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IJSTR Volume 4 - Issue 9, September 2015 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Sharifah Salwa Binti Syed Mahdzar, Mahsa Hassani Baghi, Mahlagha Hassani Baghi

Abstract: one of the important effects of sustainable urban environments is motivating people for outdoor activities. The phenomena of street simultaneously come from the west into urban spaces with automobile and designers doesn’t have much of a role to set and design of this space in relation to physical activities. Consequently, these spaces are not adjusted to the walking behavior of people. In order to encourage walking among people it is important to know how pedestrian travel pattern can be affected by the physical environment. The aim of this paper is to show the influences of physical characteristics, spaces and land use of neighborhood Commercial Street in the Johor Bahru City Centre of Malaysia to the behavioral responses and attitudes of people. In this research, the inquiry employed a multiple-method survey involving a variety of techniques including direct observation, walk-by observation and pedestrian counts to collect data on the behavior of people on the street. The result shows that a commercial street with high population should have various Spaces with impressive physical characteristics that each user with different attitude is able to recognize their required spaces and use it with satisfaction.

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1-7  



S.A. Raji, A. T. Samuel

ABSTRACT: This work has investigated the potential use of usedegg shell as a concrete material. The usedegg shells were used as fine concrete aggregate. In the laboratory test, conventional fine aggregate was replaced at 100% replacement level. A total of 18 cubes were cast, cured and tested. The strength development of the concrete mixes containing egg shell aggregates was compared to that of conventional concrete with sand as fine aggregate. The result showed a reduction in compressive strength of the concrete but still falls within limits of lightweight concrete. This paper recommends that egg shell can be used for producing concrete where a lighter weight concrete is required and a reduction of dead load of structure is desired.

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8-13  



Bertha Jean Que, Amiruddin Aliah, Irawan Yusuf, Cahyono Kaelan

Abstract: Clinical experience suggests that the functional status of stroke patients is not directly proportional to the number of risk factors, this means that there are other factors that influence the status of functional role. The aim of this study is to explain the changes in levels of HSP70 and HSP60 associated with changes the functional status of stroke which measured with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) in acute thrombotic ischemic stroke. This research is quantitative research is an observational analytic, with a longitudinal observational design (prospective cohort study) and case control. Data was collected by consecutive sampling. Examination of serum levels of HSP 70, HSP60 and assessment of NIHSS done in three times at the same time they are the first day (≤ 48 hours), the third day (72 hours) and fifth day (120 hours). There is a significant difference (P <0.05) levels of HSP 60 and HSP 70 between patients with acute ischemic stroke (cases) with normal people (control). Change dynamic level of HSP70, HSP60 and NIHSS, according time of examination there is a significant difference. The first day of HSP 70 levels, the third and fifth, shaped the decline curve according to the NIHSS improvement, while the levels of HSP60 formed a pattern opposite to the NIHSS. Curve levels of HSP70 and HSP60 levels to get to the point value of HSP 60 and HSP70 normal (control). In general, there was no effect of risk factors on extensive infarction, NIHSS, HSP70 and HSP60, except the variable age to HSP70, which in the elderly (70-75 years) levels of HSP70 is higher than other age groups. Changes in levels of HSP70 and HSP60 follow the pattern of change in NIHSS towards improvement. Therefore HSP70 and HSP60 can serve as a prediction for degree of functional the acute thrombotic ischemic stroke. Risk factors are the cause of stroke but do not affect the NIHSS. Age affects levels of HSP 70. In general, HSP60 and HSP70 can be used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in ischemic thrombotic stroke, but further research is needed to determine the cut-off.

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14-20  



Mardiani Tanjung, Sucherly, Sutisna, Rahmat sudarsono

Abstract: The theory of an agency problem describes about the conflict of the agent’s interests and the principal which influence the value of a firm. The gap of information between them puts an agent in certain places to become more superior than the principal to do earning management. Good corporate governance is as a controlling mechanism and a balancing system in the company in accommodating the interest of the agent and the principal. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual model of best corporate governance role, earning management, the value of the firm by adding a compensation as another variable to minimize earning management. Good corporate governance consists of the three mechanisms which are Institutional shareholders, Independent commissioner and executive compensation.

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21-27  



Mohammed Gedefaw

Abstract: Ethiopia is facing rapid urbanization leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and informal settlements with poor waste management practices. Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers, and so generate huge quantities of solid wastes. This study is focused on the overall assessment of the existing MSWM service of Gondar town. The overall objective of this study was assessing the current solid waste management service of Gondar town. Both primary and secondary sources were used to achieve the objectives. The analysis of this study was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The findings of this study revealed that the present system of MSWM in Gondar town entirely relied on the municipality which provided the full range of waste collection, transportation and disposal service. But, the provision of this service is not kept in pace with the town solid waste generation. Based on the findings of this study, the town households’ dominantly produced biodegradable solid wastes with generation rate of 0.21kg/person/day. This made the daily total solid waste generation of households to be 8,140Kg. Together with other four solid waste sources the total daily solid waste generation of the town is about 11660 kg. So that MSWM of the town is found in very low status and spatial coverage. This poor status of MSWM is also intensified by three critical factors i.e poor institutional structure and capacity of Sanitation and beautification, limited participation and contribution of stakeholders and poor households’ solid waste management practices. This study concluded that, there should be sustainable solid waste management systems (reuse, recycle, composting, and incineration) through awareness creation and training, improvement of SB institutional structure and capacity, and implementation of integrated MSWM approach which recognizes and comprises all stakeholders in the town.

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28-36  



Taiwo Abdulahi Olabisi, Agbasi Obianuju E, Lawal Kamaldeen, Okafor Ifoema P.

Abstract: The poverty of Nigerian farmers and their inability to increase their output and income above the subsistence level have been identified as one of the factors militating against food production in Nigeria. Yet, agricultural cooperative create the ability for the supply of required agricultural inputs so that production of commodities is done timely to enhance productivity. They also provide an assured market for commodities produced by isolated small farmers in the rural areas. This paper was determined to evaluate the effects of cooperative societies on members’ output. The researchers administered a total of one hundred and twenty-six (126) questionnaires to the respondents with the assistance of the divisional cooperative officers. The hypotheses were analyzed through the use of t-test statistic and regression analysis. Results showed that the various Services rendered by farmers’ cooperative to their members include: agric credit, improved seedlings, fertilizer, and market access. They however disagreed that they received extension services, the cooperative farmers agreed that they have access to the following agricultural services after joining cooperatives: Access to Agric credit, Access to Improved Seedlings, and Access to Fertilizer. They disagree that they have Access to emerging markets and Access to Extension services. Hence, the need to adopt cooperative as a platform for improving farmers’ productivity and output in Awka South L.G.A of Anambra state. As such, the researchers therefore recommends that the Anambra State government should encourage research, development and provision of adequate extension services to cooperative farmers through the Ministry in charge of cooperative in the state. Through the extension education the farmers will have knowledge of emerging markets, and cooperative farmers should also be encouraged to join cooperative to enable them have access to agricultural credit among others.

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37-44  



Victor Mwango Bowa

Abstract: In hard rock mining, blasting is the most productive excavation technique applied to fragment insitu rock to the required size for efficient loading and crushing. In order to blast the insitu rock to the desired fragment size, blast design parameter such as bench height, hole diameter, spacing, burden, hole length, bottom charge, specific charge and rock factor are considered. The research was carried out as a practical method on Nchanga Open Pits (NOP) ore Bench to optimize the blasting design parameters that can yield the required fragmentation size thereby reducing the shovel loading times and maximizing efficiency of the subsequent mining unit operations such as hauling and crushing. Fragmentation characteristics such as the mean fragment size were measured by means of a digital measuring tape and predicated using the Kuznetsov equation and rock factor value of ore bench was calculated using Lilly, (1986) equations by means of rock characteristics. Traditional blasting design parameters were acquired for NOP and modified using Langerfors and Sharma, P.A approaches. Several blast operations were conducted using both traditional and modified blasting design parameters on the same ore bench with the same geological conditions. Loading times of the shovel and fragment sizes were obtained after the blasts from ore bench where both the traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied. Results show that mean fragment size and loading times were reduced from 51cm and 12minutes to 22cm and 3minutes where traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied respectively.

