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IJSTR Volume 4 - Issue 10, October 2015 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Hj.Indirawaty, Syamsuddin AB

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to describe briefly on the application of social interaction which made nurses to clients while performing therapeutic communication at the Hospital of South Sulawesi with frame symbolic interactionism. Result achieved against the system carried nurse interaction with clients who patterned on therapeutic communication. At the stage of pre-interaction system is applied, such as; before the nurse interacts with the client well in advance to prepare the way of dressing, reception duties of nurse and studying the book status of each client. Introduction or orientation phase, nurses visit each client, and when the first met uttered a greeting before asking the client's condition, when the interaction takes place he uses verbal and non-verbal language, and attitude shown in full client hospitality and courtesy. Stage work, nurses do an evaluation or action on the client's condition in accordance with the termination task. Midwife stage, nurse re-evaluate the client and conclude the development of the client's condition and report a doctor who handles client. The fourth aspect of the application using the analysis of symbolic interactionism

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1-13  



Lina Hamouche, Soumaya Laalami, Ghayas Lakkis, Ahmad Kobaissi, Ali Chokr, Harald Putzer, Kassem Hamze

Abstract: Bacterial cells differentiation constitutes an appropriate and efficient way to respond to an ever-changing environment. Bacillus subtilis are no different, where in some conditions planktonic cells differentiate into highly motile swarmer cells. The hyperflagellated swarmer cells, located usually at the colony edge, move in a cooperative manner in order to reconnoiter new sites for colonization, this movement is called “swarming”. The chemotaxis proteins take a part of several factors playing an essential role in swarmer differentiation, hence migration therefore we assumed a connection between chemotaxis and swarming profile of B. subtilis. To this end, we examined the effect of amino acids (chemoattractants), glutamic acid and lysine, deprivation on the capability of swarming. Here we show that deprivation of synthetic B-media from glutamic acid result on attenuated defective and random swarming pattern; deprivation of lysine lead to an almost normal swarming pattern, meanwhile double deprivation of both amino acids result in important reduction of swarming capability. Moreover, we developed a method to screen the chemotaxis clearly using swarm plates with concentration gradient. Using this approach, we found that B. subtilis manage to swarm completely toward glutamic acid and didn’t swarm toward medium lacking this amino acid; meanwhile the bacteria manage to swarm in all sides of plates with concentration gradient of lysine. Furthermore, our results indicate that these two chemoattractants can reduce the motility by modulating the expression of hag gene. The absence of glutamic acid and lysine decrease the expression of hag during swarming, respectively for 36% and 15%.

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14-21  



Jean HABIMANA

Abstract: SQL statements can be used to retrieve data from any database. If you've worked with databases for any amount of time retrieving information, it's practically given that you've run into slow running queries. Sometimes the reason for the slow response time is due to the load on the system, and other times it is because the query is not written to perform as efficiently as possible which is the much more common reason. For better performance we need to use best, faster and efficient queries. This paper covers how these SQL queries can be optimized for better performance. Query optimization subject is very wide but we will try to cover the most important points. In this paper I am not focusing on, in- depth analysis of database but simple query tuning tips & tricks which can be applied to gain immediate performance gain.

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22-26  



Adegoke, E.O. Ezekwe, A.G. Agaviezor, O.B.

Abstract: Twelve West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep, four in each of parities one, two and three were used to determine effect of parity and birth type on udder characteristics and milk yield during lactation and their phenotypic relationship. Udder length (UL), udder width (UW), udder circumference (UC), udder volume (UV), teat length (TL), teat width (TW), teat circumference (TC), distance between the teat (DBT) and teat height from the ground (THG) of sheep were measured weekly for the twelve weeks of lactation commencing from four days post partum. Result showed that, parity and birth type effects on udder characteristics and milk yield were highly significant (P < 0.01).Twin bearing ewes in the third parity had significantly highest values (cm) of 9.56±0.16, 9.75±0.16, 42.29±0.89, 2.05±0.11, 1.32±0.06, 3.42±0.15, 488.59±34.28, 7.26±0.07, 26.46±0.25 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG respectively while single bearing ewe in the first parity had the least values (cm) of 7.22±0.26, 8.26±0.21, 32.17±1.06, 1.22±0.05, 0.87±0.04, 2.33±0.11, 263.63±24.36, 6.23±0.07, 23.57±0.38 for UL, UW, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG respectively. The UL, TL, TC, TW, DBT and THG of single bearing ewes in the third parity had significantly higher values (cm) of 8.60±0.09, 1.73±0.11, 1.17±0.05, 3.20±0.11, 6.96±0.08, 25.49±0.28 than twin bearing ewes in the second parity with 8.05±0.23, 1.62±0.10, 1.07±0.04, 2.56±0.14, 6.66±0.10, 25.00±0.46 for same udder characteristics. Similarly, the parity and birth type effect on milk yield was highly significant (p< 0.01). Twin bearing ewes in the third parity had significantly (p 0.01) highest value (ml) of 249.09±14.85 per day, followed by single bearing ewes in the third parity with 208.08±14.64 ml per day while single bearing ewes in the third parity had the least milk production p of 124.54±8.79 per day. The correlation coefficient between udder dimensions and milk yield obtained were; 0.92, 0.79, 0.91, 0.92, 0.86, 0.88, 0.60, 0.08 and -0.24 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG respectively.

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Bahaa Ameen Abdul Hussien, Suha Allawi

Abstract: Background; Ginger has many effects in vitro and in animal experiments, like anti nausea and anti vomiting, also it has anti lipidemic activity.The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ginger on blood cells and other hematological effects. Material and methods; 18 New Zealand rabbits subdivided into 3 groups each one consists from 6 rabbits, the once was control group (administered distilled water for 20 days), and the twice group ( administered ginger extract 100% wv for 20 days), and the third group (administered ginger extract 50% wv for 20 days). Results; the ginger extract 100% was more effective in changing WBC count and HB concentration more than 50% and more than DW group, while ginger extract 50% also caused the change in WBC count and HB but less than that of 100% and more than that of DW.

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33-35  



Sandeep Kumar, Kantveer

Abstract: Multi-hop data delivery through vehicular ad hoc networks is complicated by the fact that vehicular networks are highly mobile and frequently disconnected. To address this issue, the idea of helper node is opted, where a moving vehicles carries the packet until a new vehicle moves into its vicinity and forwards the packet. Different from existing helper node solution, use of the predicable vehicle mobility is made, which is limited by the traffic pattern and the road layout. Based on the existing traffic pattern, a vehicle can find the next road to forward packet; a vehicle can find the next road to forward the packet to reduce the delay. Several vehicle-assisted date delievery (VADD) protocol is proposed to forward the packet to the best road with the road with the lowest data delivery delay. Experiment results are used to evaluate the proposed solutions. Results show that the proposed VADD protocol outperform existing solution in terms of packet delivery ratio, data packet delay and protocol overhead. Among the proposed VADD protocols, the Hybrid probe (HVADD) protocol has much better performance. In this Solution the helper node technique is provider with which the helper node will contain destination node path and the path in routine table continuously changes with the help of helper node technique.

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36-41  



Joseph Chukwusa

Abstract: The library is widely accepted as the heartbeat of the educational enterprise. Improving the quality of library services in higher education systems via solar energy back-up becomes necessary as a result of the inadequacy of power generation and distribution in Nigeria. The Nigeria’s power generation capacity is 6,090MW (Estimated demand is 10,000MW); yet actual supply fluctuates well below that figure and averages less than 50 percent of its capacity annually. According to Energy Information Administration (EIA), Nigeria has one of the lowest rates of net electricity generation per capita in the world. The Country’s generation is often hampered by gas supply challenges caused by pipeline vandalism along its Escravos-Lagos pipeline network, among other issues. Policy framework exists to increase generation to over 20,000MW by 2020. Obviously, there is much work to be done. Should the universities wait? How long? Solar energy is the solution to the problem.

