208-212  



Maysaloon Jawed Kadhim, Hassan Thamer Ghanim

ABSTRACT: The research was involved preparation of 1-3 diazepin from 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propanoic acid (ibuprofen) by many steps including[Schiff bases,1-3 Oxazepine and 1-3deazepine] ibuprofen was used a basic substance to prepare of these compounds, via many steps: the first Step including prepared ester from Ibuprofen in absolute Ethanol solvent in the presence H2SO4 con so the following derivative was produced (M1). Step two including prepared hydrazid derivatives from reaction the ester with NH2-NH2 H2O.80% in the absolute Ethanol solvent were produced(M2). In the next step, a new Schiff bases compound prepared by a condensed reaction of(M2) with Acetophenone and 4-chloro Acetophenone was produced (K1,K2). The third step includes preparation of two Oxazepine ring by a reaction of tow Schiff bases produced by the first with maleic anhydride in dry benzene solvent to give the compound(H1, H2). In the end step includes the preparation of two deazepine ring by reaction 1-3 oxazepine ring with phenyl hydrazine to product the compound(1,2).These synthesized compound have been characterized by melting point Elemental analysis FTIR and HMNR spectroscopy by their UN corrected melting points, elemental analysis and FT-IR spectra

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213-217  



B. Osundare

ABSTRACT: Although, in Southwestern Nigeria, many aspects of Agronomy of cowpea have been accorded research attention with a view to raising its present yield on farmers’ farms, However, there is still dearth of published scientific data and information on soil nutrient status and weed biomass as affected by cowpea – based intercropping systems. To this end, a two – year field experiment was conducted in 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, to evaluate the effects of different cowpea – based crop mixtures on soil nutrient status, weed biomass, yield and yield components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The different cowpea – based crop mixtures included: sole cropped cowpea (SCC), which served as the control; cowpea / maize (CM); cowpea / cocoyam (CC) and cowpea / okra / melon (COM). The results obtained indicated existence of significant (P = 0.05) differences among the different cowpea – based crop mixtures as regards their effects on weed biomass, yield and yield components of cowpea. Relative to the initial nutrient status of the soil, prior to 2010 cropping season, the percentage decreases in soil organic carbon (SOC), adduced to cowpea – based mixtures, after 2010 cropping season were 9, 18, 27 and 23 for the respective SCC, CM, CC and COM. Conversely, at the end of 2011 cropping season, increases of 5, 14, 21 and 27% in SOC were recorded for SCC, CM, CC and COM, respectively. At the end of 2010 cropping season, cowpea – based mixtures resulted in decreases of 8, 31, 23 and 18% in total N for the respective SCC, CM, CC and COM. On the contrary, at the end of 2011 cropping season, cowpea – based mixtures resulted in increases of 10, 18, 3 and 26% in total N for SCC, CM, CC and COM, respectively. Available P decreased at the end of 2010 cropping season by 7, 21, 16 and 26% for the respective SCC, CM, CC and COM. In contrast, available P increased at the end of 2011 cropping season by 9, 21, 16 and 28% for SCC, CM, CC and COM, respectively. The mean values of cowpea seed yield data over the two years of experimentation indicated that, cowpea - based intercropping significantly decreased cowpea seed yield from 4.3 t ha-1 for SCC to 3.77, 3.32 and 3.98 t ha-1 for CM, CC and COM, respectively.

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218-223  



Dr. Raza Ur Rehman Qazi

Abstract: In this study an assessment has been made of the Software Engineering course being taught at the undergraduate level in the Universities at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The course being taught at the department of Computer science, college of computer and Information Sciences, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University has been selected as sample. For this study the software engineering course (CS290) offered at the department of computer science has been considered. For the course contents assessment the standard recommended by the software engineering body of knowledge (SWEBOK) has been used as a bench mark. As a result of this study some major gaps were found in the SWEBOK and the CS290 course. In some topics the gap is wider where the SWEBOK is proposing application level while the CS290 level is knowledge. Detailed are presented in analysis and result section. Based on the outcome of this study, recommendations have been made for improvement in the course contents to fill the gap.