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45-51  



Nur Amalina Abdul Latif, Fatimah Noor Harun, Mohammad Fadhli Ahmad

Abstract: In this study, the significant wave height at the Terengganu and the change of wave height at Kuala Terengganu to Merang shoreline were simulated by using the 2D Near-Shore Wave (2D NSW) model. The significant wave height by the 2D NSW model at Kuala Terengganu to Merang shoreline from 2008-2012 were simulated. The model was forced by ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast) data. The simulated significant wave height by the 2D NSW model at Airport Kuala Terengganu (AWAC station) was compared with the observed significant wave height. The mean annual significant wave height indicate the higher wave height with average mean value in a range of 1.08-1.10 m in Kuala Terengganu to Batu Rakit area and lower in Merang area with average mean value in a range of 0.74 m. The detailed 5 years simulation period demonstrates that the strong variability of wave height exists during North-East monsoon. The findings of this study could be useful for the erosive calculation, shoreline protection and coastal zone management activities.

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52-57  



Lina E. Alatabani, Dr. Ashraf Gasim Elsid Abdalla

Abstract: The performance of any radio communication system is affected by several factors such as: interference, and jamming caused by some other parallel networks for the purpose of decreasing the performance of a given system. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), and a hybrid approach of both techniques DS/FH are proposed to solve the problem. Whereas DSSS generates a sequence of bit and sends them over a fixed data rate and spread the spectrum with a spreading sequence ,FHSS send the data into different channels with variable data rates, and the hybrid DS/FH approach takes advantage of DSSS and uses it in multiple channels. Various modulation techniques which are suitable for Very small aperture terminal VSAT were simulated with each of the mentioned approaches such as Phase Ship Keying PSK, Frequency Shift Keying FSK, and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QAM to in order to work properly with each technique. The performance of each approach was evaluated in terms of Signal to Noise Ratio vs Bit Error Rate, throughput, delay, and datarate. The results are very close to each other in terms of BER but the best approach was the DSSS. The Hybrid DS/FH needs more power to operate so it best fits the applications with high frequencies. The Hybrid DS/FH approach was the best of the three tested approaches in terms of throughput, delay, and datarate. The FHSS technique was average in all the parameters and had greater delay time due to the delay gap in the hopping process.

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58-62  



Mohit Panwar

Abstract: Billions of dollars annually is what poor data quality costs Insurance businesses, according to the Data Warehousing Institute. Poor data is also the leading cause of many IT project failures. Many companies are designing their data management programs and quality initiatives to deal with this problem of erroneous and inconsistent data. This paper discusses these topics as well as those detailing how companies can improve their data quality using the quality improvement technique of applying Six-Sigma. The method of creating a new initiative for identifying, measuring and controlling the data errors is discussed in this paper. Finally, the paper ends with a conclusion and expected results and benefits of the technique. The insurance industry is data-dependent. Today, carriers and intermediaries are engaged in improving data capture to help them to better manage their business, manage their risk and know their customers. Business and regulatory drivers are pushing the industry to manage its data better.

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63-68  



Vibhash Ranjan, Arjun Sarsawat, Phalguni Sen, Dheeraj Kumar

Abstract: The waste, sub-grade ROM and Fines dumps are characterized by high rock fragment contents, low moisture retention capacity, higher bulk density, low nutrients, lower pH and elevated metal concentrations. Use of suitable revegetation programme, that require the selection of right type of plants to be used vis-à-vis the site condition and characteristics, can enhance the long term stability, both mechanical and ecological, of dumps (waste, sub-grade ROM and fines) through providing vegetative cover to control soil erosion & gully formation, consolidation of dump top & side surfaces, binding the loose particles through intricate roof system, etc. This paper overviews the roles of Revegetation programme that can be used where vegetation is considered to be the long term answer to slope protection and erosion control. Various revegetation processes like Coir matting, Lemmon Grass, Vetiver Grass and Indigenous plant etc. may find a wide range of usage in Iron ore mines for dump stabilization.Miyawaki method of plantation is more effective than the conventional method of plantation. This will lead to co-existence of plants and as a matter of fact each plant draws from the other vital nutrients and they grow to become strong and healthy. The Miyawaki Plantation technique aim at “Survival at fittest” the area undergone such plantation have an ecology of their own. The Indigenous Plant has good binding capacity and helps to control soil erosion as well as improve the dump stability. Indigenous plant species like as Shorea robusta (Sal), CROTON ROXBURGHII, Dal-bergia Sisoo (SHISHAM), KARANJ, Azadirachta (NEEM) etc. The growth of indigenous plants is depending upon the soil quality as well as the organic matter of the dump material. The leaf debris plays important role for improving the organic matter of dump material for successfully implementation of revegetation programme.

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Elham S. Dawood

Abstract: A widespread stem canker and dieback diseases threatened different plant genera in Sudan. It was highly spread among different Ficus species. This research was carried out in Atbara town north Khartoum. The causal agents of this disease were Isolated from the infected shoot system of Ficus bengalensis and F. retusa. Morphological identification and relative densities of the isolated fungi were carried out with the help of authentic manuals of fungi. Biocontrol experiment was conducted for the most prevalent pathogenic fungus using aqueous neem extract in both cold and hot water. The results showed that the fungal isolates belong to three genera, Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus niger, A. terrus and A. flavus) , Botryosphaeria sp. and Botrytis sp. The most prevalent mycoflora was Botryosphaeria sp. (relative density range 35-45% ), the second one was A.niger 20%, then Botrytis sp. 15%, A. flavus 10% and A.terreus 2-8%. The efficacy of aqueous cold and hot extracts of neem leaf on the growth of Botryosphaeria sp. showed that the hot extract is effective than the cold one and the inhibition percentage were 100 and 65% respectively on the 14th days.

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77-83  



Milind V. Mohod

Abstract: Earthquake is a very important aspect to be considered while designing structures. Lot of work has been reported by many researchers who worked to study the effect of structures with irregular plan and shape. Being inspired from the work contributed in the study on effects of earthquake on irregular shaped building in plan, this paper presents effects of plan and shape configuration on irregular shaped structures. Buildings with irregular geometry respond differently against seismic action. Plan geometry is the parameter which decides its performance against different loading conditions. The effect of irregularity (plan and shape) on structure have been carried out by using structural analysis software STAAD Pro. V8i. There are several factors which affect the behavior of building from which storey drift and lateral displacement play an important role in understanding the behaviour of structure. Results are expressed in form of graphs and bar charts. It has been observed from the research that simple plan and configuration must be adopted at the planning stage to minimize the effect of earthquake.

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84-88  



Erlynda Y. Kasim

Abstract: The quality of financial reporting produced by the company are expected to meet the quality characteristics to Achieve the objective of the conceptual framework of financial reporting. Good implementation of adequate corporate governance in a company is one of the factors that Determine the quality of financial reporting. Similarly, the internal implementation of audit firm certainly factors Affect the quality of financial reporting. Quality financial reporting will certainly get a market response that can be seen from the level of the stock return. The paper examines two independent variables items, namely Good Corporate Governance and Internal Audit and its influence on the quality of financial reporting and its implications to Return Shares. In the design of this study will be performed on companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange with multiple linear regression method.