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Faris Fauze Ahmed, Dr. Halima Yusuf Al-Rubaie

Abstract: Background: Total hip replacements conduct highly effective in relieving pain dysfunction for patients who suffer from hip inflammation and a variety of reasons, however, after several decades of success in hip replacement there was also an increase in cases of fractures after you perform a detailed switch and attributed this The increase in the prevalence of a large fraction of the increase in the number of switch detailed and increasing age and poverty operations. Objectives: The study aims toAssess the pre operation physical and psychosocial problems of patients with total hip replacement. To Assess the post operation physical and psychosocial problems of patients with total hip replacement. To find out the relationship between pre _ post physical and psychosocial problems with (age, gender, duration of illness and type of operation). Design of the study: A descriptive design study was carried out in Nursing Home hospital and Ghazi AL-Hariri for specialized surgical hospitals starting from January, 13th 2015 to September, 1st 2015, The study Sample: A non- probability (purposive) sample of 50 patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery who have several problems before and after surgery. The study Instrument: The study instrument was composed of three parts which as socio demographic information was included; age group, gender, marital status, level of education, occupational, economic, part two consist of medical information was comprised of (7 ) items, and part three contain physical and psychosocial problems through Hamilton anxiety scale consist of 84 items. Validity and Reliability: The content validity of the instrument was established through a panel of (14) experts, the reliability of the items was based on the internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed by calculating Cronbach s' Coefficient alpha which as= 0.73. Statistical Analysis: The researchers used the appropriate statistical methods for data analysis which include the descriptive data analysis, and inferential data analysis. Result: the findings revealed that the males that 54.0%, High percent of them 28.0% at 48-57 years old, 82.0% were married 38.0% of them at Graduated from primary school, 42.0% house wife, and majority of them 84.0% were high score of socio-economic status.

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Eugie Kabwe, Wang Yiming

Abstract: it is important to analyse the major players within a copper supply chain, as well as current market dynamics, relevant international guidelines, major impacts affecting the sustainability of the whole system and policy drivers affecting its price on the global market. Focusis on understanding major and provisional factors affecting copper price on themarket,long-term copper prices are determined by the fundamentals of supply and demand. Short term however, are driven by financial market and other variables. Through analysis of the major factors and present market dynamics, global copper consumption increased since 1970, regardless of the economic slump in 2007-2009, growth is likely to continuechiefly driven by increasing demand in China and India. Since 2004 the price of copper on the global market increased drastically, its consumption was mainly concentrated in developed industrial countries. The economic situation of developed countries has a greater impact on copper prices, addition of Asian nation’s increased urbanization and industrialization. Forecasts remain progressive asAsia advance with urbanization and industrializationplans. Anticipated to account for a major growth in global copper in the next 20 years, will present a large task to double copper supply output. Urbanization and industrialization will continue to surge copper demand, projected to overcome global copper production, high demandbut lesser supply on the market.The decline of copper supply would cause a mountingdeficit in turn increase demand by 2025. Asia’s level of economic activity and urbanization is far from complete, it will be a chief source of copper demand in the decades to come.

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Tamrin Abdullah, Ahdin Gassa, Sri Nur Aminah Ngatimin, Nurariaty Agus And Abdul Fattah

Abstract: The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e: neem seed extract together with rice planting, neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting, synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting (Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice), respectively. Research was conducted in rice fields with irrigation channels. The land area is 0.8 hectares with extensive experiments each rice terraces approximately 900 m2 with separate by rice terraces for every treatment. Each treatment consisted of three groups and using nine rice terraces. Samples of the rice plant population is 25 plants per sample unit. The results was showed treatment by neem seed extract with different time planting of soybeans able to reduce number of pest insects populations such as : N. virescens (80.38%) , N. lugens (67.17%), S. incertulas (66.5 %), and L. oratorius (93.46%) when compared to treatment with synthetic insecticides (Delthamethrin and Chlorpyrifos).

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Modou Faye, Cheikh Mbow, Bassirou Ba

Abstract: The author, faced with the impossibility of assessing the relative importance of the different contributions of physical quantities appearing in the equations of transport, he appealed to the dimensional analysis. Thus by grouping the physical parameters, the dependent and independent variables, it generates dimensionless numbers. The latter, having a physical significance, make it possible to characterize the various contributions. To solve the dimensionless equations obtained, strongly coupled reduced scale, the author opts for a numerical method. The spatial discretization variable pitch and tight at the interfaces of different zones of the field because of the strong gradients in these regions is adopted. The equations are then integrated in the numerical domain using the finite volume method and the coefficients are approached by the schema of the power Patankar law. The resulting system of algebraic equations is solved by the method of double course combined with an iterative relaxation line by line type Gauss-Seidel. Furthermore, with a volumetric coefficient of coupling which depends on the dissociation of the excitons and the average temperature field, the author has studied the influence of some physical parameters on the total density of photocurrent such that: the heating factor , the conversion velocity and the volume coupling coefficient of charge carriers.

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66-69  



Fahmida Afrin, Md. Al-Amin, Mehnaz Tabassum

Abstract: Data mining is the process of analyzing data and discovering useful information. Sometimes it is called knowledge Discovery. Clustering refers to groups whereas data are grouped in such a way that the data in one cluster are similar, data in different clusters are dissimilar. Many data mining technologies are developed for customer segmentation. PCA is working as a preprocessor of Fuzzy C means and K- means for reducing the high dimensional and noisy data. There are many clustering method apply on customer segmentation. In this paper the performance of Fuzzy C means and K-means after implementing Principal Component Analysis is analyzed. We analyze the performance on a standard dataset for these algorithms. The results indicate that PCA based fuzzy clustering produces better results than PCA based K-means, and is a more stable method for customer segmentation.

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Amit Srivastava, Er. Rajesh Tripathi

Abstract: Software testing is one of the most important stages of software development. In any software development, the development teams always depend on testing to know errors in the program. In the maintenance stage test suite size grow because of integration of new module in the main program. Addition of new module force to create new test case which increase the size of test suite. Regression testing is a type of testing in which we test the program after any modification in the program. In regression testing new test case may be added to the test suite during the whole testing process. The new additions of test cases create possibility of presence of same type of test cases. Due to limitation of time and resource, reduction techniques should be used to recognize and remove them.

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75-79  



Mohammad Mahfuzul Islam, Md. M. Alam, M. M. Parvez, M. A. Rahman

Abstract: In this paper is presented to study conjugate effects of stress work and heat generation on MHD natural convection flow along a vertical flat plate with power law variation of surface temperature. Stress work and heat generation effects on magneto-hydrodynamics natural convection flows are considered in this investigation. With a goal to attain similarity solutions of the problem, the developed equations are made dimensionless by using suitable transformations. The non-dimensional equations are then transformed into non-similar forms by introducing non- similarity transformations. The resulting non-similar equations together with their corresponding boundary conditions based on conduction and convection are solved numerically by using the shooting method of Nachtsheim-swigert iteration technique and finite difference method together with Keller box Scheme. Numerically calculated velocity profiles and temperature profiles, skin friction and the rate of heat transfer coefficient are shown on graphs for different values of the parameters entering into the problem.

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Benchouikh Adil, Allam Tarik, Abderrahim Kribii, Khadija Ounine

Abstract: To contribute to the development of an integrated strategy of pests associated with the tomato crop, the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Nigella sativa was evaluated on larvae of Tuta absoluta, which is considered the most destructive insect in the production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and which causes serious damages in invaded areas. Rearing larvae of Tuta absoluta and the testing of toxicity were conducted in laboratory conditions in petri dishes at a temperature of 26±2°C, with a relative humidity ranging from 60 to 70% and a photoperiod of 16 / 8. The method of Finney based on probits regression of mortalities according to the logarithms of essential oil doses allowed us to determine the LD50. The results of these tests showed that the essential oil of Nigella sativa has remarkable larvicidal properties. After four hours of exposure, they induced 100% of mortality of larvae in the concentration of 0,203μl/cm². The measured LD50 indicated the value of 0,105μl/cm². Field trials are needed to confirm the practical relevance of these results in the development of a natural pesticide against the larvae of Tuta absoluta.