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224-230  



Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar, Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Solaiman

Abstract— Garments washing is one of the most important finishing treatments applied on apparels which have vital use to create special outlooks and improving the fashion. Technologically washing is one of the most important fashion elements for clothing industry and production of washed garments depends on the machine quality. In order to achieve an optimum effect of washing process, on the woven fabric in different washing time, Enzyme Wash and then Silicone wash were carried out for cotton fabric. However, there are some of the comments that when the garments have longer washing time, use of the chemical on the washing procedure will affect the physical and mechanical performance. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of industrial enzyme silicone wash combined with silicone wash. For this study currently fashionable regular Non- denim (100% cotton with twill 3/1 weave construction) trouser was chosen. The selected Non-denim trouser has been processed by enzyme and then silicone wash. In order to evaluate the washing effects on Non-denim trouser, changes of fabric handle, fabric specification (ends/inch, picks/inch, surface density, warp & weft yarn linear density), fabric strength has been determined during and after washing.

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231-233  



Ochire-Boadu Kwame, Kusi E., Lawer E. A.

Abstract— Occupational hazards and safety should be paramount for the well-being of any industrial worker. The main aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalent hazards/dangers encountered by workers in the Tamale Metropolis when working on wood/timber species. A survey involving the use of questionnaires, interviews and observations were used as tools for the investigation. The sample size for this study was made up of 60 respondents from the three constituencies within the Metropolis (Tamale North, Tamale South and Tamale Central). The data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists, version 16. Per our findings, work hazards are associated with a wide range of injuries and illnesses such as cut-type of injuries, fractures, sprains, catarrh, waist pains, eye problems and dizziness. Also, a significant number of workers in the study area did not use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) when operating machines or performing jobs that required their use. Hence, the attitude and behavior of workers towards health and safety should be of major concern to employers or management of this industry. Health and safety education as well as training and provision of PPE’s are therefore strongly recommended to prevent or minimize work-related accidents, injuries and illnesses.

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234-236  



O. C. Ozor, M. V. Agah, K. I. Ogbu, A. U. Nnachi, O. E. Udu-ibiam, M. M. Agwu

Abstract— The demand, high costs and health implications of using energy derived from hydrocarbon compound have necessitated the continuous search for alternative source of energy. Cow dung as a renewable source of energy supply has been proven to be very efficient. This study investigated the production of biogas using cow dung from Abakaliki abattoir located in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A 2ml/g of the cow dung was used in this study. The digestion was carried out in a 10 L anaerobic digester at a temperature of 250C to 300C and uncontrolled pH for a period of 3 weeks. About 23 cm3 of biogas was produced on the 22nd day. Thus biogas production from cow dung is a good and cheap alternative source of energy. The use of biogas will not only serve as a source of fuel but will also help in the management of waste. The biomass generated after digestion can be used both as animal feed and to improve soil fertility. It is therefore recommended that large scale production of biogas from wastes should be undertaken by all as the wastes around you today can become your wealth tomorrow.

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237-239  



Prakash Kumar Dewangan, U .T. Nagdeve

Abstract: The review of inverter is developed with focus on low cost, high reliability and mass-production for converting electrical energy from the pv module to the grid. Various inverter topologies are presented, compared, and evaluated against demands, lifetime, component ratings, and cost. Inverter based PV system to explain electrical performance subjected to different operating conditions. Multilevel inverter is one of the most recent and popular type of inverter founds its applications in the system based on renewable energy. This paper describes a new Single-phase Eleven level inverter topology for solar photovoltaic (PV) system using a carrier based PWM control scheme. This new topology has reduced number of switches for an increased number of levels when compared to conventional seven-level inverter. Here PWM switching scheme is used to control the switches in this multilevel inverter and this inverter is fed from a solar PV. By using this inverter topology, the harmonics is reduced and efficiency is enhanced significantly.

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240-245  



Lydia Melawat, Kristiana Pasau

ABSTRACT: Sponge is an invertebrate animal commonly found in Spermonde Archipelago. It is known as an animal living as filter feeder. Sponge is capable of accumulating heavy metals including cobalt (Co). Co is an essential metal in low concentration but a pollutant in high concentration. Sponges used in this study were Melophlus sarassinorum, Callyspongia aerizusa, and Clathria reinwardtii. Sponges were analyzed based on modified Muller et al (1998) method. Co concentrations were determined using ICP-OES. Co metal in three sponge species from seven different islands indicated equal concentration (2 mg/kg) except for the sponge Callyspongia aerizusa from Lae-Lae and Barrang Caddi islands that accumulated lower Co (0.5 mg/kg).

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246-248  



Rashid Hamed Al Azri, Majid Hilal Al-Rashdi

Abstract - Authentic materials are among the most important tools a teacher can and must use in class in order to make his/her teaching go smoothly and be effective in transmitting the necessary knowledge to all students. In this paper, the writers will discuss the Effect of Using Authentic Materials in teaching, because a number of studies point out that the use of authentic materials is regarded a useful means to motivate learners, arouse their interest and expose them to the real language they will face in the real world.