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89-98  



Aliaa N.Madkor, Dr. Wagdy R.Anis, Dr. Ismail Hafez

Abstract: The DC/AC inverters are used in grid-connected PV energy production systems as the power processing interface between the PV energy source and the electric grid. The energy injected into the electric grid by the PV installation depends on the amount of power extracted from the PV power source and the efficient processing of this power by the DC/AC inverter. The main target of this paper is to determine the principle that achieves high reliability and efficiency with the low cost of the photovoltaic grid-connected system. Accordingly, we are considering the inverter as it represents the important part of the system, by a comparison among the following three systems: The system has one inverter with the power of 100 (kw); The system has two inverters each has the power of 50 (kw); and The system has twenty inverters each has the power of 5 (kW). We will check the effect of number of inverters in photovoltaic grid-connected system on efficiency, reliability and cost taking into account the fixed system, one axis tracking system and two axes tracking system. Also, in order to validate the accuracy of the proposed control strategy, grid-connected PV system is simulated based on MATLAB/Simulink.

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99-107  



Habtamu Admassu, Wei Zhao, Ruijin Yang, Mohammed A.A. Gasmalla, Elmuez Alsir

Abstract: “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food” by Hippocrates was obscured with the advent of modern drug therapy and nutrition science until to twentieth century. The combination of consumer desires, advances in food technology, and new evidence-based correlation between nutrition to disease and disease prevention has created an unprecedented opportunity to concentrate on public health issues through diet and lifestyle. There is widespread interest these days to make a choice of functional foods from natural products that might promote health through specific bio-active compounds. Considering the diversity of biochemical’s and capable of exerting functional bioactivities, a growing trend is developing across globe to use seaweeds in functional food development. Compounds isolated from seaweeds have various functional biological activities: antibacterial activity, antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory properties, anti-e coagulant activity, anti-viral activity, and antifungal and apoptotic activity. Therefore, this review focuses on several bioactive chemicals in seaweeds and their biological activities for which they are responsible as a functional food ingredient.

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108-115  



Prastopo, Achmad Ruslan, Andi Sofyan

Abstract: In the post-reformation era in Indonesia, there is a trend of increasing productivity in legislations and it can be seen from the various Administrative Laws (despite not in a consistent growth). Administrative laws are all regulations that govern the nation to execute their duties and obligations as public and state servants. For identify whether a regulation belongs to administrative laws or not, there are at least two criterions: the first is title approach and the second is content approach. This research has chosen Law Number 8 Year 2012 as an object of study considering that the law was passed in the post-reformation era, which is regulating general election as a very central point of democracy and as an indicator of a democratic state. Functionalization of criminal sanctions in administrative laws basically is to combining two legal systems and disciplines of administrative laws and criminal laws has delivered problems in their implementation, but all of them are ignored without any solution. Criminal sanctions that are essentially ultimum remedium have changed to a substantial coercive tool that in the end has weakened the criminal sanctions themselves in their practical implementations. Some of un-uniformities of criminal sanction system are that there are laws implementing special straft minima (minimum penalty), there are laws using straft maxima (maximum penalty), there are laws using special cumulative penalties and incisive cumulative penalties, and there are laws using double track system. Any development of law that deviates away from its principles and theories will push its legal implementation away from its true direction and in the end of the day it will depart far away from the essence of legal development.

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116-121  



F. W. Ntengwe, M. Chanika

ABSTRACT: The evaluations of an air separator for processing chemical engineering particulate gas streams was carried out with a view to investigate the performance for different flow rates and other characteristics. A louver (LV) air separator was used as a case study. The evaluations indicated that for various set points of characteristics, the prediction of operating efficiencies could be made for different variations of louver gap (LVG) with area ratio (AR), length of separator at particular angles of LV inclination and the number of LV with flow rates. It was observed that efficiencies ranging from 40 to 60%, on one hand, were obtained for high values of LVG and gas flow rate. On the other hand, efficiencies of 61 to 99% were obtained for lower values of LVG and gas flow rate. It was noted therefore that in order to produce high efficiencies, the values of LVG and flow rates have to be low and vice versa. The evaluation indicates also that plant operators can quickly predict, from the results, the operating efficiency for the desired dimensions and or flow rates of particulate gas streams. The methodology for the determination of operating data can be used in minimum-time frame to optimize the operations of the plant.

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122-127  



Aliasghar Baziar, Mehdi Nafar, Khodakhast Esapour, Mahsa Yazdani, Mohammad-Reza Akbari-Zadeh

Abstract: Through this article, a novel random structure is depicted to shape the uncertainty result of the active and reactive loads in the DSTATCOM allocation and problem in sizing. The planned technique has 2m+1 point approximation method (PEM) to capture the random associated with the anticipated fault of the loads. The aims are minimization of the entire active power losses which lessen the voltage nonconformity of the buses. A new optimization procedure on the root of the bat algorithm (BA) is confirmed to explore the problem galaxy universally. In addition, the clue of interactive fuzzy sufficient method is useful in the multi-objective preparation in providing a suitable stability between the optimization of the objective roles. Lastly, the proposed method will be examed on the 69-bus IEEE distribution system to settle its likelihood and effective presentation.

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128-136  



Rosemary Malonza, Mildren Lumayo Fedha

Abstract: Despite concerted efforts by the government and non-state actors to improve access to modern energy resources and services in Kenya, women’s energy needs have remained largely unrecognized in most national policies, planning processes and development efforts. This has led to negative implications on their health, education and livelihoods. This study employed desk review research design in analyzing secondary data. The study found that Kenya has made some progress in gender and energy with specific policies and strategies. However, low implementation has slowed down the progress. The study concludes that Kenya is yet to achieve gender and energy goals.

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137-153  



O. I. Ani , S. N. Omenyi, C. H. Achebe

Abstract: The effects of antiretroviral drugs on the absorbance characteristics of blood components have been studied. The methodology involved the serial dilution of the five different antiretroviral drugs (two HAART/FDC and three single drugs) and the subsequent incubation with the blood samples collected from ten blood samples of HIV negative persons for the absorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet Visible MetaSpecAE1405031Pro Spectrophotometer. Reflectance, Dielectric constant, etc were derived from the absorbance data. For these drugs to be effective as HIV blockers, they should be able to coat the surfaces of the lymphocytes. The question therefore arises as to what extent these drugs are able to coat the surfaces of the blood cells? This was established using the extent of absorbance change. Models for coating effectiveness were formulated. The coating effectiveness was therefore calculated from peak absorbance values. Red blood cells were shown not to give reliable results. The results obtained however establish the fact that some coating of the drug had really occurred on the surfaces of the lymphocytes. The drug films were determined for lymphocytes and used to explain some observed clinical findings. The use of the findings of this work in drug design may be expected to yield good results.

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154-160  



Osondu L. C., Ugwuoke E. C., Chikelu C. C., Eze N. N, Ukwuani S. T

Abstract: Drying under direct sunlight is one of the oldest techniques used by mankind to preserve Agriculture based food and non-food products. This paper focused on the use of solar dryer to reduce the moisture content of Agriculture produce such as maize. The experiment performed showed the moisture content of maize reduced from 20% to 13%. It was also observed that the temperature increased with time. The assumed maximum temperature of the collector plate in the experiment was 100%.

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161-163  



Mustapha Benhessou, Luc Magloire Anicet Boumba, Samira Zoa Assoumou, Said Bouhya, Mohammed Nabil Benchekroun, My Mustapha Ennaji

Abstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer; representing 90% of all ovarian cancers. The viruses are known as human malignancies agents. We tried to analyze the presence of Hepatitis B Virus infection in women with epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PCR-based detection of HBV infections was carried out on 50 tissue samples from patients with histologically proven EOC using consensus primers. The samples analyzed showed 8% (4/50) positivity for HBV-DNA in cancerous ovarian tissues. All of the positive patients had serous adenocarcinoma and advanced stage disease. The results of this study suggest that hepatitis B could play a major role in the etiology of ovarian cancer.