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Issa A.K, Abba. M. Aji

Abstract: Corrosion rates of galvanized iron roofing sheet In yola north eastern part of Nigeria were assessed and determined by weight loss method and scanner (fractal analysis) method,. Scanning electronic machine (SEM) was used to transform corrosion coupons to electronic form for image j processing and analysing software, The result of corrosion rates for these two methods after six months of the samples exposure in industrial. Coastal, market and urban areas in the region are 1.51, 1.079, 1.051, 0.779 and 1.9941, 1.9585, 1.9565, 1.9059 for weight loss and scanner (fractal dimension) methods respectively. and the results from the two methods were in agreement This establish the reliability of fractal dimension in measuring atmospheric corrosion, this research also provides alternative method of measuring atmospheric corrosion and overcome the limitation of conventional weight loss technique in its inability to measure corrosion rate which is not significantly change over a long period of time, moreover weight loss cannot demonstrate the area of concentration of corrosion on the surface of the coupon it rather gives the weight loss value, and this will aid in determining the real level or extent of corrosion damage in the material and this can be obtained when measuring the material through fractal analysis these results clearly indicate that corrosion is heavier on locations close to the industrial areas. This also shows the negative impact of industrial activities on the corrodible materials and consequently on the plants and environment.

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Abhijeet Das, Hirokjyotikalita, Partha Pratim Talukdar

Abstract: Electricity is now more than a necessity and its need is increasing day by day resulting in power theft and power scarcity. The purpose of this project is to provide automatic control and monitoring of the Domestic Energy Meter enabling the Electricity Department to read meter readings without anyone visiting each house and also prevent electricity theft .This can be achieved by the use of a Microcontroller Unit that continuously monitors and records the Energy Meter readings in its permanent memory location. This system also makes use of a GSM module for remote monitoring and control of Energy Meter with the help of an interfacing circuitry. The Microcontroller based system continuously records the readings and the live meter reading can be sent to the Electricity department after a count period or on request. This system also can be used to disconnect the power supply to the house in case of non-payment of electricity bills. The Substation will be the receiving end. The data received is fed to a microcontroller at the Substation which will automatically calculate the bill based on tariff provider and display it.

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H.M.R.B Herath, Y.P.R.D Yapa

Abstract: Technology advances as well as the emergence of large scale multimedia applications and the revolution of the World Wide Web has changed the world into a digital age. Anybody can use their mobile phone to take a photo at any time anywhere and upload that image to ever growing image databases. Development of effective techniques for visual and multimedia retrieval systems is one of the most challenging and important directions of the future research. This paper proposes an effective combined feature for web based image retrieval. Frequently used colour and texture features are explored in order to develop a combined feature for this purpose. Widely used three colour features: Colour moments, Colour coherence vector and Colour Correlogram, and three texture features: Grey Level Co-occurrence matrix, Tamura features and Gabor filter were analyzed for their performance. Precision and Recall were used to evaluate the performance of each of these techniques. By comparing precision and recall values the methods that performed best were taken and combined to form a hybrid feature. The developed combined feature was evaluated by developing a web based CBIR system. A web crawler was used to first crawl through Web sites and images found in those sites are downloaded and the combined feature representation technique was used to extract image features. The test results indicated that this web system can be used to index web images with the combined feature representation schema and to find similar images. Random image retrievals using the web system shows that the combined feature can be used to retrieve images belonging to the general image domain. Accuracy of the retrieval can be noted high for natural images like outdoor scenes, images of flowers etc. Also, images which have a similar colour and texture distribution were retrieved as similar, even though the images were belonging to deferent semantic categories. This can be ideal for an artist who wants to retrieve images which are aesthetically similar and not interested in semantic similarity.

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102-109  



Sun Chang

Abstract: Nano-powder of M-type barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) were prepared by citrate sol-gel process with the starting materials of stoichiometric amounts, such as Ba(NO3)2•6H2O, Fe(NO3)3•9H2O, and citric acid. The phase analysis was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) . The microscopic morphology of the as prepared nano-powder was observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM). The average crystallite size of M-type barium ferrite nano-powder was found to be about 50 nm. The results show that nano-BaFe12O19 powders was obtained by citrate sol-gel process.

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Uquetan, U. I. Egor, A. O., Osang, J. E., Emeruwa, C.

Abstract: This paper focuses on wind energy potentials in Calabar – a coastal city. The wind speed data were collected from Margaret Ekpo International Airport, Calabar (NIMET). The Objective of this study is to examine whether the wind energy in Calabar can generate sufficient energy to supplement electricity generation for the Calabar region. The primary data obtained is monthly mean in the form of wind speed for a period of 5year (2008 - 2012). These was used to estimate the available wind energy potential in calabar. The results show that, the annual wind is 1.3 m/s indicating Calabar as a low wind speed region. The wind power density value of 3.11W/m2 indicates that Calabar wind can only be used for small stand-alone wind power systems, such as battery charging and for powering street light and water pumps (fig 1, 2, 3 & 4). The weibull probability distribution scale parameters (k) are higher in values and variability than the shape parameter (c) for the monthly distribution. Calabar wind cannot be used to generate electricity because the wind speed data at 10m height doesn’t exceed 2.5m/s due to the standard cut in speed.

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Egor, A. O. , Osang, J. E., Emeruwa, C., Ebong, D. E. , Uquetan, U. I., Bawan A. M.

ABSTRACT: The vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique employing the Schlumberger electrode array was used to survey some villages in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State with a view to determine the groundwater potntial of the area. The study area is located between longitude 80 12’ and 80 16’ E and latitudes 50 45’ and 60 15’ N. a total of seventeen (17) electrical soundings were undertaken using the ABEM TERRAMETER model SAS 300, maximum current electrode spread of 500m was attained. The data were interpreted using resist computer software programme to obtain the final model for each VES location. These models were combined to produce a profile showing the geoelectric sections of the subsurface. Correlation of the inferred geoelectrical models showed that the first layer is composed of the sand mixed with clay and its resistivity is between 157 and 497Wm. The second layer inferred as clay has a resistivity range between 17 and 67Wm. the third layer suspected to be sandstone had resistivity range of 541-7603Wm. The fourth layer suspected to be shale had a resistivity range of 97-574Wm, while the last layer is sandstone with resistivity range of 309-4412Wm. The sandstone layers (3rd and 5th) are considered to be the potential aquifer units in the area.

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122-126  



Ammar ES-Said, Labriji El Houssine, Hanoune Mostafa, Ghanimi Fadwa

Abstract: Mobile establishment of masts is an exclusive competence a control power, basically regarding town planning, mobility characterizes what could move or be moved, which can change place, this multilevel extensible, dynamic notion intuitive the activity however by three different aspects, and as many approaches, ‘nomadisme’, ubiquity, the sensitive system in context, nevertheless the use of these devices remains immersive, these devices requires all the attention, independently from this one. This approach is often called ‘nomasime‘, although this term can take different significance in other fields to find proximity, In ray of influence that remains to be determined, mobility is in fact related to features of the increasing data of the computing mobile.

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127-128  



Joyce Edwin Bategeleza, Deepak T. J., Eric L.W.K., Munir H. K.

Abstract: In this technical paper, Chezy’s and Manning’s constant were compared, using four different notches on the plain bed. The first phase of this paper involves designing of the notches, using Auto Cad software followed by fabrication. The second phase involves carrying out Experiments in open channel Laboratory by using hydraulic bench. The final phase involves calculations of Chezy’s and manning’s constants. It was seen that, Chezy’s constant is directly proportional to actual discharge While Manning’s constant in inversely proportional to actual discharge. Chezy’s constant has higher value compared to Manning’s constant value. Also Manning’s Standard deviation is smaller compared to that of Chezy’s. This indicates the accuracy of the resistance coefficient due to the fact that the smaller the value of standard deviation the higher the level of accuracy. Therefore, the coefficient of resistance is more adaptable, simple and accurate in Manning’s constant.

