International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 10 - Issue 12, December 2021 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Surviving Language Urbanization In Surigao Del Sur, Philippines: Preservation Of Kamayo Language Through Multilingualism

[Full Text]



Jerrymie Mila, Jemeah Ann Mariscal, Karl Ferdie Mae Lofranco, Filyn Grace Macanim



Kamayo language, language preservation, MTB-MLE, multilingualism, Philippines



Multilingualism poses several issues around the world, and language preservation is a helpful tool to preserve endangered languages. This study aims at analyzing how multilingualism helps in the preservation of the Kamayo language in Surigao del Sur, Philippines despite language urbanization. The data were gathered generally through reviewing available literature and studies related to the study. The study finds out that multilingualism and language preservation interrelates as multilingualism plays a role in language preservation but with limitation as existing languages such as the Kamayo language, are still not prioritize to be used as the medium in the institutions in the community. The existence of multilingualism and its practices such as MTB-MLE in the educational setting helps provide opportunities for languages to be used, but a need for policy revision to give every language its rights to be used and enriched by its speakers for language development for the future generations.



[1] Adalıoğlu, E. (2020, September 4). What is language preservation and why does it matter? Protranslate Blog. https://www.protranslate.net/blog/en/what-is-language-preservation-and-why-does-it-matter/
[2] Adams, J. N. (2003). Bilingualism and the Latin language. Cambridge University Press
[3] Alieto, E. (2018). Language shift from English to mother tongue: Exploring language attitude and willingness to teach among pre-service teachers. TESOL International Journal, 13, 134-146.
[4] Amara, M. (2005). Language, migration, and urbanization: The case of Bethlehem. Linguistics, 43(5), 883-901. https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2005.43.5.883
[5] Armitage, J., Billinghurst, N., French, M., & Heugh, K. (2019). Using multilingual approaches: Moving from theory to practice. British Council. https://issuu.com/britishcouncilindia/docs/using_multilingual_approaches_resource_book
[6] Auer, P. & Wei, L. (2008). Handbook of multilingualism and multilingual communication. De Gruyter Mouton.
[7] Austin, P. (2008). 1000 languages: The worldwide history of living and lost tongues. Thames and Hudson.
[8] Austin, P., & Sallabank, J. (2011). The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages. Cambridge University Press.
[9] Bastardas-Boada, A. (2014). Linguistic sustainability for a multilingual humanity. Sustainable Multilingualism. https://doi.org/10.7220/2335-2027.5.5.
[10] Bekrieva-Grannis, D. G. (2004). The impact of multilingualism & language learning experiences on an immigrant woman's identity: A case study (Publication No. 16268). [Masteral dissertation, Iowa State University]. Retrospective Theses and Dissertations.
[11] Brenzinger, M. (Ed.). (2007). Language diversity endangered. Mouton de Gruyter.
[12] Bucjan, M. (2017). Morphophonemic analysis of Kamayo “Kadi” language in Surigao del Sur, Philippines. European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 5(9), 8-17. https://www.eajournals.org/wp-content/uploads/Morphophonemics-Analysis-Of-Kamayo-%E2%80%9CKadi%E2%80%9DLanguage-In-Surigao-Del-Sur-Philippines.pdf
[13] Budria, S., & Swedberg, P. (2018). The impact of multilingualism on host language acquisition. Empirical, 46, 741-766. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10663-018-9422-x
[14] Burton, L. A. (2013). Mother tongue-based multilingual education in the Philippines: Studying top down policy implementation from the bottom up. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota]. https://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/152603/Burton_umn_0130E_13632.pdf
[15] Cabuang, F. (2007, September 6). Saving butuanon language. Manila Times. https://web.archive.org/web/20071015180226/http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2007/sept/06/yehey/opinion/20070906opi7.html
[16] Campbell, L, Lee, N. H., Okura, E., Simpson, S., & Ueki, K. (2013, February 28). New knowledge: Findings from the catalogue of endangered languages. ScholarSpace. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/26145
[17] Cavallaro, F., Colluzi, P., & David, M. K. (2009). Language policies – impact on language maintenance and teaching: Focus on Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and the Philippines. The Linguistics Journal, 155-191.