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164-166  



Rose Kahavizakiriza, Kisiangani Benson Walela, Danstanwanyonyikukubo

Abstract: This study set out to identify knowledge, skills and attitudes required by principals of public secondary schools in Lurambi Sub-county in Kakamega County (Kenya) for effective financial management. The rationale for focusing on the financial management of public secondary schools was based on evidence in contemporary literature showing that there existed problems in schools over the management of funds because parents complained of financial mismanagement. The main objective of this study was to find outfinancial management in public secondary schools in Kenya. The specific objectives were; To find out whether principals of public secondary schools identify and mobilize financial resources for their institutions, to find out whether principals draw up budgets for their schools according to priorities of the school needs, to find out whether supervision, monitoring and control of the budget is carried out by principals of public secondary schools. Therefore, there was need to find out ways of ensuring efficient financial management in schools. The study was carried out in public secondary schools in Lurambi Sub-county of Kakamega County, covering Lurambi and Municipality. The target population for this study consisted of seventeen (17) principals of public secondary schools, seventeen (17) school bursars, one hundred and thirty six (136) H.O.Ds and seventeen (17) B.O.G representatives giving a total of one hundred and eighty seven (187) people. Sample population was purposively selected from twelve (12) public secondary schools in Lurambi Sub-county through simple random within the clusters of principals, school bursars, H.O.Ds, representatives of B.O.G. The study adopted a descriptive survey design which helped to establish and describe the knowledge, skills and attitudes principals of public secondary schools require for effective performance. Reliability coefficient of the instruments was calculated using cronbach’s reliability test. Data analysis revealed that:Schools depended mostly on funds from parents and the government and hardly generated funds of their own, budget preparation was carried out by principals, H.O.Ds and bursars, monitoring and supervision of the school budget was done by principals and B.O.Gs, Budget approval was mainly carried out by B.O.Gs while the government was not consulted on this.

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167-178  



Awogbemi, Omojola, Adeyemo, Sunday Babatunde

Abstract: This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A20:80 ratio biogas:petrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas– petrol blend generated higher torque, brake power, indicated power, brake thermal efficiency, and brake mean effective pressure but lower fuel consumption and exhaust temperature than petrol. The research concluded that a spark ignition engine powered by biogas-petrol blend was found to be economical, consumed less fuel, and contributes to sanitation and production of fertilizer.

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179-186  



Nnabo Paulinus N

Abstract : A total of thirty (30) water samples were collected from the Enyigba Pb/Zn mining district to assess the contamination of the water sources as a result of mining of lead and zinc minerals in the area. This comprises of 12 samples of surface water, 14 from mine ponds and 4 from underground (borehole) water. The samples were acidified to stabilize the metals for periods more than four days without the use of refrigeration. The acidified water samples were analysed by a commercial laboratory at Projects Development Institute (PRODA), Enugu using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements determined by this method are lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and cobalt (Co). The result and analysis of contamination factor showed that in surface water, Cd had the highest concentration followed by As and Pb, while Ni had the lowest. In mine ponds, Cd also had the highest concentration and followed by Pb and As and Ni the lowest. In borehole water, Cd has the highest concentration followed by Pb and As, while Ni had the lowest concentration. Compared to WHO permissible limits, the contamination of the heavy metals in all water sources are in order Cd>>>As>>Pb>Ni>Zn>Cu. In surface water, the order is Cd>>>As>>Pb>Ni>Zn>Cu; in mine ponds, it is Cd>>>Pb>>As>Ni>Zn>Cu, and in borehole water, the order is Cd>>>As>>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cu. The calculated contamination factors show very high contamination status for Cd, Pb and As. These levels of contamination and values indicate that under the prevailing conditions and environmental regulations in Nigeria, the mining district would face major and hazardous discharges of these metals to the water sources.

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187-197  



Avahounlin Ringo F., Alamou Eric, Obada Ezékiel, Afouda Abel

ABSTRACT: This work aim to analyze the hydrodynamic process of oueme basin catchment (basin located in Benin between 7°58N and 10°12N latitude and 1°35 and 3°05E longitude). From rainfall and discharge data chronic rates over the period 2000-2009, empirical hydrological modeling based on linearization of Boussinesq’s equation and least actions principle methods were used to predict the mechanism of the water drain, to determine the streamflow recession curves to the watershed scale and compare the modeling findings with hygrogram obtained by applied of principle of the least actions. An analysis of drying up showed a varied trend in four sub-basins. At Beterou and Bonou sub-basin, the non-linear character observed reflects a succession of phases of drying up. A conceptual linearization formulation of the basic equations of Boussinesq considering the non-linear character of the drying up of the two sub-basins helped simulate low flow rates with high efficiency and to determine the types low flow curves. Successfully comparing analyzed of modeling findings with recession curves obtained by least actions principle confirm the heterogeneity of recession nature at oueme basin scale.

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198-208  



Mazouz M., Abi-Ayad S.-M. E.-A.

Abstract: The demographic structure of the population of the European conger eel (Conger conger; Linnaeus, 1758) from the Western coast of Algeria is made up of young individuals who enlarge more quickly than they grow. The estimated parameters of growth using the equation of Von Bertalanffy are: For females: L∞ = 134 mm ; K= 0,13 ; to = -0,69. For males: L∞ = 108 mm ; K= 0,23 ; to = -0,67 The specimens with most advanced stage of maturation appeared from February to April 2012 for both, female and male. The size at the first sexual maturity was 78 mm in males and 88 mm in females. The sex-ratio was in favor of the females lasting almost all the year excepting during September, December (2011), and January 2012 for males.

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209-214  



A. M. Kanu, J. E. Kalu, A. C. Okorie

Abstract: African walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae is a perennial climber widely distributed and consumed by the inhabitants of Sub-Saharan Africa. The plant is cultivated principally for the nuts which are consumed as snacks. T. conophorum are a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, fats and oil, vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and overall nutritional wellbeing. T. conophorum contain wonderful plant based polyunsaturated fatty acids such as alpha linolenic acid. They also contain healthful monosaturated fats. T. conophorum carries many notable plant derived chemical compounds that are known to have disease preventing and health promoting properties. Over all T. conophorum is an important plant with a wide array of potential nutritional and health benefits which demands for development of value added products from them

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215-220  



Biraja Nalini Rout, Abhijeet Das, Sasi Rekha Sankar

Abstract: In a current scenario, voice and data recognition is one of the most sought after field in the area of artificial intelligence and robotic [1] engineering. The idea specializes on deriving a voice to voice intelligent system which operates purely on audio/voice instructions using a specialized voice recognition module, a micro controller, a set of wheels and a movable arm to operate. The working involves real time voice inputs feeded to the VR module which equivalently processes the audio signals and produces the output in audio format. It consists an IDE for both Windows and UNIX based operating system for manipulating and processing instructions both at software and hardware levels. The system also can perform a basic set of manual operations decides through the expert system. The VR module processes the data using multilayer perceptron to generate the required result. Movable arm operates to pick and place objects as per the given voice instructions. Its usability involves substituting manual work at both personal and professional levels.

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221-225  



Nwankwo Chike H., Nwaigwe Godwin I

Abstract: Road traffic crashes are count (discrete) in nature. When modeling discrete data for characteristics and prediction of events, it is appropriate using the Poisson Regression Model. However, the condition that the mean and variance of the Poisson are equal, poses a great constraint, hence necessitating the use of the Generalized Poisson Regression (GPR) and the Negative Binomial Regression (NBR) models, which do not require these constraints that the mean and the variance be equal, as proxies. Data on Road traffic crashes from the Anambra State Command of the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC), Nigeria were analyzed using these three methods, the results from the two proxies are compared using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) with GPR showing an AIC value of 3508.595 and the NBR showing an AIC value of 2742. Having shown a smaller AIC value, the NBR was considered a better model when analyzing road traffic crashes in Anambra State, Nigeria.

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226-233  



Mouhanad AL ALI, Jiale Xi, Anne Julie Coudray

Abstract: Pathogenic fungi are responsible for high infectious morbidity and mortality in immunodeficient patients, a rapid and accurate identification of pathogenic fungi is critical for appropriate treatment. Recently, many molecular methods have been developed for diagnosis to improve the identification of pathogenic fungi. In this review we compared the advantage and disadvantage of five molecular methods that are widely used in the diagnosis of pathogenic fungi.

