International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 3, March 2020 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Properties Of Textiles Dyed With Young Adonidia Merillii (Betel Nut) Fruit Husk

[Full Text]



Nurul Syahida Mat Hussin, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Sarah Wahida Hasbullah, Nawwal Abdul Kadir



natural dyes, Adonidia Merillii L., betel nut husks, textile colouration, colour fastness properties.



Natural dyeing is one of the indigenous pieces of knowledge that has been explored on its potential since prehistoric decade. The process and materials used revolves nature-friendly essential, which are safe to the environment in comparison to the chemical dyeing materials. Currently, the Adonidia Merillii or also known as betel nut tree, is only used as an ornamental tree such as in landscaping. However, it has potentials of being more than an ornament and can be utilized as dyes for local textile industries. Thus, this study focused on extracting dye from young Adonidia Merillii fruits husk. Traditional boiling method was applied to extract the natural colours from the fruits. Colour testing was conducted on four (4) types of fabrics which were rayon, Crepe de Chine (CDC), China Cotton and jacquard by using post-mordanting treatment. The mordants used were aqueous lime water, alum, and ashes. The colour on the textile samples was tested and evaluated via colour fastness properties. The tests conducted include exposing textile samples to artificial light, washing, rubbing, water and perspiration. Adonidia Merillii fruits husk have given hues of brown colour staining on the textiles, but the colour changed after the test, surprisingly on the artificial light exposure. The bright colour of the initial samples appeared to be less bright than those exposed to artificial light. The brightness of the samples was determined using blue scale grading. The findings from this experimental study may contribute to the palette colour of natural dyeing on textile and extended future research about the brightness change would be significant for the Malaysia local textile industries.