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129-133  



Egor, A. O., Osang, J. E., Uquetan, U. I. , Emeruwa, C., Agbor, M. E.

Abstract: The study inter-annual variability of rainfall in some states in Southern Nigeria focuses on analyzing the trends and fluctuations in annual rainfall over six states in Southern Nigeria, covering a period of 1972 – 2012. In order to ascertain the variability’s, and to model the annual rainfall for future prediction to enhance policy implementation, the quantitative and descriptive analysis techniques was employed. The rainfall series were analyzed for fluctuations using Standardized Anomaly Index (SAI), whereas the trends were examined using Statistical Package for Social Science Software (SPSS 17.0). At 95 percent confidence level, observations in the stations may be signals that the wetter period dominates the drier periods in this study. Each of the series contains two distinct periods when the rainfall anomalies (negative and positive) of a particular type were most significant. The period where the annual rainfall is above one standard deviation from the mean annual rainfall is considered Wet, and the period below one standard deviation from the mean annual rainfall is considered Dry for each station. The results of the linear trend lines revealed an increase in rainfall supply over the period of study especially of recent. The annual rate of increase in rainfall over the period of investigation 1972 - 2012 were; 15.21mm/year for Calabar, 2.18mm/year for Port Harcourt, 22.23mm/year for Owerri, 3.25mm/year for Benin City, 5.08mm/year for Enugu, and 16.29mm/year for Uyo respectively. The variability in amount of annual rainfall revealed that, in 2012 Calabar received the highest amount of rainfall of about 4062.70mm and the least value of 2099.4mm in 1973. In Porthacourt, the highest amount of rainfall occurred in 1993 with a value of 3911.70mm and the least value in 1983 with a value of 1816.4mm. Owerri recorded the highest amount of rainfall of about 3064.0mm in 2011, and the least value occurred in 1986 with a value of 1228.4mm. In 1976, Benin received the highest amount in rainfall of 2435.5mm and the least value of 1190.7mm occurred in 1983. Enugu received 2262.4mm as the highest amount of rainfall in 1997 and the least occurred in 1981 with a value of 913.10mm. From the period of investigation, Uyo received 3172.9mm as the highest amount of rainfall in 2011 and the least value of 1562mm in 1983. The predicted values for the modeled data suggests continues increase in amount of annual rainfall in all the locations. From the cumulative mean deviation graphs, Calabar and Uyo indicate a tendency towards flood, while the other stations reveal a tendency towards drought.

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134-154  



Leticia G. Patino

Abstract: Across the world, highly populated urban areas are widely regarded as generators of various crimes. From petty crimes to organized crime activities, cities and other urban areas provide some form of haven for criminal activities and their proponents. In this paper, we look at two highly-urbanized areas, New York City and Seoul, South Korea. We look to compare the crime trends and activities in these two areas and see if there are points of comparison by which these two are similar or if they are separated by some factors..

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155-158  



Dadang Kusnadi

Abstract: Fenomenon and comunity problem in goverment hospital management not aware to wont and need public. Silent, safety and consumen satisfaction is fenomenon lack quallity care. Goal this research goal for analysis about influence of policy implementation of hospital change institution status to the quality of patien service in Hospital. Kind of reserch is the quantity desain on approach the eksplanatory survey, research analysis regresi linier multipel with analysis method validitas product moment pearson exam and reliability exam is alpha cronbach technique to hypotesis exam is path analysis and statistic exam (t). Datum transformation is Skala Likert with measurement the method succesive interval. The population one thausand seventh two person with sample technique stratified random sampling, the instrument research is quesioner and interview patien on caunter imforman. The result of assuming research that it is anticipated that implementation of change policy of institution status of hospital “X”, there is significant influence to quality of service of patient (Y) is 66.31% and the other factor (e) is 33.69%. In the implementation factor is significant to positif influence to quality service is communication (X1) is 0,49%, human resources (X2) is 0,25%, disposition (X3) is 0,32% and structure birocratic (X4) is 0,33%. The conculsion from four factor independen variable (X) is the implementation of policy to quality service patient (Y) to influence and can receive in knowledge. To concept the development in implementation of policy need culture job factor, because every product policy to contac direct with the community as to basic public policy.

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159-164  



Samyak Shami

Abstract: Currently, about 65% of global electricity generation now is fossil fuel-based – spewing 13 giga tonnes of CO2 . With mass production and innovations in technology the prices of renewable energy sources have plummeted to such levels where have become a welcoming option even without the subsidies.China has installed nearly 100 gigawatts (GW) of wind power and plans to double it within the next five years , while Britain is also in offshore wind power in a big way. However, oil continues to be the most valued fuel source as almost all of it is consumed in internal combustion (IC) engines – mostly for transport and some for captive power plants. Biofuels and hydrogen fuel cells may be used as alternatives to petrol but biofuels, which include ethanol, hamper the performance of a vehicle.The production cost of solar power panels has come down so much that they are competing with the coal-based power even without the subsidy. The solar powered lanterns, made up of a few light-emitting diodes are bringing light and enhancing the quality of life in the world’s poorest regions, which are also located in the equatorial region. The US Department of Energy’s target is to produce 27% of America’s electricity using solar power by 2050, up from less than 1% today. In Australia, solar power panels, most of them on rooftops, cater to almost 10% of the demand. About 25% households of South Australia have solar power followed by Queensland (22%) and Western Australia (18%).Modern innovations in solar cells show enormous capabilities for them to be used extensively on windows, buildings, even cell phones or any device that has a clear surface. Similar strides have been made in concentrated solar power. The Solar power however has limitations too. It can not generate power during night or when sky is overcast. Excessive power generated by solar panels has led to a crisis in Germany and elsewhere to the extent that generating companies in addition to selling, were also paying back the managers of the grid to take their electricity as the solar and wind generators produced 28.9 GW of power, taking the peak availability of power well beyond the grid could sustain. The ‘grid-priority’ meant that the conventional nuclear/coal/gas power plants had to go out of synchronization to save the grid, which they could not as they are not designed to get plugged off on short notice. The consequences of promoting renewable energy to the present extent have been disastrous for the existing conventional power plants, which are built keeping in mind 20-30 years perspective. The wholesale electricity prices though are going down as SPV cell production has been coming down at a fast pace, but the burden of subsidies has also been spiraling.However, the relatively low end of technology, abundant fallow land, relatively few skilled engineers and persons required to run a solar power plant and, short period required to install them provide a huge leveling of playing field as world’s poor mostly live in the regions inundated with solar incidence who are bound to benefit most. For automobiles, fuel cells or nitrogen engines may provide the alternative to oil, where hydrogen and nitrogen gas is produced from the power generated through the solar cells.