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234-236  



Mohammed Hegazy

Abstract: The heat exchangers on crude distillation units need to deliver high heat transfer efficiency and operational reliability. Most of heat exchangers used in crude distillation units are Cross-flow two-stream. The two streams flow at right angles to each other. This flow configuration is intermediate in effectiveness between parallel-flow and counter flow exchangers, but it is often simpler to construct owing to the relative simpler to construct owing to the relative simplicity of the inlet and outlet flow ducts. Use of the “Smart Online Efficiency” online calculation to monitor the heat exchangers performance and efficiency at Crude units in Mina Al-Ahmadi Refinery (MAA) yielded early results when the tool highlighted a fouling event shortly after it occurred. Fouling formation in any heat exchanger will reduce the online-calculated heat exchanger efficiency result and that can noted from the trend of histories efficiency data and from the fouling indicator. This paper looks at the efficiency calculation and fouling monitoring using DCS software application and the result from the case study.

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237-238  



Syachdin, H.M. Said Karim, Aswanto, Muhadar

Abstract: Drug abuse has grown over the days with significant development. Narcotics crime actually not only brings individual actors but tends to be a criminal offense syndicate or covert organization over the worlds. In this case, the syndicate allegedly not only brings perpetrators of adults but feared the actors who are categorized as a child in accordance with the applicable laws. On the other side, children occupy a special place in the law. Basic philosophy of the treatment of juvenile delinquents is for the best interests of the child, but the fact that people's behavior lately is very alarming, how society is so easy to judge people suspected as perpetrators of criminal acts. The objective of this research is to understand the essence of the ultimum remedium principle as the basis for criminal punishment in the Indonesian criminal system in order to understand how the crisis is influencing drug phenomenon and drugs users` lives and the extent of their impact on the settlement of narcotics crime against children as an offender. The outcomes of the research indicate that the Law No. 11 of 2012 regarding the Criminal Justice System for Juvenile Delinquency, Rules of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia No. 4 of 2014 on Guidelines for Diversion, and Law No. 35 of 2009 regarding Narcotics Crime have been given the freedom and legitimacy to the judge to apply the principle of ultimum remedium in handling cases of children in conflict with the law. As it turns out in practice, however, the ultimum remedium principle is rarely applied and tends to be overlooked in the process of juvenile justice.

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239-243  



Suriani BT. Tolo, Ahsan Yunus, Ahmadi Miru, Irwansyah

Abstract: Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety, the right be informed, the right to be heard, as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community Care Local Food. It appears that the local government is trying to make this local food as an alternative food. The type of research used in this paper is a socio-legal research, reviewing the local food production from the perspective of consumer protection. The outcomes of the research indicate that responsibility of food business operators in the implementation of local production is essentially an effort to assist the government in ensuring the realization of food safety system. Therefore, there is a need for awareness of the laws and regulations for all parties involved towards local food production, especially in Kendari Regency, Southeast Sulawesi on the food production process.

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244-247  



Manik Jain

Abstract: This paper presents an automation tool, namely ALGV (Automated Liquibase Generator and Validator) for the automated generation and verification of liquibase scripts. Liquibase is one of the most efficient ways of applying and persisting changes to a database schema. Since its invention by Nathan Voxland [1], it has become de facto standard for database change management. The advantages of using liquibase scripts over traditional sql queries ranges from version control to reusing the same scripts over multiple database platforms. Irrespective of its advantages, manual creation of liquibase scripts takes a lot of effort and sometimes is, error-prone. ALGV helps to reduce the time consuming liquibase script generation, manual typing efforts, possible error occurrence and manual verification process and time by 75%. Automating the liquibase generation process also helps to remove the burden of recollecting specific tags to be used for a particular change. Moreover, developers can concentrate on the business logic and business data rather than wasting their precious efforts in writing files.

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248-256  



Kanokkarn Snae Namahoot, Tipparat Laohavichien

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship among the quality management, trust and behavioral intention to use internet banking of customers in Thailand. Using a structured questionnaire, primary data were collected from 400 internet banking users from both public and private banks, randomly selected from various parts of Thailand. Multiple regression was used to study the effect of quality management on trust and the effect of trust on behavioral intention to use internet banking. The findings indicate that the strongest predictor of quality management on trust is the service quality. In addition, the results show that trust and behavioral intention to use internet banking is positively correlated in the moderate level. There are three factors of quality management (service quality, system quality, and information quality) that associated with internet banking. The system and service qualities positively affects on trust, however, the information quality negatively affects on trust. The results of this study suggest that trust on internet banking services derive from these followings: (1) accuracy and fast response of the data transaction; (2) stability of the system; (3) the lower fees and (4) time saving.

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257-262  



Iwa Karniwa, Sucherly, Ernie Tisnawati Sule

Abstract: The Services Industries of Rural Bank in Banten and West Java are facing problems of poor business performance due to the value creation which is not optimally running and a low ownership of corporate resources. Research objectives are to obtain the results of a study of the influence of corporate resources and the value creation on the business performance in banking service industries of Rural Banks in Banten and West Java. The method used are descriptive and explanatory survey. The unit of analysis is companies of Rural Banks in Banten and West Java. Time horizon in is cross-sectional, where the study was conducted in one time simultaneously.. Data were analyzed using descriptive and quantitative. Hypothesis testing was utilized by PLS model (Partial Least Square). The research findings has revealed that the management of Rural Banks in Banten and West Java, not yet have sufficient resources and have not developed a good value creation for improving business performance. There is a simultaneous influence of corporate resources and the value creation on the business performance. The influence of value creation was more dominant than the corporate resources in improving business performance.

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263-268  



Kay Ann J. Tongol, Joseph Mari B. Querequincia

Abstract: Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr. is an endemic plant species of the genus Clerodendrum in the Philippines. This plant contains phytosterols which may contribute to its biological properties. Results of this present research work established the anti-inflammatory potential by inhibiting 15-lipoxygenase enzyme in an in vitro assay model. The methanolic extract of C. quadriloculare possessed significant inhibition against 15-lipoxygenase enzymes (with an IC50 value of 0.38 mg/mL).

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269-271  



Michael Ikpi Ofem, Muneer Umar, Musa Muhammed

ABSTRACT: Chitin whiskers and CaCO3 were reinforced with Poly(acrylic acid). Mechanical and thermal properties were characterised. The effect of CaCO3 growth on the mechanical properties of chitin whiskers reinforced Poly(acrylic acid) indicated that better mechanical properties can be achieved at chitin content of 3 wt % when compared with neat PAA. The growth of CaCO3 on CHW/PAA composite increased the melting endotherm of CHW/PAA/CaCO3 composite when compared with CHW/PAA composite. As an indication of increase in thermal stability, the final weight loss at the end of decomposition for all composites was between 20 and 37 %, far below the 78 % for the CHW/PAA composite and 84 % for the pure PAA .

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272-280  



Michael Ikpi Ofem, Musa Muhammed, Muneer Umar

ABSTRACT: Thermal analysis(TGA) of samples of Chitin, PAA and Chitin-PAA complexes, containing different weight fractions of chitin whiskers were investigated. The activation energies (Ea) and other kinematic parameters; ΔS, ΔH, and ΔG for the filler, matrix and blend were calculated using the Coats and Redfern, Broido and Horowitz and Metzger methods at the second and third stages of decomposition. The study showed that the kinetic parameters for the composites lie between the matrix and the filler. .At each filler loading level, the activation energies, changes in enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs functions obtained using all three methods are comparable for the second region of decomposition. The pattern is such that the value of these energy parameters gradually decreased as filler loading decreases. The gradual increase in activation energy as filler increases is attributed to even dispersion of the whiskers and interfacial adhesion between the matrix and the chitin whiskers.

