IJSTR

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
0.2
2019CiteScore
 
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020

CALL FOR PAPERS
AUTHORS
DOWNLOADS
CONTACT

IJSTR >> Volume 5 - Issue 5, May 2016 Edition



International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616



The Patterns Of Selected Antibiotics Sensitivity And Resistance To Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Stanslaus Kiilu Musyoki, Stephen Mwaura Kariuki, Kemoi E.K, Elias Mbogori

 

KEYWORDS

antibiotics, Azithromycin, Drug resistance; Drug sensitivity, Isolates, penicillin, Staphylococcus aureus

 

ABSTRACT

Complications of Staphylococcus aureus infection have greatly increased in recent past because of the many invasive procedures, increased cases of immunocompromised individuals, and the uprising trends in increased antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus strains. Despite of these available information and by contrast with developed countries, S. aureus associated disease are ranked low on the public-health agenda in Kenya and other developing countries. Therefore there is due reason to undertake an investigation and report the trends and patterns in a thorough manner, majorly and especially regarding the antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was thus to determine the levels of drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to various classes of antibiotics. This data is of significance in improving baseline data on antibiotic resistance of S. aureus isolated from human clinical specimens for the prudent use of antibiotics and the coming up with policies on control programs. All culture isolates were confirmed as Staphylococcus aureus genus by various tests, That is, gram staining, catalase and oxidase. Catalase positive, gram positive and oxidase negative isolates were defined as Staphylococcus. Further analyses by mannitol salt agar fermentation of the isolates and positive coagulase tests indicated Staphylococcus aureus. The area of clearance of sensitivity and tolerance was measured in millimeters and categorized as sensitive, resistant or intermediate. The present study reported that, S. aureus was most sensitive to Azithromycin, whereby 46 (61%) samples were sensitive. Penicillin on the hand was least sensitive showing 29% level of sensitivity. Methicillin, Gentamicin had more than 50% level of sensitivity, That is, 41 (55%) and 40 (53%) respectively. Other antibiotic drugs including ampicillin, augmentin and tetracycline demonstrated less than 50% sensitivity, That is, 29 (39%), 32 (43%) and 33 (44%) respectively. Drug resistance for S. aureus was therefore reported to be highest in penicillin (59%) and least in Azithromycin (25%). Based on results of this study we conclude that drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus may vary with the antibiotics being used.

 

REFERENCES

[1] Chambers, H. F. (1997). Methicillin resistance in staphylococci: molecular and biochemical basis and clinical implications. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 10, 781791.

[2] Chambers, H. F. (2001). The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus? Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7, 178182. doi:10.3201/eid0702.700178

[3] Chambers, H. F., & Deleo, F. R. (2009). Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the antibiotic era. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 7, 629641. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2200

[4] Climo, M. W., Patron, R. L., Goldstein, B. P., & Archer, G. L. (1998). Lysostaphin treatment of experimental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus aortic valve endocarditis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 42, 13551360.

[5] Clsi. (2013). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Second Informational Supplement. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Vol. 32, pp. 1184).

[6] Cosgrove, S. E., Sakoulas, G., Perencevich, E. N., Schwaber, M. J., Karchmer, A. W., & Carmeli, Y. (2003). Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis. Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 36, 5359. doi:10.1086/345476

[7] Couto, I., Melo-Cristino, J., Fernandes, M. L., Garcia, T., Serrano, N., Salgado, M. J., De Lencastre, H. (1995). Unusually large number of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in a Portuguese hospital. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 33, 20322035.

[8] Den Heijer, C. D. J., van Bijnen, E. M. E., Paget, W. J., Pringle, M., Goossens, H., Bruggeman, C. A., Stobberingh, E. E. (2013). Prevalence and resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus, including meticillin-resistant S aureus, in nine European countries: A cross-sectional study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13, 409415. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70036-7

[9] Deurenberg, R. H., & Stobberingh, E. E. (2008). The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.07.007

[10] Duran, N., Ozer, B., Duran, G. G., Onlen, Y., & Demir, C. (2012). Antibiotic resistance genes & susceptibility patterns in staphylococci. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 135, 38996. doi:10.1128/JCM.01232-09

[11] Ghuysen, J. M. (1994). Molecular structures of penicillin-binding proteins and beta-lactamases. Trends in Microbiology, 2, 372380.

[12] Hoekstra, K. A., & Paulton, R. J. L. (2002). Clinical prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. intermedius in dogs. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 93, 406413. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2002.01708.x

[13] Howden, B. P., McEvoy, C. R. E., Allen, D. L., Chua, K., Gao, W., Harrison, P. F., Stinear, T. P. (2011). Evolution of multidrug resistance during staphylococcus aureus infection involves mutation of the essential two component regulator WalKR. PLoS Pathogens, 7. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002359

[14] Kateete, D. P., Kimani, C. N., Katabazi, F. A., Okeng, A., Okee, M. S., Nanteza, A., Najjuka, F. C. (2010). Identification of Staphylococcus aureus: DNase and Mannitol salt agar improve the efficiency of the tube coagulase test. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 9, 23. doi:10.1186/1476-0711-9-23

[15] Lowy, F. D. (2003). Antimicrobial resistance: The example of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Clinical Investigation. doi:10.1172/JCI200318535

[16] Naber, C. K. (2009). Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management strategies. Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 48 Suppl 4, S231S237. doi:10.1086/598189

[17] Nickerson, E. K., West, T. E., Day, N. P., & Peacock, S. J. (2009). Staphylococcus aureus disease and drug resistance in resource-limited countries in south and east Asia. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70022-2

[18] Panlilio, A. L., Culver, D. H., Gaynes, R. P., Banerjee, S., Henderson, T. S., Tolson, J. S., & Martone, W. J. (1992). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in U.S. hospitals, 1975-1991. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : The Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 13, 582586. doi:10.1086/646432

[19] Peacock, S. J., De Silva, I., & Lowy, F. D. (2001). What determines nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus? Trends in Microbiology. doi:10.1016/S0966-842X(01)02254-5

[20] Rammelkamp, C. H., & Maxon, T. (1942). Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to the Action of Penicillin. Experimental Biology and Medicine , 51 , 386389. doi:10.3181/00379727-51-13986

[21] Schito, G. C. (2006). The importance of the development of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical Microbiology and Infection : The Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 12 Suppl 1, 38. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01343.x

[22] Styers, D., Sheehan, D. J., Hogan, P., & Sahm, D. F. (2006). Laboratory-based surveillance of current antimicrobial resistance patterns and trends among Staphylococcus aureus: 2005 status in the United States. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 5, 2. doi:10.1186/1476-0711-5-2

[23] Tenover, F. C. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria., 119 The American journal of medicine S3S10; discussion S62S70 (2006). doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.03.011