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165-171  



Soclo W. P., Igue A. M., Mwenge Kahinda J., Boukari M., Agbossou K. E

Summary: The derivative function f of the cumulative particle-size distribution curve of certain soils has two (02) local maxima (two modes) in weight percentage for the particle-size ranges of sand and clay (one in the range of clays and the other in the range of sands). Are referred to as bimodal soils, soils with a particle-size distribution function F having two (02) inflection points, the first in the range of clays and the second in the range of sands. Such soils are already part of multiporous soils that have multimodal behavior. Haverkamp and Reggiani (2002), have established for soils whose particle-size have a monomodal behavior a shape similarity between the cumulative particle-size distribution curve and the water retention curve h (θ). A soil whose particle-size distribution has two modes (bimodal distribution of soil particle-size) usually poses enormous difficulties to soil physicists. Indeed, this character, when already achieves two in soil (bimodal soils), results in nine (09) unknown for the same water retention curve model with mathematical-physical basic, making it very difficult if not impossible to determine hydrodynamic parameters. So, monomadal soils facilitate the study of water transfers in the soil. The hydrodynamic models are available for these types of soils and involve more than 4 unknowns. And with the initial and boundary conditions, they allow the indeterminations up without difficulty. Now the work of Tomasella and Hodnett (1998; 2000; 2002) appears to link the modal character of the soil to climate zones to which they belong. They have come to say that the monomodal soils are specific to temperate regions and bimodal soils are specific to tropical or subtropical regions. The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis of bimodality for the case of soils of the unsaturated zone of Allada plateau located in the intertropical zone and to confirm the applicability of Brooks and Corey (1964) and van Genuchten (1980) models considered in this study and which are only valid on monomodal soils. The analysis according to USDA classification of the main soils of the study area namely haplic Acrisols, umbric Fluvisols and ferric Acrisols and their representation according to the soil textural triangle with an associated bimodal zone revealed 66 % of monomodal soils and 34% of bimodal soils in the study area. The comparative analysis of results with those of similar studies of the european databases and the Maheshwaram watershed in South India (subtropical) and the Ouémé watershed (subhumid) in Benin (De Condappa, 2006; Giertz and Diekkrüger, 2003), has validated mainly monomodal soils, especially within the B horizons. Which invalidates the hypothesis of Tomasella and Hodnett for this zone and confirms the validity of hydrodynamic models mentioned in the context of this study.

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172-183  



Mohammed Farik, ABM Shawkat Ali

Abstract: Issues of weak login passwords arising from default passwords in wired and wireless routers has been a concern for more than a decade. In this research we develop and test an algorithm to ensure and enforce passwords in routers that are resistant to brute-force attack. A comparative analysis is performed to show the improved strengths of passwords derived via this algorithm. Implementation of this algorithm in routers will ensure setup of brute-force attack resistant passwords.

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184-188  



Muhammed Safa Kamer, Ahmet Kaya, Abdullah Sisman

Abstract: In this study, an auto-mechanical safety valve was designed and manufactured in order to prevent possible wastage of water and water raid after instantaneous water cuts during water usage in places where water use is widespread. Safety valve is activated and it switches off the line when water is cut off (when mains pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure), and as it does not allow water to pass when it comes back, it saves water and prevents the formation of raids. An experiment set was conducted in order to measure the pressure drop between the inlet and outlet of the safety valve and it was found that with the increased flow rate the pressure drop increases. The three-dimensional flow analysis of the safety valve was carried out with Ansys-Fluent software package and the results obtained were compared with experimental data, and a good harmony was achieved.

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189-196  



Rihab M. El Zubair, Babo Fadlalla, Adar Hussien Mohyeddin Hussien, Mohammed Abdelkreim

Abstract: The study was conducted for two consecutive seasons 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 at the Demonstration Farm of the college of Forestry and Range Sciences, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Soba Khartoum .the aims of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization levels on forage maize as a potential winter crop in central Sudan in terms on biomass yield. Three nitrogen fertilization levels were examined. The treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Parameters studied were plant density, plant fresh weight (g), plant dry weight (g), and forage yield (tons/ha). Results obtained reveal that application did not significant affect forage plant density. Application of nitrogen increase fresh and dry weight per plant in all counts .fresh forage yield in terms of fresh forage and dry matter production was significantly increased with application of nitrogen .It was concluded that application of nitrogen fertilizer increase yield of forage maze during the winter season in central Sudan.

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197-201  



Ursella Chepkoech Kosgei

Abstract: Institutions of higher learning are increasingly turning to e-learning;however,Technical, Industrial, Vocational andEntrepreneurship Traininginstitutionshave not fully adopted e-learning despite this paradigm shift.This study set to achieve two objectives: to investigate the ICT infrastructure indices influencing adoption of e-learning by TIVETS and to determine the technical indices influencing adoption of e-learning by TIVETS.. A sample of 385 respondents who were key informants were purposefully pickedfrom five institutions. Questionnaires formulated in line with research objectives were used to collect primary data which were analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The various technological indices were presented including the recommendations.

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202-209  



Dafni Mawar Tarigan, Rosmayati, Chairani Hanum, Lollie A.P. Putri

Abstract: Grain growth is strongly influenced by climate where the plants grow. One of the parameters that affect the climate of the plant growth is temperature. Air temperature difference at one place to place depending on the altitude and latitude location. Climate change and the limitations of specific wheat varieties into one obstacle wheat development in the country. Then carried out research that aims to get the wheat genotypes corresponding to climatic conditions (especially temperature) of a specific location through morphological response every kind of wheat used. The research was conducted in two Karo highland locations namely Berastagi (1400 meters above the sea level) and Tiga Panah (1100 meters above the sea level) during the rainy season by using the twelve wheat varieties are two varieties of wheat namely (Selayar/K and Dewata /L) and ten genotypes (A = OASIS/SKAUZ//4*BCN); (B = HP1744); (C = LAJ3302/2*MO88); (D = RABE/2*MO88); (E = H-21); (F = G-21); (G = G-18); (H = MENEMEN); (I = BASRIBEY); (J = ALIBEY). This research aimed to obtain the appropriate type of wheat planted in each location based on morphological characters such as plant height, number of grain/spike and grain weight/spike. The design used is non factorial randomized block design. The result showed significant difference for all types of wheat on plant height, number of grain/spike and grain weight/spike.

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210-214  



Sailesh Chand, Mohammed Farik

Abstract: In recent years, there has been considerable research interest in mobile applications development, in particular on ontology and context-awareness. In this review paper, the aim is to understand current challenges in mobile applications development and find gaps to bridge for better and smarter mobile applications in the future. We believe the ideas suggested in opportunities will allow researchers to redesign related hardware and software technologies for greater functionalities and better user experiences, and application developers to make future applications that are more productive in the users’ context.

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215-218  



Andy Yusfany

Abstract: Assessing the relative efficiency of local governments using Data Envelopment Analysis, which are used as input aggregate total expenditure per capita and Local Governvent Output Indicator (LGOI) is used as an aggregate output of each local government. Results showed that local governments can improve the services performance without increasing the spending. Furthermore, the efficiency scores is associated with sosio-economic variables and demographic by using analysis of Tobit, the results show that the variable fiscal as transfer funds and silpa negatively and significantly to the local government efficiency, while the variable population density and degree of fragmentation of political parties and positive effect significantly to the local government efficiency.

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219-241  



H.M.I.U. Herath, Dr. D.M. Samarathunga

Abstract: Modern agriculture is characterized by a series of conflicting optimization criteria that obstruct the decision-making process in the planning of agricultural production. Such criteria are usually net profit, total cost, total production, etc. At the same time, the decision making process in the agricultural production planning is often conducted with data that accidentally occur in nature or that are fuzzy (not deterministic). Such data are the yields of various crops, the prices of products and raw materials, demand for the product, the available quantities of production factors such as water, labor etc. In this paper, a fuzzy multi-criteria mathematical programming model is presented. This model is applied in a region of 10 districts in Sri Lanka where paddy is cultivated under irrigated and rain fed water in the two main seasons called “Yala” and “Maha” and the optimal production plan is achieved. This study was undertaken to find out the optimal allocation of land for paddy to get a better yield while satisfying the two conflicting objectives; profit maximizing and cost minimizing subjected to the utilizing of water constraint and the demand constraint. Only the availability of land constraint is considered as a crisp in nature while objectives and other constraints are treated as fuzzy. It is observed that the MOFLP is an effective method to handle more than a single objective occurs in an uncertain, vague environment.