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281-288  



Eugie Kabwe, Wang Yiming

Abstract: the main purpose of this study is to recommend modification to block caving at Nchanga, ensure that it meets anticipated production levels and address the adverse ground conditions, of the intensely fractured orebody. Excavations of current methods are driven close to the incompetent orebody. Determination of the appropriate method based on criteria of selection techniques, together with the analysis of operating costs and safety. Reclamation of ore in the collapsed blocks entirely depended on maximizing revenue, recovery of the mineral and safe working environment for equipment and personnel. On recommendation of a suitable method, extent of the collapsed blocks was another aspect considered. The proposed methods of extraction were variants of block caving, further shortlisted based on the extent of collapse. Economic appraisal of both the recommended and current mining methods employed included extraction, recovery, development, reclamation costs, revenue estimation and revenue raised from finished copper.

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289-301  



Prasanth S. Poduval, Dr. Jagathy Raj V. P., Dr. V. R. Pramod

Abstract - The aim of the authors is to present a review of literature of Total Productive Maintenance and the barriers in implementation of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). The paper begins with a brief description of TPM and the barriers in implementation of TPM. Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) and its role in analyzing the barriers in TPM implementation is explained in brief. Applications of ISM in analyzing issues in various fields are highlighted with special emphasis on TPM. The paper moves on to introduction to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and its role in validating ISM in analyzing barriers in implementation of TPM. The paper concludes with a gap analysis from the current literature, research that can be carried out and expected outcomes from the proposed research.

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302-315  



Farah Alo Mdulid

Abstract: This study attempted to find out the institutional viability of cooperatives in Northern Samar in terms of profitability, liquidity and the variates affecting its viability. Thirty-three (33) registered primary cooperatives were the respondents. It adopted descriptive-evaluative research with multiple regression analysis in testing the relationship of the variables. Findings showed that 15 or 45 percent of the primary cooperatives were viable while 18 or 55 percent were not viable in terms of profitability. In terms of liquidity, 28 or 85 percent were viable while 5 or 15 percent were non-viable. Results also revealed that the number of years of operation, the number of employees and staff, the rate of loan repayments, and the amount of current authorized share capital significantly affected the viability of Cooperatives. Generally, Cooperatives in Northern Samar are less profitable, however, majority of them are liquid which implies that the services are continuously rendered to the members. Specifically, the finding suggests that the absence of participatory and collaborative management efforts of the members and the officials adversely affect the organizational financial viability. Key Words: Institutional, liquidity, profitability. primary cooperative,ratio,variates, viability

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316-320  



Oluwadare Joshua Oyebode, Victor Babafemi Adebayo, Kayode Oluwafemi Olowe

ABSTRACT: Drawing is the language of engineers. Drawings encompass the architectural, civil, structural, and mechanical professions, and they are the means of conveying diagrammatic detailed aspects of the design components of a structure. This Study intends to investigate an assessment of the use of AutoCAD package for teaching and learning engineering drawing in Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti in Ekiti State. The investigation was carried out by administering (100) questionnaires to engineering drawing lecturers and Students of the college of engineering in the university. The Findings revealed that there are positive impacts created by AutoCAD package on teachers and Students towards the teaching and learning of AutoCAD package to teach engineering drawing in all the seven programmes in the college. Engineering drawing is done in Nigerian universities, polytechnics and colleges that offer courses in the areas of technical and vocational education (TVE), Architecture, urban and regional planning and engineering. The traditional teaching and learning of technical drawing in most Nigerian universities has been characterized by the use of such manual equipment and materials part of drawing board, dividers, compasses, set-squares, protractors, drawing paper, drawing pen, pencil, scales, and eraser among others. These manual tools and materials make drawing to be more time and energy consuming. Thus, the arrival of the 21st century information and communication technological facilities or technologies presented a more interesting and efficient facilities for the teaching and learning of technical drawing in institutions in Nigeria. The information and communication technologies that are utilized in the teaching and learning of technical drawing include computer hardware and software, computers, projectors, interactive broad, internet, scanners and so on. These are also known as computer assisted drafting/design tools. The details of these technological facilities /technologies are: Hardware : desktop and laptop computers with complete parts as key board, mouse, UPS, digitizing graphic tablet, plotter, digitizing pen, icons, scanners, projector, satellite and V-sat Software: AutoCAD, micro station, solid work, solid edge, Alibre, CATIA, NX, GTX5000, Power point, VRML, CorelDraw, spreadsheet ,graphics, database.

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321-328  



Mohammed Farik, ABM Shawkat Ali

Abstract: In comparison to earlier IEEE 802.11 standard (a/b/g/n) routers, today’s popular 802.11ac standard routers have enhanced security. However, 802.11ac router still has major security vulnerabilities. The novelty of this paper is that we not only highlight multiple security vulnerabilities in 802.11ac router technologies that still have not been secured since the earlier standards, but also present some new ideas with solutions. We believe that our line of thoughts on security vulnerabilities, gaps, and on new solutions will provide network security researchers, router manufacturers and network administrators with new disclosures to redesign even better security mechanisms in routers to counter attacks on networks via routers.

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329-334  



Mohammad Jafari Far

Abstract: today, due to the high reliability of the micro-grids, they have developed significantly. They have two states of operation: the island state and connection to the main grid. Under certain circumstances, the micro-grid is connected to or disconnected from the network. Synchronization of a micro-grid with the network must be done when its voltage is synchronized with the voltage in the main grid. Phase lock loops are responsible to identify the voltage phase of the micro-gird and the main grid, and when these two voltages are in the same phase, they connect the micro-grid to the main grid. In this research, the connection of a micro-grid to the main grid in the two phases of synchronous and asynchronous voltage is simulated and investigated.

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335-340  



Mohammed Farik, ABM Shawkat Ali

Abstract: Password authentication is the main means of access control on network routers, and router manufacturers provide a default password for initial login to the router. While there has been many publications regarding the minimum requirements of a good password, how widely the manufacturers themselves are adhering to the minimum standards, and whether these passwords can withstand brute-force attack are not widely known. The novelty of this research is that this is the first time default passwords have been analyzed and documented from such a large variety of router models to reveal password strengths or weaknesses against brute-force attacks. Firstly, individual default router password of each model was collected, tabulated, and tested using password strength meter for entropy. Then, descriptive statistical analysis was performed on the tabulated data. The analysis revealed quantitatively how strong or weak default passwords are against brute-force attacks. The results of this research give router security researchers, router manufacturers, router administrators a useful guide on the strengths and weaknesses of passwords that follow similar patterns.

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341-345  



Amulya Podile, Keerthi Gottumukkala, Krishna Sastry Pendyala

Abstract: Internet banking has created a convenient way for us to handle our business without leaving our home. Man-in-the-Browser, is a special case of Man-in-the-middle attack targeted against customers of Internet banking. One of the capabilities of Man-in-the-Browser Trojan is modification of html, referred to as html injection that allows the attacker to alter the html of a page before it is sent to the browser for interpretation. In this paper the authors discussed about forensic analysis of “RAM, Volatile data, system logs and registry” collected from bank customer computer infected with Trojan and confirmed the source of attack, time-stamps, and the behavior of the malware by using open source and commercial tools.

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346-349  



Amanze, Bethran Chibuike

ABSTRACT: The Computer-based Asset Management System is a web-based system. It allows commercial banks to keep track of their assets. The most advantages of this system are the effective management of asset by keeping records of the asset and retrieval of information. In this research, I gather the information to define the requirements of the new application and look at factors how commercial banks managed their asset.

