International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 7 - Issue 7, July 2018 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Energy Internet: A Review

[Full Text]



Vinayaka Nelamangala



Carbon emissions, Distributed energy System, Energy Internet, Privacy, Renewable Energy Resources, Smart Meter, Security.



Energy crisis coupled with the increasing rate of carbon emissions into the atmosphere have plagued humanity today. Energy Internet, A new complex power generation, distribution, and management system comprising of latest innovations in the field of Power generation and Information Technology called Energy Internet has been discussed in this paper. This paper talks about the basic concept of Energy Internet. A few functional requirements of the EI infrastructure have been briefly presented in this article. The concept of Energy router and its functions, Smart meters and its functions have been briefly discussed. This paper also highlights the security and privacy issues that arise because of the complexity of the system. This new energy Infrastructure will function with the help of distributed energy resources comprising mostly of renewable energy resources to help humanity combat the effects of global warming and reduce the carbon footprint



[1]. K. Zhou, S. Yang, and Z. Shao, "Energy internet: the business perspective," Applied Energy, vol. 178, pp. 212-222, 2016.

[2]. L. H. Tsoukalas and R. Gao, "Inventing energy internet The role of anticipation in human-centered energy distribution and utilization," in SICE Annual Conference, 2008, 2008, pp. 399-403.

[3]. Y. Xu, J. Zhang, W. Wang, A. Juneja, and S. Bhattacharya, "Energy router: Architectures and functionalities toward Energy Internet," in Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), 2011 IEEE International Conference on, 2011, pp. 31-36.

[4]. A. Q. Huang, M. L. Crow, G. T. Heydt, J. P. Zheng, and S. J. Dale, "The future renewable electric energy delivery and management (FREEDM) system: the energy internet," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 99, pp. 133-148, 2011.

[5]. J. Cao and M. Yang, "Energy internet--towards smart grid 2.0," in Networking and Distributed Computing (ICNDC), 2013 Fourth International Conference on, 2013, pp. 105-110.

[6]. A. Atkeson and P. J. Kehoe, "The transition to a new economy after the second industrial revolution," National Bureau of Economic Research2001.

[7]. M. Agrawal and S. Agrawal, "Phytomonitoring of air pollution around a thermal power plant," Atmospheric Environment (1967), vol. 23, pp. 763-769, 1989.

[8]. L. Tsoukalas and R. Gao, "From smart grids to an energy internet: Assumptions, architectures and requirements," in Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies, 2008. DRPT 2008. Third International Conference on, 2008, pp. 94-98.

[9]. I. Capellán-Pérez, M. Mediavilla, C. de Castro, Ó. Carpintero, and L. J. Miguel, "Fossil fuel depletion and socio-economic scenarios: An integrated approach," Energy, vol. 77, pp. 641-666, 2014.

[10]. P. D. Lund, J. Mikkola, and J. Ypyä, "Smart energy system design for large clean power schemes in urban areas," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 103, pp. 437-445, 2015.

[11]. K. Alanne and A. Saari, "Distributed energy generation and sustainable development," Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, vol. 10, pp. 539-558, 2006.

[12]. J. Rifkin, "The third industrial revolution: How the internet, green electricity, and 3-d printing are ushering in a sustainable era of distributed capitalism," World Financial Review, vol. 1, pp. 4052-4057, 2012.

[13]. U. D. o. Energy. (15th October ). What is Smart Grid? Available: https://www.smartgrid.gov/the_smart_grid/smart_grid.html

[14]. R. Gao and L. H. Tsoukalas, "Implementing virtual buffer for electric power grids," in International Conference on Computational Science, 2007, pp. 1083-1089.

[15]. R. Gao, X. Wang, A. Bougaev, D. Schooley, and L. Tsoukalas, "Short-term elasticities via intelligent tools for modern power systems," in Proceedings of 2003 medpower conference, 2003, pp. 1-6.

[16]. D. Moore and D. McDonnell, "Smart grid vision meets distribution level reality," Marietta, GA: The McDonnell Group, Inc, 2007.

[17]. H. Farhangi, "The path of the smart grid," IEEE power and energy magazine, vol. 8, 2010.

[18]. R. Gao and L. Tsoukalas, "Anticipatory paradigm for modern power system protection," ISAP, Lemnos, Greece, 2003.

[19]. R. Moreno, G. Strbac, F. Porrua, S. Mocarquer, and B. Bezerra, "Making room for the boom," IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 8, pp. 36-46, 2010.

[20]. E. Marris, "Energy: Upgrading the grid," Nature News, vol. 454, pp. 570-573, 2008.

[21]. K. Dodrill, "Understanding the benefits of the smart grid," NETL Smart Grid Implementation, US, 2010.

[22]. Y. Mo, T. H.-J. Kim, K. Brancik, D. Dickinson, H. Lee, A. Perrig, et al., "Cyber–physical security of a smart grid infrastructure," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 100, pp. 195-209, 2012.

[23]. T. Baumeister, "Literature review on smart grid cyber security," Collaborative Software Development Laboratory at the University of Hawaii, 2010.