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242-250  



B. Devikiruba

ABSTRACT: This article describes a computational framework, which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network, to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information, puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification, specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

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251-258  



Richa Saxena, D.K. Saxena

Abstract: This paper analyses the heavy metal contents of soil and leafy vegetables grown near Gautam budh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India. The heavy metals Pb, Cd, Mn, Zn and Cu were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The soil and vegetable samples were collected from five different sites near GB Nagar district (UP). The leafy vegetables taken for study are cabbage and spinach which are commonly grown in this area. The vegetable samples were collected from the varying distances from the roadside. The results of the study showed that the Pb content in most of the vegetable samples were higher than the permissible limits as defined by the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954. The concentration of other heavy metals were within the safe limits in both the vegetables. Among the heavy metals studied, Pb concentration was highest at three sites and at other two sites Cu concentration was the highest. The results also indicated that heavy metal concentration tend to slightly decrease as the distance from the roadside increases.

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259-261  



Harshal Vispute, Akshay Kamane, Vardhan Patil, Suraj Shaha, Santosh Katkar

Abstract- A spring is an elastic or resilient body, whose function is to deflect or deform when a load is applied and recover its original shape when the load is removed. The important applications of springs are in application of a force (clutches, brakes etc.), measurement of a force (spring balance), storing energy (clock/toy springs) and absorbing shocks and vibrations (springs in vehicle suspension systems). Fatigue loads are generally cyclic and fluctuating in nature and are much less in magnitude than the yield strength of materials but they tend to have unpredictable behavior due to dissimilar and brutal fracture patterns. To avoid this, determining the endurance limit becomes inevitability. The present paper aims to test the endurance limit of a wide range of coiled/compression springs in the smallest possible time frame using a screw-based modified slider-crank mechanism in a mechanical system.

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262-266  



Santosh H. Suryawanshi, K. T. Jadhao

Abstract: The fundamental motivation behind this study is to identify the brain hemorrhage and to give accurate treatment so that death rate because of brain hemorrhage can be reduced. This project investigates the possibility of diagnosing brain hemorrhage using an image segmentation of CT scan images using watershed method and feeding of the appropriate inputs extracted from the brain CT image to an artificial neural network for classification. The output generated as the type of brain hemorrhages, can be used to verify expert diagnosis and also as learning tool for trainee radiologists to minimize errors in current methods.

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267-271  



Lamria Sidauruk, Darma Bakti, Retna Astuti Kuswardani, Chairani Hanum

Abstract: Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as: conventional farming, semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of: potato monoculture, potato with cabbage, potato with mustard, potato with celery, potato with cabbage and mustard, potato with cabbage and celery, potato with mustard and celery, potato with cabbage, mustard and celery. Research carried out for two planting season. The first at May-August and the second at September-December. The results showed that M. persicae was consistently at different densities in different intercropping system on potato. The aphid was first recorded at three week until planting. The kind of intercroppingculture plants significantly reduced the number of aphid at two planting season. Intercropping system decrease population of M. persicae at potato. At 9 weeks after planting, the decreased are respectively at intercropping potato with mustard (3.97 aphid/leaf), potato with cabbage and mustard (4.43 aphid/leaf) and potato with celery (4.45 aphid/leaf). At 11 weeks after planting, the decreased are respectively at intercropping potato with mustard (2.99 aphid per leaf), potato with cabbage (3.10 aphid/leaf) and potato with cabbage and mustard (3.60 aphid/leaf). At 7 weeks after planting, the highest population of natural enemies Braconid wasp was found on intercropping potato with cabbage(2.62 braconid wasp/plant) and at 9 weeks was found on intercropping potato with cabbage, mustard and celery (2.38 braconid wasp/plant). The highest population of Coccinellidae found on intercropping potato with cabbage, mustard and celery (1.80/plant) at 11 weeks after planting.

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272-277  



Issaka, R. Z., Ibrahim. H., Issah, M.H.

Abstract: The study evaluated performance of furrow lengths and field application techniques. The experiment was conducted on 2000 m2 field at Bontanga irrigation scheme. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used with three replicates. The replicates include Blocks A, B and C of furrow lengths 100 m, 75 m and 50 m respectively. Each replicate had surge, cut-off, cut-back and bunds treatments. Water was introduced into the furrows and the advance distances and time were measured. Results of the study showed that at Block A, surge technique recorded the highest advance rate of 1.26 min/m and opportunity time of 11 min whilst bunds recorded the lowest advance rate of 0.92 min/m. Significant difference (3.32, p≥0.05) occurred between treatment means of field application techniques at Block A (100 m). Significant difference (2.71, p≥0.05) was also recorded between treatment means. At Block B (75 m) there was significant difference (2.71, p≥0.05) between treatment means. No significant difference (0.14, p≤0.05) was observed among surge, cut-back and bunds techniques. There was significant difference (2.60, p≥0.05) between treatment means, but no significant difference between cut-back and bunds techniques in Block C (50 m). Their performance was ranked in the order Surge > Cut-back > Cut-off > Bunds for furrow lengths 100 m, 75 m and 50 m respectively.

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278-281  



T.Ramachandran, D.Udayakumar, A.Naseer Ahmed

Abstract: Strong dominating - color number of a graph G is defined as the maximum number of color classes which are strong dominating sets of G, and is denoted by sd_ (G). Similarly, weak dominating - color number of a graph G is defined as the maximum number of color classes which are weak dominating sets of G, and is denoted by wd_ (G). In both the cases, the maximum is taken over all -coloring of G. In this paper, some bounds for sd_ (G) and wd_ (G) are obtained and characterized the graphs for which strong dominating - color number and strong dominating - color number exist. Finally, Nordhaus-Gaddum inequalities for sd_ (G) and wd_ (G) is derived.

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282-285  



Amir .M. Osman, Mohammed Abdelkreim, S.M.A. Abukashawa, M. T. Ibrahim

Abstract: The current study was conducted at different locations in Butanaarea ,Gaderif state, Sudan.60 questionnaires were used to collect information from camel owners .The study aims to assess perception of camel owners towards rangelands management practices .65 % of camel owners rearing camels as life manner.The results revealed about 66 % of the respondents are profession in camels rearing. On the other hand about 46 % of camel owners adopted the nomadic system.Moreover 63 % bred camel for milk and meat. The majority of camel owners kept breeding male camels from the same herd (90%). the improvement methods of herd are based on three ways, one of them is selection according to breeding history which practiced by 66.7 % followed by productivity 25 % and morphological features 8.3 %. The improvement purposes focused on both milk, meat about 78.3 % .The concluded that most of the camel’s owner kept breeding male camels from the same herd. The priority of camel owners for improvement was a dual purpose meat and milk production.

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286-289  



Nur Zeina Maya Sari, Se, Mm, Dr. H. Hidayat Effendy, Se, Ak, S.Ip, Mm, Ca, Ap

Abstract: Quality Information yielded by Information System Accountancy will affect at storey ability management level to bring action against and decision which related to company operational and also prepare effective financial statement. Azhar Susanto (2013: 65) states that the accounting information is the output of the accounting process. In general, the accounting information presented in the financial statements (Kieso et al, 2012: 5). With use accounting information, internal parties will obtain accounting information relating to past and future, such as prediction (forecasting) which includes annual plans, strategic and decision alternatives (Azhar Susanto, 2013:). The message contained in an accounting information as a guide for anyone when carrying out the activity (Azhar Susanto, 2009: 2). Accounting information is a strategic organizational resource (Mitchell et al., 2000). Accountancy Information System of vital importance in growth Process business On duty Original earnings Indonesian specially Bandung Area. The Organizational culture, through its assumptions, values, norms and symbols, determines the way in which the members of an organization perceive and interpret the reality within and around their organization, as well as the way they behave in that reality (Janisijevic,2012). This Technique regarding System Accountancy Information data model affecting earnings to original earnings area (PAD) at Indonesian Goverment . Database System have function to earnings responsiblity which consist of Iease receivable not yet been billed, for Iease receivable billed, and total receivable. Accountancy information system have different model to process business and evaluation to governmental accounting information..