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350-356  



Suherman , Maman Haeruman K, Yuyun Yuwariah, Trisna Insan Noor

Abstract: Forest ecosystem as a whole form of landscape biological resources, dominated by trees in their natural forms with the environment that one can not be separated have many benefits for human life, either directly or indirectly. Forest is a unique and complex ecosystem also has the economic potential value in it if utilized properly. Indonesia has a Natural Resources (SDA) were abundant, but on the other hand the economic level of the people is still low. It is certainly in the spotlight, especially that forest communities are on average less capable in economic terms. In various regions in Indonesia forest use that is not merely become agro-industry has actually been ogled as a way to make forest that is specifically intended to be developed and maintained for the purpose of tourism or the new tour. Data Director General of PHPA (Forest Conservation and Nature Protection) until year 98 has been designated a conservation area as much as 374 units with an area of 21.3 million hectares consists of 16.8 million hectares of land and 4.5 million hectares in the waters. Vast natural spaces altogether 5.9 million hectares were reached broad nature conservation area of 15.4 million hectares. Target conservation area on the mainland can reach 10% or about 20 million hectares. The waters are still expected for the target area of 10 million hectares.

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357-366  



Baha'a A. Abdul-Hussein

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the possible protective role of heparin sodium eye drops against sodium selenite – induced cataract in rabbits.Materials and Methods: A group of 18 adult rabbits (Oryctologus cuniculus) were divided into 3 groups each one of 6 rabbits normal group (without treatment and induction), control group (received DW pre and post induction of cataract), and heparin sodium group (received heparin sodium eye drops pre and post induction of cataract). The cataract had been induced by intravitreal injection of 0.1ml sodium selenite (0.01% w/v) in the right eye. Results: Heparin sodium was effective in prevention of cataract and the mean score of opacity was (0.17±0.01) at the end of trial period in stead of the expected score (4 ±0.00) which observed in DW group, and there was non significant difference comparing to pre induction (p>0.05). Conclusions: Heparin sodium eye drops exerted a detectable preventive effect against sodium selenite - induced cataract in rabbits, also it was found to be apparently safe and tolerable along the trial period.

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367-375  



Alok Bajpai, Raghav Yadav

Abstract: An ant colony optimization is a technique which was introduced in 1990’s and which can be applied to a variety of discrete (combinatorial) optimization problem and to continuous optimization. The ACO algorithm is simulated with the foraging behavior of the real ants to find the incremental solution constructions and to realize a pheromone laying-and-following mechanism. This pheromone is the indirect communication among the ants. In this paper we introduces the partitioning technique based on the divide and conquer strategy for the traveling salesman problem (which is one of the most important combinatorial problem) in which the original problem is partitioned into the group of sub problems. And then we apply the ant colony algorithm using candidate list strategy for each smaller sub problems. After that by applying the local optimization and combining the sub problems to find the good solution for the original problem by improving the exploration efficiency of the ants. At the end of this paper we have also be presented the comparison of result with the normal ant colony system for finding the optimal solution to the traveling salesman problem.

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376-381  



Mehdi Nafar, Zahra Kazemi, Aliasghar Baziar, Mohammad-Reza Akbari-Zade

Abstract- This article proposes a probabilistic frame built on Scenario fabrication to considerate the uncertainties in the finest action managing of Micro Grids (MGs). The MG contains different recoverable energy resources such as Wind Turbine (WT), Micro Turbine (MT), Photovoltaic (PV), Fuel Cell (FC) and one battery as the storing device. The advised frame is based on scenario generation and Roulette wheel mechanism to produce different circumstances for handling the uncertainties of altered factors. It habits typical spreading role as a probability scattering function of random factors. The uncertainties which are measured in this paper are grid bid alterations, cargo request calculating error and PV and WT yield power productions. It is well-intentioned to asset that solving the MG difficult for 24 hours of a day by considering diverse uncertainties and different constraints needs one powerful optimization method that can converge fast when it doesn’t fall in local optimal topic. Simultaneously, single Group Search Optimization (GSO) system is presented to vision the total search space globally. The GSO algorithm is instigated from group active of beasts. Also the GSO procedure, one change is similarly planned for this algorithm. The planned context and way is applied o one test grid-connected MG as a typical grid.

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382-392  



D.B.Kamkhede, P.R.Solanki.

ABSTRACT: The development and validation of thiazole derivatives under various stress conditions ,as acid/base hydrolysis, oxidative stress degradations. As carried out in this process.the simultaneous forced degradation study of thiazole derivatives, using gradient pump system the mobile phase water: methanol 30:70 was selected to achieve maximum detection, sensitivity at ambient temperature using phenomax c-18 column (250 mm × 4.5 mm,5μl ) flow rate 1.0 ml/min , at 238 nm.the proposed method was found to be rapid, accurate and consistent.

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393-399  



Imam Kholiq, ST,MM ,Muharom,ST,MT

ABSTRACTION: Especial Fuel used [by] Boiler PG MODJO PANGGUNG TULUNGAGUNG PTPN X is bagasse, and oil burn the residu MFO. A lot of PG in Indonesia which exactly use the very costly fossil fuel, so that generate the inefisiensi. Research by enhancing fiber (cangkang + fiber + chaff), to ( efficiency termis ) perfomansi and performance of boiler PG MODJO PODIUM. Assess the kalor of every-every fuel calculated given the composition of every fuel by using existing equation from literature, calculation consume the fuel, space volume burn the, efficiency from every fuel to boiler and expense efficiency from every fuel used. From calculation of every fuel is hence got by result that, Fuel efficiency use the smaller dregs fuel compared to from fuel of fiber and oil burn the residu MFO. Later;Then from facetof material cost burn the bagasse more efficient from at fuel of fiber and oil burn the residu MFO. To reply the the problem hence researcher use the indirect method. This method own the advantage that is can know the balance of complete and energi substance to each;every stream, which can facilitate in identifying opdon to increase is optimal of efficiency of termis boiler.

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400-405  



Rufayda O. Musa, Omer F. Idris

Abstract: This study is conducted to assess serum of lipid profile level (TC, TAG, HDL, LDL) in kidney stone patients and correlate between the distributions of the lipid profile level, it is descriptive study cross-sectional. The study was conduct during 1stMay to 30ty September 2014 and it was in Khartoum state hospital (Urology units; Alribat hospital, Military hospital and Ibn sina hospital). Hundred subjects were included in the study, sixty patients with kidney stone and forty healthy people considered control group. This study includes both gender, male were found to have high incidence (63%) compared with the female (37%). Moreover the incidence of disease was found to be higher in the patients above 40 years old. The results showed that the patients concentration of TC and LDL than control with Mean ± SD 180.66 ± 66.46 in TC and 173.20 ± 61.40 in LDL and lower concentration of TAG and HDL compare with control with Mean ± SD in TAG was 230.86 ± 103.87 and in HDL 24.65 ± 9.95, the results of TC, LDL and HDL were significant with P value of (0.00), with in case TAG the results were not significant (with P value of 0.549). It was noticed that gender has a pronounced effect in disease development. Specific alteration in patient's lipid profile may reflect on physicochemistry properties of urine, this will increase the risk of developing stones.

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410-413  



Ugwuoke E.C, Ude M.U, Osondu L.C, Eze N.N, Ukwuani S.T

ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need for clean potable water in many countries of the world including Nigeria. While most urban populations have access to clean potable water, many people in rural areas do not. There are many ways that can be used to improve the quality of water and one way is through distillation. This work aimed at producing potable water from brackish water for both rural and urban dwellers. The solar distillation plant used in this experiment has collecting area of 0.68 m2 . The emissivity of glass cover and absorbtivity of the absorber plate are 0.85 and 0.93 respectively. The experiment performed gave maximum distillate of 2.3 litres on day 5 and maximum temperature of 54°C on day 5. From fig 2-6 it was observed that as solar intensity increases the higher the production of distillate.

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406-409  



Walaa Hamdi

Abstract: This analysis paper considers the effect of a four treatments on QTcM. QTcM is a heartbeat interval typically measured during an electrocardiogram. And we consider the multiple linear models and comparing the change of QTcM across the four treatment groups. The results could be show that with 95% confidence, none of the treatment groups experienced a significant change in QTCM over the course of the two-week trial.