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249-254  



K.R. Dabhade

Abstract: The Data sets that are too large and complex to manipulate or interrogate with standard methods or tools so it cannot be processed using some conventional methods. Now a days social networks, mobile phones, sensors and science contribute to pet bytes of data created daily. Creators of web search engines were among the first to confront this problem. We've all heard a lot about "big data," but "big" is really a red herring. Companies like telecommunication, and other data-centric industries have had huge datasets for a long time. The storage capacity continues to expand, today’s "big" is certainly tomorrow's "medium" and next week’s"small." or it can be defined as "big data" is when the size of the data itself becomes part of the problem. The process of research into massive amounts of data to reveal hidden patterns and secret correlations named as big data analytic. We're discussing data problems ranging from gigabytes to petabytes of data. These useful informations for companies or organizations with the help of gaining richer and deeper insights and getting an advantage over the competition. Hence big data implementations need to be analyzed and executed as accurately as possible. At some point, traditional techniques for working with data run out of steam. The information platforms are similar to traditional data warehouses, but different. Some rich APIs, are designed for exploring and understanding the data rather than for traditional analysis and reporting.

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255-257  



Samuel Musungwini, Tinashe Gwendolyn Zhou, Raviro Gumbo, Tinomuda Mzikamwi

Abstract— The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Product, Place, Promotion and Price (4Ps) in Market Basket Analysis (MBA) and establish how the 4Ps can be applied as a tool for competitive advantage in the small scale retail sector in Zimbabwe. Market basket analysis is a technique that discovers relationships between pairs of products purchased together. The technique can be used to uncover interesting cross-sells and related products. To conduct this study the researchers carried out observations, and examined transactions of customers for grocery retail shops in Gweru and used a survey questionnaire to elicit data. The researchers then evaluated the empirical data and compared with literature evidence. The results revealed interesting relationships.

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258-264  



Dikko A. B., Ahmed A. D., Alkasim A., Pascal T

ABSTRACT: Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used as a treatment for dehydration. It involves drinking water mixed with sugar and salt, while continuing to eat. In this paper, density and viscosity of salt sugar solution at 308.15 K, 313.13 K, 318.15 K, 323.15K, 328.15 K and 333.15 K have been determined using Ostwalds viscometer. The results showed that density and viscosity decreased with increased in temperature. The density-temperature and viscosity-temperature curves obtained can be used to determine the extent of the accuracy of any locally prepared oral rehydration therapy.

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265-266  



Olaniyan A.B, Olaleye O.J, Oyedeji, M. N, Aina O.A

Abstract: With persistence increase and complexity in the rate of crime activities in developing countries like Nigeria where criminal act has become the order of the day, it is an understatement if consideration is not given to criminal records keeping, for such is a necessity for law agencies and the general public in a bid to minimize atrocities such as criminal offence denial, record manipulation and criminal record insecurity to mention few. Nigeria among developing countries is known to manage criminal records manually which is prone to criminal’s record misplacement, removal, replacement and sometimes change in the content of criminal record. In other to improve on this conventional approach of keeping record as well as minimize the level of atrocities observed, a secured criminal record keeping is necessary. In this study, a web-based criminal diary with security features that prevents all forms of data manipulation, irregularities and theft was developed.

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267-274  



Orie Bassey O.

Abstract: In giving adequate attention to some qualitative properties of solutions in ordinary differential equations, Lyapunov functions is quite indispensable. The process of tackling some problems in the application is the construction of appropriate Lyapunov functions for some nonlinear fourth order differential equation. Our focus is finding V(x), a quadratic form and positive definite also finding U(x) which is positive definite such that the derivative of V with respect to time would be equal to the negative value of U(x) In this work, we adopted the pre-multiplication of the given differential equation by and thereafter we integrated with respect to form to . We obtained a Lyapunov function candidate for a fourth order differential equation or its scalar equation.