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290-293  



A.Sambavi, R.S. Sabaragamuwa, R.Suthakaran

Abstract: In this paper, we developed three different types of cookies using a combination of foxtail millet and wheat flour. The ratio of foxtail millet flour and wheat flour changed as 60%, 50% and 45% and cookies were prepared. In order to determine consumer acceptability 9 point hedonic test was done with 32 untrained panelists serving and results were statistically analyzed to identify the best formulation. The sensory qualities, namely, appearance, texture, flavor, aftertaste, overall acceptability and proximate analysis specifically, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber and ash of the cookies were determined. The findings indicated that the sensory evaluation 55% foxtail millet, 45% wheat flour sample was highly accepted as best formulation in terms of texture, aftertaste and overall acceptability. There was no statistically significant (p>0.05) difference in appearance and flavor. In the best formulation moisture content is 4.6%, crude fat is 5.7%, crude protein is 13.1%, crude fiber 0.07 % and ash 1.0%.

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294-295  



Stephen J. Healy BA, MCJ

ABSTRACT : For centuries renowned psychologists, psychiatrists and philosophers have attempted to apply a definition to the concept of separation of the mind and brain. Searching for this workable definition has led to many different concepts based on individual scholar’s theories and beliefs. Mental problems and conditions remained in the abyss of ignorance and neglect. A relationship between the conscious and the subconscious (or unconscious) mind is and always has been essential to address mental health issues. In the end it could be arguably concluded that they never considered the concept of a synergistic relationship between the two. In years past, most psychologists followed the Freudian concept that the subconscious was a dark, unfriendly place, where socially unacceptable thoughts were stored, only to become sources of neuroses later. This was an accepted rationale at the time but proved to be wrong as research moved forward. The subconscious mind was evolving into an equal part of the brain with an understanding of its function and usefulness in addressing issues of the mind. Recent studies have shown that the subconscious works with the conscious mind in many of the processes and functions of activity, furthermore in some instances it has proven a better resource for decision making than the conscious mind. In the future, the subconscious mind could play a significant role in many processes, to include self preservation, conditioning and training, and alternative and complementary treatment for a variety of physical and mental illnesses. It should be noted that when the subconscious mind is used by the individual they can control pain, anxiety and phobias. Hypnosis and guided imagery has give the professional a means of taking a person back to the time the phobia occurred and assist the patient in dealing with the problem. It can also help a patient refer pain to another area of their body to allow them to complete a task moments before they were unable to do. Hypnosis and guided imagery historically have been used in Eastern medicine but looked down upon in the Western sector. Complimentary, alternative or Integrative medicine as it is now called has brought the Western world into a new means of healing as well as complimenting conventional Medicine. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, used the bark of the willow tree to treat his patients for pain or other maladies. He was aware of the healing and pain relief this bark brought to patients of his century. This was common practice, yet it was centuries before The Bayer Company in Germany developed the first aspirin. The reason for the story is that Salicylates, the main ingredient in non steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs, i.e. aspirin, is derived from the bark of the willow tree developed centuries before and used successfully. a delayed recognition of healing therapies, used and proven to have positive effects for a patient, borders on negligence in medicine. It is vital when something is used successfully to recognize its validity and importance and bring it to the forefront. Alternative therapies used successfully for centuries in the Eastern world are now in the Western world being used in hospitals and clinics across the country but still not at the status it deserves. Western medicine does not give it more than a complimentary status, perhaps out of fear of replacing modern methods. It should be accepted and welcomed as it makes a difference and perhaps could preclude more invasive treatments in the future.These therapies, including hypnosis and guided imagery are used throughout the world and are available to patients as complimentary but they need recognition and more importantly a board to regulate the practice of them as they are integrated into modern medicine. There needs to be a certification for practicing hypnosis and hypnotherapy. A board equal to the status of the State Medical Boards empowered to enforce strict adherence to the ethical and responsible standards used by the National Guild of Hypnotist. When this happens another great breakthrough will occur in the responsible treatment of patients.

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302-307  



Mohd. Rezaul Islam, Amrita Mukherjee, Khan Golam Quddus, Prashanta Kumar Sardar, Mosharraf Hossain

Abstract: The experiment was conducted at the On-Farm Research Division (OFRD), Agricultural Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Daulatpur, Khulna to study the effects of spacing and fertilizer on the growth and yield of onion. Three spacing viz. 10 × 10 cm, 15 ×10 cm and 15 × 15 cm with three fertilizer combinations viz. soil test based fertilizer dose (STB); integrated plant nutrient system (IPNS) based fertilizer dose and farmers’ practice were studied on the growth and yield of onion. The two factor experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The size of unit plot was 1.5 × 1.2 m. The results demonstrated that plant spacing had significant effects on growth, yield components and yield of onion. Different fertilizers exhibited significant variation in respect of individual bulb weight, bulb diameter and yield. The maximum bulb weight and yield were recorded in IPNS based fertilizer dose while the combined effect of fertilizer and plant spacing had significant effect on growth and yield of onion. The highest yield was obtained from the spacing of 15 × 10 cm coupled with IPNS based fertilizer dose and the lowest yield was found in 15 × 15 cm spacing with farmers’ practice.

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308-312  



Alvin Prasad, Mohammed Farik

Abstract: Technology has been integral component in the teaching and learning process in this millennium. In this review paper, we evaluate the different technologies which are used to currently facilitate the teaching and learning of computer programming courses. The aim is to identify problems or gaps in technology usage in the learning environment, and suggest affective solutions for technology integration into programming courses at the University levels in the future. We believe that with the inclusion of suggested innovative technologies and affective solutions in programming courses, teaching and learning will be attractive and best for the programming industry.

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313-317  



F. W. Ntengwe, M. Chikwa, L. K. Witika

ABSTRACT: The impact of flow rate (Q) on the head loss (hL) in pipes and fittings was studied on different sizes or diameters (D) of pipes fitted with gate valve, 45 and 90o bends using water as process fluid. Diameters of pipes ranged from 25 to 100 mm while the process fluid flow rates ranged from 0 to 50 m3/h. The Darcy-Weisbach, Hazen-Williams and Poisselli’s methods were used to evaluate friction losses. The results showing increasing D of the pipe and decreasing the hL in the pipe line, gate valve, 45o and 90o elbow, entry and exits to pipes are presented. The results of increasing Q with increasing exponential values of hL regardless of D of pipe also presented. Therefore, a number of choices can be made between transporting process fluids using small D pipes (50>D>25 mm) and Reynolds (Re) numbers in the laminar region and large D pipes (100>D>50 mm) using Re numbers in turbulent regions.

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330-336  



Hermann Ken Jamnadas, Mohammed Farik

Abstract: Remote Voting Systems has not been universally adopted by most countries for their elections such as in the case of Fiji. Although mobile phones are quite prevalent around the world and the amount of smart phones sold is increasing at a rapid rate, there have not been many elections which have capitalized on the use of Mobile Phones as a remote voting tool. This paper is a limited review of previous papers on remote voting systems. The aim was to study challenges of adoption of remote e-voting systems such as through a mobile phone and suggest innovative solutions to those challenges. As such we propose a combination of new policy solutions and technical solutions such as the use of QR code and checksum for vote verification, the use of real time facial recognition systems, and the leveraging of existing mobile hardware to ensure a secure, anonymous and trustworthy remote voting system like it has never been before.

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337-342  



Winarjono, Sucherly , Surachman Sumawihardja

Abstract: The footwear industry in Banten Province is facing the issues of low business performance in the last five years caused by an inappropriate competitive strategy and business partnership that is not close yet. This research aims to study about business partnerships and competitive strategy on business performance of footwear industry in the Province of Banten. The study is conducted by descriptive and explanatory survey methods. The unit of analysis are companies of footwear industry in Banten Province. Time horizon is cross-sectional, which the study was conducted at a time simultaneously. The hypotheses is tested by using PLS. The finding of the study reveals that the company’s management of footwear industry in the Province of Banten does not have a close partnership yet, and have not been implement appropriate competitive strategy yet to improve their business partnership. There is simultaneous influence of business partnership and competitive strategy on business performance. The influence of competitive strategy is greater than business partnership’s influence in improving business performance.

