International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 12, December 2020 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Why Are Triple Constraints Always Challenged? : Evidence From Construction Projects

[Full Text]



Engr Sameer Ahmed, Dr. Sayed Fayaz Ahmed



Triple constraints, construction projects, project failure, nvivo software.



The construction industry plays a significant job in the nation’s economic growth. All projects run under three constraints: time, cost, and scope. Constraints are called triple constraints. Challenges faced by Triple Constraints are major reason for the lag in the Construction Projects. This research study aims at exploring reasons for the challenges Triple Constraints are facing in the construction Industry. Construction (Building) projects at Karachi, Pakistan were initiated by the Government in 2016 and still they are facing problems to complete the Projects according to the Actual Project Duration and the Originally Estimated Cost for the Projects. The data was collected of two types; Primary data and Secondary data, Primary data from the Ongoing Construction Projects in Karachi and Secondary data was collected from the Research papers. Study of research papers highlighted reasons for the Triple Constraint delays/overruns. These reasons were input into NVivo software to determine the frequency of each cause. The reasons were ranked on the basis of Relative Frequency Index (RFI), Relative Severity Index (RSI) and Independent Relative Importance Index (IRII) through research papers. Some of the causes which were identified were “Underestimating effects of Inflation and Escalation, Poor Planning and Scheduling, Clients-Slow decisions, Design changes, Poor Financial Management and etc. are the top reasons behind delays and project failure of Construction projects. These results would provide help for Clients, Contractor and Consultant in improved planning and mitigating the effects of lag in the future Construction projects.



[1] Rahman et. al., "Impact of the Cost Overrun Factors on the Project Delay in Construction Industry, Phang, Malaysia," 2012.
[2] Leibing, "Impact of the Cost Overrun Factors on the Project Delay in Construction Industry, Pahang, Malaysia," 2001.
[3] Ibrahim et. al., "Impact of Cost Overrun Factors on the Project Delay in Construction Industry, Pahang, Malaysia," 2010.
[4] M. Strickland, "Roman Building Materials, Construction Methods and Architectur: The identity of an Empire," 2010.
[5] Taylor, "Impact of Cost Overrun Factors on the Project Delay in Construction Industry, Pahang, Malaysia," 2004.
[6] J. F. Smart, "The Project Management Triangle Must Die," Jan Molak, 16 April 2016. [Online].Available:https://janmolak.com/the-project-management-triangle-must-die-e14064a1c54d. [Accessed 13 February 2019].
[7] M. S. Dobson, "The Triple Constraints in Project Management," Project Management Essential Library Series, 2004.
[8] Y. Pretorius, "Aspects of Engineering Project Failure: A Managerial Approach," M. Ing., Rand Afrikaans University, 2001.
[9] A. Enshassi, S. Mohamed and S. Adushaban, "Factors Affecting the Performance of Construction Projects in Gaza Strip," Interactive Business Network Resource Library, 2009.
[10] "Role of Construction Sector in Economic Growth Emperical Evidence from Pakistan Economy,"ResearchGate,[Online].Available:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283007781
[11] H. Steyn, "Project Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach," FPM Publishing, vol. 7, 2002.
[12] M. W. Newell and M. N. Grashina, "The Project Management Question and Answer Book," Amacom, New York, 2003.
[13] Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Book of Knowledge, Newtown Square: Project Management Institute, 2004.
[14] C. J. V. Wyngaard, "Effective Management of the Triple Constraint in Project Management Through Polarity Management Techniques - A Refreshed Perspective," M. Ing., University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, 2011.
[15] B. EGELAND, “Dealing with projects constraints”. http://pmtips.net/dealing- project-constraints.
[16] ROSENAU, John Wiley and Sons, “Project management for engineers”, 7th Ed., Asia, 2010.
[17] J.A. WARD, “The key project constraints: Relationship and trade-offs Proceedings”. Dallas: 13th International Conference on Software Quality, 2003.
[18] C. J. V. WYNGAARD, “Effective management of the triple constraint in project management through polarity management techniques – A refreshed perspective Dissertation”, Ming University of Johannesburg, 2011.
[19] J. GIDO and J.P. CLEMENTS, “Successful Project Management”, 2nd Ed., USA: Thomson and Southern-Western, 2003.
[20] Durban CBD Office, "Market Report," Durban CBD Office, Durban, 2012.
[21] T. Williams, "Assessing Extension of Time Delays on Major Projects," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 21, pp. 19-26, 2003.
[22] S. S. Mulla, "International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications," Ijera, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 48-53, January 2015.
[23] Augsburg Education, "Introduction to Project Management," Augsburg, [Online]. Available: http://www.augsburg.edu/ppages/.
[24] QSR International, 2014. NVIVO 10 for Windows. Getting started, vol. 44
[25] A.A. Aibinu , H.A. Odeyinka, "Construction delays and their causative factors in Nigeria",J Constr Eng Manag, vol132, Issue 7, pp. 667–77, 2006.
[26] S.A. Assaf, S. Al-Hejji, “Causes of delay in large construction projects”. Int J Project Management, Vol 24, Issue 4, pp. 349–57, 2006.
[27] M.H Fallahnejad, "Delay causes in Iran gas pipe line projects".Int J Proj Manag, vol31, Issue 1, pp. 136–46, 2013.
[28] A.M Odeh, H.T. Battaineh, "Causes of construction delay: traditional contracts", Int J Proj Manag, pp. 67-76, 2001.
[29] M Sambasivan , YW Soon, "Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry", Int J Proj Manag, Vol 25, Issue 5, pp. 517–26, 2007.
[30] J.B Yang, P.R Wei, "Causes of delay in the planning and design phases for construction projects", J Archit Eng, Vol16, Issue 2 , pp. 80–83, 2010.
[31] A. Batoola and F. Abbas, "Reasons for delay in selected hydro-power projects in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan” and Sustainable Energy Reviews journal, Vol 73, pp 196-204, 2017..
[32] P. Morris and G. Hough, “The Anatomy of Major Projects”, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1989.