[18] Chang-Castillo. (2019, April 23). Language preservation: How countries preserve their language(s). Chang-Castillo and Associates. https://ccalanguagesolutions.com/language-preservation-how-countries-preserve-their-languages/
[19] Cenoz, J. (2013). Defining multilingualism. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 33, 3–18. https://doi.org/10.1017/s026719051300007x
[20] Coen, N. (2020, February 21). Why does language preservation matter? CyraCom Language Service Blog. https://blog.cyracom.com/why-does-language-preservation-matter
[21] Department of Education. (1987, May 21). The 1987 policy on bilingual education. DepEd. https://www.deped.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/1987/05/DO_s1987_52.pdf
[22] Department of Education. (2009). Institutionalizing mother tongue-based multilingual education (Order no. 74). DepEd. https://www.deped.gov.ph/2009/07/14/do-74-s-2009-institutionalizing-mother-tongue-based-multilingual-education-mle/
[23] Department of Education. (2016, October 24). Mother tongue-based learning makes lessons more interactive and easier for students. DepEd. https://www.deped.gov.ph/2016/10/24/mother-tongue-based-learning-makes-lessonsmore-interactive-and-easier-for-students/
[24] Definitions & Translations. (n.d.). Definitions for linguistic competence. https://www.definitions.net/definition/linguistic+competence
[25] Diamond, J. (2010, October). The benefits of multilingualism. Science Mag, 330, 332-333.
[26] Dumanig, F. (2019). Bilingualism and multilingualism in primary education (Philippines). Researchgate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332050121_Bilingualism_and_Multilingualism_in_Primary_Education_Philippines
[27] Dumanig, F. & David, M. (January, 2014). Miscommunication in filipino-malaysian interactions: intercultural discourse in english. ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Francisco-Dumanig/publication/292853662_Miscommunication_in_filipino-malaysian_interactions_Intercultural_discourse_in_english/links/5facbbe5a6fdcc9389ab361e/Miscommunication-in-filipino-malaysian-interactions-Intercultural-discourse-in-english.pdf
[28] Duarte, J., García-Jimenez, E., McMonagle, S., Hansen, A., Gross, B., Szelei, N., & Pinho, A. S. (2020). Research priorities in the field of multilingualism and language education: A cross-national examination. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2020.1792475
[29] Eberhard, D., Simons, G., & Fennig, C. (2015). Kamayo. Ethnologue. https://www.ethnologue.com/language/kyk
[30] Esen, S. (2019). Code switching: definition, types, and examples. Owlcation. https://owlcation.com/humanities/Code-Switching-Definition-Types-and-Examples-of-Code-Switching
[31] Ethnic Groups Philippines. (2019, March 16). Meet the kamayo people of surigao del sur. http://www.ethnicgroupsphilippines.com/2019/03/16/meet-the-kamayo-people-of-surigao-del-sur/
[32] Ethnologue. (n.d.). An ethnologue country digest. https://www.ethnologue.com/country/PH
[33] European Commission. (2009, July 16). Study on the Contribution of Multilingualism to Creativity. Dylan Project. http://www.dylan-project.org/Dylan_en/news/assets/StudyMultilingualism_report_en.pdf
[34] Fillmore, N. (2014). Mother tongue-based multilingual education policy and implementation in Mindanao, Philippines. [Master’s Thesis, Deakin University]. Deakin.
[35] First Languages Australia. (2018). Language program types. Medium. https://medium.com/global-lessons-indigenous-languages-and-multilingual/language-program-types-5d12ae0d8964
[36] Flores, G. (2020). Conversation conservation: Preserving the Philippines’ various languages. Rappler. https://www.rappler.com/hustle/purpose/filipino-regional-language-preservation.
[37] Franceschini, R. (2011). Multilingualism and multicompetence: A conceptual view. The Modern Language Journal, 95(3), 344–355. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01202.x
[38] Franceschini, R. (2012). History of multilingualism. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0511
[39] Garrett, P. (2011). The handbook of language socialization. In A. Duranti, E. Ochs, & B. Schieffelin (Eds.). Language socialization and language shift (pp. 11-26). Blackwell Publishing.
[40] Gazette. (2003). Executive Order No. 210. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2003/05/17/executive-order-no-210-s-2003/
[41] Grech, M. (2007). Mosaics: A symphony of multilingual poetry. The Daily Star. https://www.thedailystar.net/
[42] Grenoble, L., & Whaley, L. (2006). Saving languages: An introduction to language revitalization. Cambridge University Press.
[43] Hasselbring, S., Viloria, R., & Mata, M. (2011, May). A participatory assessment of Kinamayo: A language of Eastern Mindanao. SIL International. https://www.sil.org/system/files/reapdata/98/06/74/98067405996536042787013356954672148969/silesr2011_035.pdf
[44] Hirosh, Z., & Degani, T. (2018). Direct and indirect effects of multilingualism on novel language learning: An integrative review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25(3), 892–916. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1315-7
[45] Hoch, M. (2019). So you want to sing world music. Macmillan Publishers.