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414-415  



Monika Verma, Harshit Agarwal, Naman Rawat, Vivek Kashyap, Akshay Kumar

Abstract: Today, with rising fuel costs, increasing concerns for global climate change, and a growing worldwide demand for electricity, utilizing renewable sources such as solar power becomes necessity rather than a luxury. The main focus is on providing energy at reasonable price but soon the day will come when the utilities will be focusing on encompassing sustainable use and environmental improvement into their agendas. Unlike conventional generation, the sunrays are available at no cost and generate electricity pollution-free. In today’s scenario solar power is provided to the load which remains in isolation with the grid. This paper aims at developing a real-time, robust and intelligent grid connected solar panel in order to provide power to the loads from solar panel at day time and switch the power to the constant DC sources as soon as the solar power falls below a pre-defined limit. This switching of power from solar panel to constant source is controlled through LabVIEW using Data Acquisition Card and power relay. The system can be deployed for a guaranteed access to power at home or industry, even if the solar energy fails or is insufficient.

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416-425  



Fatimah Alzughaibi

Abstract: The play is eye opening and shows the inhumane treatment Merrick and other “disabled individuals” must endure because mainstream society finds them to be outside the range of normal. Through the interactions between the characters in the play, the audience sees how disability is understood and responded to by the medical community and mainstream society. This research will try to shed light on the text by analyzing it through two different lenses – comparing and contrasting the social disability and medical disability models and the concept of staring and its implications.

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426-428  



Waleed Alnoanmany, Hisham A Ismail, Hala El-said, Manar Obada , Mostafa A Sakr , Ashraf Y Elfert

Abstract— Background & Aims Several studies have reported the significance of circulating microRNA as a biochemical marker of cancer. However, there are no reports on the significance of circulating microRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of plasma microRNA-21 level as a biochemical marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials & Methods: To identify the causal role of (MicroRNA-21) in hepatocarcinogenesis we used a human model in which 30 diagnosed HCC cases of different stages, 20 HCV positive cases and 20 healthy controls were tested for circulating microRNA-21 using whole blood samples taken from mentioned individuals at National Liver Institute Menoufiya University. MicroRNA extraction, Amplification RT-PCR was done for all samples with other various biochemical analysis. Results: Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated upregulation of oncogenic miR-21 at different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. On the other hand, there were no significant miRNA-21 changes neither in HCV nor Control groups. ROC study showed that the best cutoff value for miR-21 was 3.93 (Fold expression) and the sensitivity was 93 % while the specificity was 90%. Compared to the cutoff value for AFP which was 91.7 (ng/mL) and the sensitivity was 75.2 % while the specificity was 92.3 %. Conclusion: Circulating MiRNA-21 level is more sensitive than AFP and highly specific as a biological marker for HCC, also it is proved to be beneficial in early diagnosis of HCC. Targeting of microRNA-21 is sufficient to limit tumor cell proliferation and invasion in a manner that is likely to involve associated changes in multiple targets, suggesting that suppression of microRNA-21 may be an approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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429-433  



Syamsul Arifin, Pestariati, Wisnu Istanto

Abstract: Manihot (M.) utilissima fermentation is popular foods and drinks for Indonesia people, but it fermented foods 24 hours per day will breed fungi and anaerobic bacteriae, so it will make it into acidic foods and alcoholic beverages. Ultrasonic 48 kHz, 5 Vpp, 1 VDC with functional generator and of the two models of transducers, will have two different phenomena on M. utilissima fermentation. Methods: Model-1. Radiation ultrasonic transducer plate or Flat of piezoelectric speakers[2] were applied with transducers M. utilissima dipped in a test tube. Model-2. Knob or small ball ultrasonic transducer (12 balls) were applied with transducers of tin knob which was connected to the copper wire[2] and piezoelectricspeakers were dipped into the media M. utilissima in a test tube. After ultrasonic radiation, fluid (liquid) from two models of transducers measured total acid in M. utilissima fermentation liquid by paper indicators of potential Hydrogen (pH). The conclusion of this study can predict different phenomena, namely: the transducer plate of the initial pH value-acid fermentation M. utilissima can change increases the pH-value end of the base, which means that the transducer plate has a cavitation phenomenon, and media M. utilissima lead to the delicious food, but on transducer knob that the initial pH value-acid fermentation M. utilissima will decrease more acid value, so that have no phenomenon of cavitation, and the media will lead M. utilissima to be alcoholic foods.

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434-436  



Lukas Giovani G Serihollo, Endang Yuli H, Mohammad M

Abstract: Phytoplankton growth will exhibit its own dynamics depends on the fluctuations of nutrient and hydrodinamic water that affect the pattern of spread or distribution of phytoplankton both spatially and temporally. The research aims to observe differences in the composition and abudance of hytoplankton in the two seasons that is west monsoon and transitional I.The result showed that the composition and abudance of the highest found in class Bacillariophyceae and rest comes from the class Dinophyceae and Cyanophyceae. The second season shows the differences in the composition and abudance where transitional season I was higher tha the west season. West monsoon showed abudance Rhizosolinia higher compared with other genera, while during the transitional season I, genera Chaetoceros showed a higher abudance than the other genera.

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437-439  



Himani Raina, Omais Shafi

Abstract: Classification is the technique by which real world objects/land covers are identified within remotely sensed imagery. In supervised classification technique, the location of land cover types should be known a priori. The areas of each land cover types are known as training sites. This classification is also termed as per-point or per-pixel classification. Accuracy and time complexity is observed for different levels of training dataset subjected to supervised classification algorithms. Finally different classifiers are compared for different levels of training set.

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440-443  



Stefano Poillucci

Abstract: Electroacoustic music (especially Acousmatic) is often perceived differently between listeners and a wide variety of visual images is evoked. This because of the spectromorphological qualities and the abstract reality in which this kind of music carries the listener into. In everyday life, it seems that we have a natural tendency to assess and understand reality around us and to quantise how and if the perceived circumstances could affect our wellbeing. Some studies also affirm that brain and the biological function of the sensory and perceptual processes are commonly identical in each listener. This gives evidence that arises the interest to investigate which variations the subjectivity of visual imagery depends on, and if it is possible to unfold it in various layers. This experimental research has taken in consideration questionnaire-based listening tests to gather details from each listening experience and to get a better understanding of the visual imagery evoked by electroacoustic compositions into the listener's mind and its degrees of objectivity and subjectivity. The compositions used in the experiment were both composed by the author, with the intention of guiding listeners into their personal perceptual-imaginative journey, by delivering encoded, perhaps objective, sonic cues. This paper is a theoretical, inter-disciplinary analysis, backed by research on the foundations of senses, perception, cognition, emotions, etc. An artistic approach based on scientific evidences led to the theorization of layers of imagination and their bias to produce visual images with a degree of subjectivity that lies into micro aspects of sounds and in the perceptual and innate 'knowledge' of each individual. Glossary: The terms listed here have been invented (or readapted) for the purpose of the study, in order to make concepts easier to assimilate and understand. Aural World: sonic world with intrinsic features (Smalley, 1997). The purely auditory realm which an individual “enters” by listening to (electroacoustic) music. The perceived stream of sonic material before imagination occurs. As Nyström (2013) described it: “a portal to a state of modal confusion, at the mercy of our imagination.” Chimerical Imagery: a meaningful blend of the aural world perception, visual imagery and emotions (stimulated by perception and visual imagery). The ‘integrated whole that is both perceived and imagined’ (Kim, 2008). PANSC Knowledge: Perceptual, Aesthetic, Natural, Socio-cultural, Cognitive Knowledge. The whole package of knowledge in exponential and continuous update since we are born, composed by sensory stimuli, perceptions, emotions, instincts, memories (of all kind), acquired notions and cognitive processes stored in the individual’s unconscious and memory. It can also be accessed consciously. It may also be intended as a blend of the ‘three ideas’ according to Descartes: “innate ideas, adventitious ideas, factitious ideas”. Emotive Memory: the virtual place in PANSC knowledge where emotions and feelings in relation to perception and imagination are stored.

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CURRENT PUBLICATIONS
ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2017 - Volume 6 Issue 1