[24]. A. R. Metke and R. L. Ekl, "Security technology for smart grid networks," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 1, pp. 99-107, 2010.

[25]. K. I. Sgouras, A. D. Birda, and D. P. Labridis, "Cyber attack impact on critical Smart Grid infrastructures," in Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT), 2014 IEEE PES, 2014, pp. 1-5.

[26]. A. Lee, "Guidelines for Smart Grid Cyber Security," NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR)-7628, 2010.

[27]. F. M. Cleveland, "Cyber security issues for advanced metering infrasttructure (AMI)," in Power and Energy Society General Meeting-Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, 2008 IEEE, 2008, pp. 1-5.

[28]. Y.-J. Kim, M. Thottan, V. Kolesnikov, and W. Lee, "A secure decentralized data-centric information infrastructure for smart grid," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 48, 2010.

[29]. P. McDaniel and S. McLaughlin, "Security and privacy challenges in the smart grid," IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 7, 2009.

[30]. J. Vijayan, "Stuxnet renews power grid security concerns," Computerworld, vol. 26, 2010.

[31]. S. Khandelwal, "Stuxnet-like ‘Havex’malware strikes European SCADA systems," The Hacker News, June, vol. 26, 2014.

[32]. L. Xie, Y. Mo, and B. Sinopoli, "False data injection attacks in electricity markets," in Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), 2010 First IEEE International Conference on, 2010, pp. 226-231.

[33]. H. S. Cho, T. Yamazaki, and M. Hahn, "AERO: extraction of user's activities from electric power consumption data," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 56, 2010.

[34]. H. Khurana, M. Hadley, N. Lu, and D. A. Frincke, "Smart-grid security issues," IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 8, 2010.

[35]. G. W. Arnold, D. A. Wollman, G. J. FitzPatrick, D. E. Prochaska, A. Lee, D. G. Holmberg, et al., "NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Release 1.0," Special Publication (NIST SP)-1108, 2010.

[36]. M. Lisovich and S. Wicker, "Privacy concerns in upcoming residential and commercial demand-response systems," IEEE Proceedings on Power Systems, vol. 1, pp. 1-10, 2008.

[37]. F. Li, B. Luo, and P. Liu, "Secure information aggregation for smart grids using homomorphic encryption," in Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), 2010 First IEEE International Conference on, 2010, pp. 327-332.

[38]. X. Fang, S. Misra, G. Xue, and D. Yang, "Smart grid—The new and improved power grid: A survey," IEEE communications surveys & tutorials, vol. 14, pp. 944-980, 2012.

[39]. K. Zhou, C. Fu, and S. Yang, "Big data driven smart energy management: From big data to big insights," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 56, pp. 215-225, 2016.

[40]. K. Zhou and S. Yang, "Demand side management in China: The context of China’s power industry reform," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 47, pp. 954-965, 2015.

[41]. K. Zhou and S. Yang, "Understanding household energy consumption behavior: The contribution of energy big data analytics," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 56, pp. 810-819, 2016.

[42]. S. Rahman and M. Pipattanasomporn, "Smart grid information Clearinghouse: Overview of projects and deployment experience," in Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Latin America), 2011 IEEE PES Conference on, 2011, pp. 1-7.

[43]. A. Energy, "Austin Energy smart grid program," Æ http://www. austinenergy. com/About% 20Us/Company% 20Profile/smartGrid/index. htmæ (Aug. 1, 2010), 2010.

[44]. J. Eto, "CERTS microgrid laboratory test bed," Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2009.

[45]. R. E. Brown, "Impact of smart grid on distribution system design," in Power and Energy Society General Meeting-Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, 2008 IEEE, 2008, pp. 1-4.

[46]. T. Zhang, "A review of global smart metering developments: Lessons for smart metering policy in liberalized electricity markets," Energy and Innovation: Structural Change and Policy Implications, p. 91, 2010.

[47]. R. Melton, "Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration Project," Annual Report, 2012.

[48]. X. Energy, "SmartGridCity," Accessed online: http://www. xcelenergy. com/XLWEB/CDA/0% 2c3080% 2c1-1-1_15531_43141_46932-39884-0_0_0-0% 2c00. html Natioanl Energy Technology Laboratory (USA),“The Modern Grid Strategy”, Accessed online: http://www. netl. doe. gov/moderngrid, 2015.

[49]. V. Giordano, A. Meletiou, C. F. Covrig, A. Mengolini, M. Ardelean, G. Fulli, et al., "Smart Grid projects in Europe: Lessons learned and current developments," JRC report, 2013.

[50]. V. Giordano, F. Gangale, G. Fulli, M. S. Jiménez, I. Onyeji, A. Colta, et al., "Smart grid projects in Europe," JRC Ref Rep Sy, vol. 8, 2011.

[51]. M.-C. Hu, C.-Y. Wu, and T. Shih, "Creating a new socio-technical regime in China: Evidence from the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City," Futures, vol. 70, pp. 1-12, 2015.