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343-348  



Qusay Jalil, Muthnna Ali, S Nagakishore Bhavanam

Abstract: Science is developing applications in all fields (medical, industrial, agricultural, military .... etc.) private computer applications, and at the moment has become easier development tasks through a computer, which controls the systems through the so-called graphical user interface (GUI), where it is through the graphical interface to control the whole system in terms of operating appeared, maintenance, and other, this is not only, but rather can handle the graphical interface by any person who is not a specialist in the field of control of any It simplifies dealing with the system by the designer person.This paper represents a simplification of the work of control is full of a large volume of fuel tank system as in factories through the two pumps and valves discharge , consists of control system of two parts (1- Software 2- Hardware) for Soft is the part of the compiler is responsible for receiving data , processed and giving orders to the hardware for the purpose of implementation.This is done simulations of the system through the graphical user interface GUI designed under the working environment V.BASIC by a specialist engineer to be controlled by someone less experienced in the field of control

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349-353  



Amrita Mukherjee, Mohd. Rezaul Islam Dr. Khondokar Mohammod Nasiruddin, Purba Banerjee

Abstract: An experiment was conducted with mature embryos of three HYD and resistant rice (varieties BRRIdhan-29, BR-14, BINA dhan-8) as explants to investigate the appropriate growth condition for callus induction as well as plant regeneration on MS basal medium supplemented with different concentration of auxin and cytokinin. Different concentrations of 2, 4-D (0.0, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 mgL-1) were used for callus induction. Among the concentrations 2.0mgL-1 2, 4-D was best concentrations for callus induction (85%), callus size (4.533mm) and callus weight (81.847mg) in 10.66days and the highest maintaining ability was found in BR-14 at 2.0mgL-1 2, 4-D (88%) in callus size (5.143a) and callus weight (87.50mg)) in 6.50days. Different concentrations of kinetin (0.0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 10 mgL-1) with a constant concentration of NAA (0.5mgL-1) were used for plant regeneration from callus. Again, BRRI dhan-29 on T3 (MS + 8 mgL-' Kn + 0.5 mgL-' NAA) was found to be best in shoot length (6.00cm) with highest shoots initiation (97.5%) and the highest .number of shoots per callus (5.25) on T2 (MS + 6 mgL-' Kn + 0.5 mgL-' NAA) in 22.25days. In combination, BRRI dhan-29 the highest number of roots per explant (7.25), root length (2.31cm) was found in T3 (MS + 0.6 mgL-1 IBA) and the highest root initiation (97.50%) was on T2 (MS + 0.5 mgL-1 IBA).

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354-361  



Umar A.A., Munir G., Salihu I. Sunday E.

Abstract: “Gadagi Magani” tae is a herbal tea composed of many different herbs, roots, extracts, shrubs and leaves prepared locally in form of tea consumed by many labourers, youths, tailors, tricyclists and high way drivers in order to get extraordinary strength to endure hardship and overcome heavy duty within short period of time. The following biochemical parameters were routinely determined among consumers: serum level of Aspartate aminotransaminases (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were pragmatically higher than that of control, increase in serum creatinine level, lower sera urea and glucose levels and the sera levels of lipoproteins were also lower compared to controls. Hence, “Gadagi” affects negatively the liver enzymes, blood sugar level, serum urea, creatinine and carbonate, positively as it lowers lipid profile.

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362-364  



Nadeem Shah, Mohammed Farik

Abstract: Cloud computing provides on-demand hosted computing resources and services over the Internet on a pay-per-use basis. It is currently becoming the favored method of communication and computation over scalable networks due to numerous attractive attributes such as high availability, scalability, fault tolerance, simplicity of management and low cost of ownership. Due to the huge demand of cloud computing, efficient load balancing becomes critical to ensure that computational tasks are evenly distributed across servers to prevent bottlenecks. The aim of this review paper is to understand the current challenges in cloud computing, primarily in cloud load balancing using static algorithms and finding gaps to bridge for more efficient static cloud load balancing in the future. We believe the ideas suggested as new solution will allow researchers to redesign better algorithms for better functionalities and improved user experiences in simple cloud systems. This could assist small businesses that cannot afford infrastructure that supports complex & dynamic load balancing algorithms.

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365-367  



Taoufik Harizi, Fatma Abidi,

Abstract: Many factors such as production methods, fibre quality and structural parameters have distinctive influence on the quality and performance of a hand woven carpet. Because the most common fiber used for producing handmade carpet is wool, this experiment was aimed to identify virgin and pulled wool characteristics of Tunisian sheep breeds. A total of 84 sheep and 15 samples of commercial pulled wool were used in this study. Samples of fiber were analyzed using standard objective measurements for staple length (SL), mean fiber diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of fiber diameter (FDCV), fine fiber contain (FC), Breaking strength and Elongation. Results showed that Tunisian wool can be considered as medium wool. By conducting well-planned sorting, “Fine Queue of west” sheep breed can supply the wool needed for textile industries. The wool of other sheep breeds can be used in handmade carpets. Also, staple strength as one of the important wool characteristic affected significantly by alkali treatment during chemical unhairing process compared with wool collected by shearing process. Great attention must be paid to know the real characteristics of pulled wool before using it in handmade carpet industry.

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368-372  



Debbie Christine, Firman Martiano

ABSTRACT: One of the components of financial statements that are considered useful to look at the condition of the company, namely the income statement. One component of the income statement are income, the main problems in accounting revenue is determining when revenue recognition. Activities of the company will be deemed ineffective and inefficient when revenue recognition is not done properly. Therefore, the recognition of revenue have been set in PSAK No.23/2010. According to PSAK 23/2010 revenue is the gross inflow of economic benefits arising from the normal activities of an entity during a period when those inflows result in increases in equity that is not derived from the contribution of investors. The main income earned Damri Corporation is selling the economic city bus, bus with air conditioner and Trans Metro Bandung to society or passengers. Damri Corporation is a State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) engaged in the provision of transport services, one of them a city bus. Final assignment method used is descriptive method, descriptive, observational methods that analyze about the condition of the company. Damri Corp. apply accrual basis as for recognizing revenue. Application of revenue recognition is done by Damri Corporation in accordance with PSAK No. 23/2010, in which revenue is recognized on the basis of PSAK No. 23/2010. The possibility that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will be obtained by the entity and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably. Revenue Recognition In accordance with PSAK No.23/2010 at Damri Corporation can be concluded that the basic recording of revenue recognition is used Damri Corporation accrual basis, accrual basis of revenue recognition is where the income from the sale of goods or services is recognized in the period of the transaction, although cash has not been received by the company, the transaction has been recorded and recognized as revenue.

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373-379  



Rohit Mishra, Dr.Raghav Yadav

ABSTRACT: In today’s world, software testing with statistical fault localization technique is one of most tedious, expensive and time consuming activity. In faulty program, a program element contrast dynamic spectra that estimate location of fault. There may have negative impact from coincidental correctness with these technique because in non failed run the fault can also be triggered out and if so, disturb the assessment of fault location. Now eliminating of confounding rules on the recognizing the accuracy. In this paper coincidental correctness which is an effective interface is the reason of success of fault location. We can find out fault predicates by distribution overlapping of dynamic spectrum in failed runs and non failed runs and slacken the area by referencing the inter class distances of spectra to clamp the less suspicious candidate. After that we apply coverage matrix base reduction approach to reduce the test cases of that program and locate the fault in that program. Finally, empirical result shows that our technique outshine with previous existing predicate based fault localization technique with test case reduction.

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380-386  



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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - July 2017 - Volume 6 Issue 7