[1]. F. Salehan, F. Mohamed, S. Hassan, Z. Kassim, R. M. Nor, and S. M. Samsudin, Seni Kraf Batik: Pewarnaan Asli. Selangor: Institut Kraf Negara, 2009.
[2]. D. N. V. Satyanarayana and K. R. Chandra, ‘Dyeing of Cotton Cloth with Natural Dye Extracted From Pomegranate Peel and Its Fastness’, Int. J. Eng. Sci. Res. Technol., vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 2664–2669, 2013.
[3]. S. Hasan, Lukisan Gua di Malaysia, 1st ed. Kuala Lumpur: Balai Seni Lukis Negara, 2003.
[4]. G. W. Taylor, ‘Natural Dyes in Textile Applications’, Rev. Prog. Color. Relat. Top., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 53–61, 2008.
[5]. M. R. Yaacob, N. F. M. Zain, M. N. Zakaria, and M. Ismail, ‘Environmental Management Practices in Small Batik Industry in Kelantan, Malaysia’, J. Econ. Sustain. Dev., vol. 7, no. 13, pp. 36–43, 2016.
[6]. M. R. Yaacob, M. N. Zakaria, F. A. Zainol, and N. F. M. Zain, ‘Environmental Awareness of Batik in Kelantan, Malaysia - An Early Insight’, Int. J. Acad. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 338–347, 2015.
[7]. ‘Clean Batik Initiative – Malaysia Compilation Report’,2012.
[8]. Anita Tyagi, ‘Use of Dye in Apparel’, in Textile Design and Technology, 1st ed., New Delhi: SONALI PUBLICATIONS, 2011, p. 119.
[9]. M. P. Bebit and I. Ibrahim, ‘Warna Tradisional Sabah: Konteks Tradisi Lisan dan Penghasilan Kraf’, in Kearifan Tempatan: Pengalaman Nusantara: Jilid 2-Meneliti Kosmologi dan Adat Istiadat, 1st ed., M. K. A. Rahman, N. Zainun, and Rahimah A. Hamid, Eds. Pulau Pinang: Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2013, pp. 171–197.
[10]. T. K. Lim, ‘Adonidia Merrilli’, Edible Med. Non-Medicinal, vol. 1, 2011.
[11]. W. H. Brown and E. D. Merrill, Philippine Palms and Palm Products. Manila: Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry, 1919.
[12]. Y. C. Chung, ‘Insects Associated with Some Ornamental Plants in Sabah, Malaysia’, in 7th Interntional Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, 2008.
[13]. Vafaei, J. Mohamad, and E. Karimi, ‘HPLC Profiling of Phenolic and Flavonoids of Adonidia Merillii Fruits and their Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Properties’, Nat. Prod. Res., 2018.
[14]. N. Susilowati, ‘The Tradition of Betel-Chewing and Buffalo Slaughtering in the Traditional Ceremony of Horja in Angkola - Mandailing’, Berk. Arkeol. Sangkhakala, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2017.
[15]. Arniata, ‘Pengaruh Pengetahuan dan Sikap Masyarakat tentang Makan Sirih terhadap Kesehatan Gigi dan Mulut pada Masyarakat Aceh di Desa Pasi Pinangkecamatanmeureubo Kabupaten Aceh Barat’, Universitas Teuku Umar Meulaboh, 2014.
[16]. S. H. Maizan and A. A. Aziz, ‘Malay Tepak Sirih in Malaysia: Form, Functions and Meaning’, Ideology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 89–102, 2018.
[17]. N. Salleh, ‘Tepak Sirih: Komunikasi Bukan Lisan dalam Adat Perkahwinan Melayu’, Malaysian J. Commun., vol. 30, no. Special Issues, pp. 177–190, 2014.
[18]. S. Mohamed and S. B. M. Radzi, ‘Makan dan Makanan dalam Kesusasteraan Melayu’, J. Melayu, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 274–290, 2015.
[19]. M. M. Rosdi, ‘Ini Fungsi Sirih Pinang dalam Adat Melayu yang Anda Tak Tahu’, Vitdaily, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.vitdaily.com/ini-fungsi-sirih-pinang-dalam-adat-melayu-yang-anda-tak-tahu. [Accessed: 22-Nov-2018].
[20]. E. Rahayuningsih, S. Rahayu, and T. Raharjo, ‘The Potential of Sawdust as Raw Material for the Production of Natural Dye’, in Chemeca 2011: Engineering a Better World, 2011, pp. 2065–2074.
[21]. Rusmini, D. Aquastini, R. R. Manulang, Daryono, and A. Sadikin, ‘The Areca Nut (Areca Catechu L.) As A Natural Dye on Organic Kenaf Fiber’, Int. J. Sci. Technol., vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 140–144, 2018.
[22]. M. Zaky, T. R. Susanti, and D. Pratiwi, ‘Formulation Development and Evaluation of Physical Test Preparations Hair Dye Pinang Seed Extract (Areca Catechu L.) as Natural Dyes’, Farmagazine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 2015.
[23]. S. Datta, M. A. Uddin, K. S. Afreen, S. Akter, and A. Bandyopadhyay, ‘Assessment of Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Natural Dyed Fabrics’, Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 179–184, 2013.
[24]. D. Jothi, ‘Extraction of Natural Dyes from African Marigold Flower (Tagetes Ereectal) for Textile Coloration’, AUTEX Res. J., vol. 8, no. June, pp. 49–53, 2008.
[25]. S. I. Ali, ‘Revival of Natural Dyes in Asia’, J. Soc. Dye. Colour., vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 13–14, 1993.
[26]. Taif, S. Hernida, M. Som, U. Zinnirah, and M. Yusof, ‘Extraction of Natural Dyes from Clitoria Ternatea Flower’, Int. J. Sci. Technol., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 81–90, 2017.
[27]. S. Bahri, Jalaludin, and Rosnita, ‘Pembuatan Zat Warna Alami dari Kulit Batang Jamblang ( Syzygium cumini ) sebagai Bahan Dasar Pewarna Tekstil’, J. Teknol. Kim. Unimal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 10–19, 2017.
[28]. CAVLP Heritage, ‘A Manual for Natural Dyeing’. [Online]. Available: https://www.communityaction.org/files/Natural_Dye_Manual.pdf. [Accessed: 01-Oct-2019].
[29]. S. Belemkar and M. Ramachandran, ‘Recent Trends in Indian Textile Industry - Exploring Novel Natural Dye Products and Resources’, Int. J. Text. Eng. Process., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 33–41, 2015.
[30]. N. Pruthi, G. D. Chawla, and S. Yadav, ‘Dyeing of silk with barberry bark dye using mordant combination’, Nat. Prod. Radiance, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 40–44, 2008.
[31]. H. S. Sanli, N. Kayabasi, and F. N. Olmez, ‘Dyeing Technique and Mordanting Methods Applied in Natural Dyeing of Wool in Turkey’, Asian J. Chem., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 3313–3316, 2011.
[32]. S. D. Dogan and M. Akan, ‘A Research on Colours and Fastness Values of Different Materials Dyed with some Natural Dyes’, Int. J. Mater. Sci. Appl., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 69–74, 2018.
[33]. T. S. Eop, A. W. Azhari, and D. S. C. Halin, ‘Natural Dyes Extracted from Leaves, Fruits, and Roots of Piper Betel, Adonidia Merillii and Merinda Citrifolia as Photosynthesizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells’, in International Conference of Innovative Research, 2019.
[34]. A. Umar, M. N. M. Nor, and W. Y.C., ‘Fastness Properties of Colorant Extracted from Tamarind Fruits Pods to Dye Cotton and Silk Fabrics’, J. Nat. Sci. Res., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 60–67, 2013.