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275-285  



Olaleye Oludare, Olabiyisi Stephen, Olaniyan Ayodele, Fagbola Temitayo

Abstract: In machine learning, feature selection is a problem of global combinatorial optimization resulting in poor predictions and high computational overhead due to irrelevant and redundant features in the dataset. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a classifier suitable to deal with feature problems but cannot efficiently handle large e-mail dataset. In this research work, the feature selection in SVM was optimized using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results obtained from this study showed that the optimized SVM technique gave a classification accuracy of 80.44% in 2.06 seconds while SVM gave an accuracy of 68.34% in 6.33 seconds for email dataset of 1000. Using the 3000 e-mail dataset, the classification accuracy and computational time of the optimized SVM technique and SVM were 90.56%, 0.56 second and 46.71%, 60.16 seconds respectively. Similarly, 93.19%, 0.19 second and 18.02%, 91.47 seconds were obtained for optimized SVM technique and SVM respectively using 6000 e-mail dataset. In conclusion, the results obtained demonstrate that the optimized SVM technique had better classification accuracy with less computational time than SVM. The optimized SVM technique exhibited better performance with large e-mail dataset thereby eliminating the drawbacks of SVM.

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286-293  



Eluwole A. Bolaji, Ademilua O. Lawrence

ABSTRACT: Reconnaissance and detailed geophysical investigations involving the Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and the electrical resistivity methods have been carried out within the main campus of the Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti. This was with a view of solving the present challenge of insufficient water supply in the University by delineating subsurface structures favourable to groundwater occurrence and upon which a sustainable water supply scheme can be developed. Forty-two (42) geophysical traverses were established and VLF-EM profiling were was carried out on the traverses at an interval of 10 m. The VLF-EM data were interpreted qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. Points on the profiles associated with structures of hydrogeological importance were selected for further investigation with the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique. Twenty-five (25) VES stations were occupied and the Schlumberger array was adopted, with half-electrode spacing (AB/2) varying from 1 to 100 m. VES data were interpreted quantitatively by partial curve matching and computer modeling. The 3-layer (A, K, and H); 4-layer (HA, KH, and QH); and the 5-layer (HKH) depth sounding curves were obtained from the area. The 4-layer type curve is predominant, having a 50% occurrence. The geoelectric sections delineated five lithologic units, including the topsoil; the lateritic layer; the weathered layer; the partly weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement bedrock. The weathered layer and the partly weathered/fractured basement were identified as the main aquifer units in the area. VES 6, VES 11, VES 12, VES 19 and VES 22 positions were observed to possess aquifer characteristics that can only sustain low-demand water supply schemes, while VES 24 and VES 25 were interpreted to have adequate aquifer characteristics that are suitable for the development of a sustainable water supply scheme.

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294-304  



A. Ishak, M. Rusop

Abstract: The intrinsic amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films were successfully prepared by via a bias assisted pyrolysis-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using ethanol as a carbon source. The effect of deposition temperature on the electrical and structural properties was investigated. The a-C thin films were characterized by current voltage (I-V) measurement, surface profiler, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM measurements and conductivity result show the surface roughness and resistivity of a-C films decreases with increasing of deposition temperatures .Linear forms were obtained from aurum and a-C film contact. The resistivity of intrinsic a-C thin films in the range of 250oC to 550oC is 22x108Ω.cm, 2.01x108Ω.cm, 4.44x107Ω.cm, 7.26x107Ω.cm, 6.53x107Ω.cm, 4.97x107Ω.cm, and 4.32x107Ω.cm, respectively. Meanwhile, its conductivity is 2.07x10-8 Scm-1, 1.58x10-8 Scm-1, 2.25x10-8 Scm-1, 1.38x10-8 Scm-1, 1.53x10-8 Scm-1, 2.01x10-8 Scm-1, and 2.32x10-8 Scm-1, respectively. The highest and lowest photo responses were found at 350oC, and 500oC, respectively. This electrical properties result showed the custom-made of bias assisted pyrolysis-CVD can produced the semiconducting a-C film comparably with other conventional deposition method.

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305-308  



A. Ishak, M. Rusop

Abstract—The nitrogen doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) thin films were synthesized for the first time by mixing of nitrogen gas, argon and ethanol precursor via a bias assisted pyrolysis-CVD in the range of 250oC to 550oC with fixed negative bias of -50V in 1h deposition. The a-C:N thin films were characterized by current-voltage measurement, UV/VIS spectrophotometer, surface profiler, and atomic force microscopy. The resistivity of a-C:N thin films in the range 250oC-550oC was 4.97x107Ω.cm, 2.66x105 Ω.cm 1.974x104Ω.cm, 3.63x103Ω.cm, and 4.44x103Ω.cm, and 1.73x104Ω.cm, respectively. It was found that a-C:N thin films have responded with photon by created electron hole pair where the highest photo response of a-C:N film was found at 350oC. The deposition temperatures with the help of constant dc voltage influenced the physical properties of a-C thin films.

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309-312  



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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - June 2017 - Volume 6 Issue 6