[46] House of the Senate Congress. (2006). Journal of the senate (No. 28). Legacy Senate. http://legacy.senate.gov.ph/lisdata/62335166!.pdf
[47] Hung, W. (2013). A macro and micro contexts, forces and challenges for indigenous language education at elementary schools at Taiwan. Asia Pacific Journal of Educational Development, 2(2), 13-22. https://doi.org/10.6228/APJED.02.02.02
[48] Jessner, U., & Kramsch, C. (Eds.). (2015). The multilingual challenge: Interdisciplinary perspectives. Mouton de Gruyter.
[49] Kandler, A., Unger, R., & Steele, J. (2010). Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's celtic languages. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365(1559), 3855-3864. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0051
[50] Kang, D., & Li, Z. (2021). Home-in-language: Examining Tibetan migrants’ narratives of home place amid China’s urbanization, Language and Intercultural Communication. Language and Intercultural Communication, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2021.1876719
[51] King, L. (2018). The impact of multilingualism on global education and language learning. Cambridge English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/539682-perspectives-impact-on-multilingualism.pdf
[52] Kirkpatrick, A. (2012). English in ASEAN: Implications for regional multilingualism. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33(4), 331-344. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2012.661433
[53] Lewis, M. P. (Ed.). (2009). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (16th ed.). SIL International.
[54] Malabonga, R. L. (2016). Linguistic suicide and the challenges of heritage transmission in the Philippines: The case of Ayta Alabat Island Language. Integrated Cultural Landscape Management for Local and Global Sustainability, 1-11.
[55] McMahon, A. M. S. (1994). Understanding language change. Cambridge University Press.
[56] McFarland, C. D. (2004). The Philippine language situation. World Englishes, 23(1), 59-75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2004.00335.x
[57] Metila, R. A., Pradilla, L. A. S., & Williams, A. B. (2016). The challenge of implementing mother tongue education in linguistically diverse contexts: The case of the Philippines. Asia-Pacific Edu Res, 25, 781–789. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-016-0310-5
[58] Migge, B., & Leglise, I. (2013). Exploring language in a multilingual context. Cambridge University Press.
[59] Morrison, C. D. (2017, May 30). Code-switching. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/code-switching
[60] Moseley, C. (Ed.). (2007). Encyclopedia of world’s endangered languages. Routledge.
[61] National Commissions for Culture and Arts. (2018, October 3). Peoples of the Philippines: Kamayo. NCCA. https://ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/culture-profile/glimpses-peoples-of-the-philippines/kamayo
[62] National Economic and Development Authority. (n.d.). About CARAGA. https://nro13.neda.gov.ph/about-caraga
[63] New Mexico State University. (n.d). Research design sample 1. https://edresearch.nmsu.edu/grant-resources/proposal-templates/research-design/research-design-sample1/
[64] Newnum, G. (2018, August 28). Why language preservation matters (According to experts). CyraCom. https://www.google.com/amp/s/blog.cyracom.com/why-language-preservation-matters-according-to-experts%3fhs_amp=true
[65] Nolasco, R. M. (2008). Prospects of multilingual education and literacy in the Philippines. Seameo. https://www.seameo.org/_ld2008/doucments/Presentation_document/NolascoTHE_PROSPECTS_OF_MULTILINGUAL_EDUCATION.pdf
[66] Nordquist, R. (2019). What Is code switching?. ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/code-switching-language-1689858
[67] Okal, B. (2014). Benefits of multilingualism in education. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 2(3), 10. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2014.020304
[68] Old Dominion University. (2020). Protecting languages and preserving cultures. In Old Dominion University Model United Nations Society. Old Dominion University.
[69] Osborne, D (2015). Negotiating the hierarchy of languages in Ilocandia: The social and cognitive implications of massive multilingualism in the Philippines. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. Repository of University of Arizona.
[70] Oxford. (n.d.). Macaronic. In Lexico. Oxford University Press. https://www.lexico.com/definition/macaronic
[71] Pandan, D. (2018, August 10). The Kamayo people of Mindanao. Las Filipinas. https://lasfilipinas.com/ethnic-culture/the-kamayo-people-of-mindanao/
[72] Papaconstantinou, A. (Ed.). (2010). The multilingual experience in Egypt, from the Ptolemies to the Abbasids. Routledge.
[73] Parba, J. (2018). Teachers’ shifting language ideologies and teaching practices in Philippine mother tongue classroom. Linguistics and Education, 47, 27-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2018.07.005
[74] Paredes, F. T. (2018). The discourse grammar of Sinurigao. IAMURE International Journal of Literature, Philosophy and Religion, 8, 27-64. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5277-302x
[75] Patrick, D., & Budach, G. (2014). “Urban-Rural” dynamics and indigenous urbanization: The case of Inuit language use in Ottawa. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 13(4), 236–253. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2014.939034
[76] Pedrasa, I. (2013, August 7). Students kicked out of high school for speaking Ilocano. ABS-CBN News. https://news.abs-cbn.com/focus/08/06/13/students-kicked-out-high-school-speaking-ilocano
[77] Pepinsky, T. B., Abtahian, M., & Cohn, A. (2020). Urbanization, ethnic diversity, and language shift in Indonesia. SSRN Electronic Journal, 10. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3529422
[78] Poplack, S. (1980). Sometimes i’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en Español: Toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics, 18, 581-618.
[79] Project, J. (2021). Kamayo in Philippines. Joshua Project. https://joshuaproject.net/people_groups/12464/RP
[80] Pysarenko, B. (2017). Advantages and disadvantages of multilingualism. Philological Sciences, 173-175.
[81] Puia, G., & Ofori‐Dankwa, J. (2013). The effects of national culture and ethnolinguistic diversity on innovativeness. Baltic Journal of Management, 8(3), 349–371. https://doi.org/10.1108/bjom-jan-2012-0002
[82] Quijano, Y., & Eustaquio, O. (2010). The mother tongue as a bridge language of instruction in two schools in La Paz, Agusan del Sur. In R. Nolasco, F. Datar, & A. Molina (Eds.), Starting where the children are: A collection of essays and mother tongue-based multilingual education and language issues in the Philippines (pp. 60–64). Talaytayan MLE Inc.
[83] Quintero, J. (2018). Oral traditions: An aid to implementation of mother tongue-based multilingual education in the Philippines’ basic education programme. International Review of Education, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-018-9743-9
[84] Rahman, T. (2008). Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan. In A. Saxena & L. Borin (Ed.), Lesser-Known Languages of South Asia (pp. 73-106). De Gruyter Mouton.
[85] Reid, L. A. (2018). Modeling the linguistic situation in the Philippines. Senri Ethnological Studies, 155–185.
[86] Robinson, C., & Hogan-Brun, G. (2013). UNESCO and language policy planning. Blackwell Publishing.
[87] Sanchez Sr., L. (2002). Chapter III: research methodology. Bebot Sanchez Weebly. https://bebotsanchez.weebly.com/chapter-iii.html
[88] Scribbr. (n.d.). An introduction to research methods. https://www.scribbr.com/category/methodology/
[89] Soler-Carbonell, J. (2014). Multilingualism. Center for Intercultural Dialogue. https://centerforinterculturaldialogue.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/key-concept-multilingualism2.pdf
[90] Summer Institute of the Philippines. (n.d.). Languages of the Philippines. SIL International. https://www.sil.org/linguistics
[91] Suwilai, P., & Person, K. (2018). Education in Thailand’s ethnic languages: Reflections on a decade of mother tongue-based multilingual education policy and practice. Education in Thailand, 42, 393-408. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7857-6_15
[92] Tandefelt, M. (2011). The sociolinguistics of urbanization. In B. Nordberg (Eds.). Urbanization and language shift (pp. 246-273). De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110852622.246
[93] Tarango, J., & Mastromatteo, J. (2017). The role of information professionals in the knowledge economy. Science Direct. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/social-sciences/linguistic-competence
[94] Taylor-Leech, K. (2012). Timor-Leste: Multilingual education for all?. Journal of Lusophone Studies, 10. https://doi.org/10.21471/jls.v10i0.88
[95] Toren, H. (2015). Urbanization, standard language, dialect. Istanbul Universitesi Edibey at Fakultesi Turk Dili ve Edibeyati Dergisi, 50(50), 113-120.
[96] Truong, C. L. (2012, February 15). ScholarSpace at University of Hawaii at Manoa: Participatory methods for language documentation and conservation: Building community awareness and engagement. ScholarSpace. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/4505
[97] Tupas, R. (2014). Inequalities of multilingualism: Challenges to mother tongue-based multilingual education. Language and Education, 29(2), 112-124. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2014.977295
[98] Tupas, R., & Martin, I. P. (2017). Bilingual and mother-tongue based multilingual education in the Philippines. Bilingual and Multilingual Education, 247-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02258-1_18
[99] Turner, M. (2019). Multilingual practices and opportunities to learn. Multilingualism as a Resource and a Goal, 251-276. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21591-0_10.
[100] UNESCO. (2003c). Draft recommendation concerning the promotion and use of multilingualism and universal access to cyberspace (Document 32 C/27). https://en.unesco.org/sites/default/files/eng_-_recommendation_concerning_the_promotion_and_use_of_multilingualism_and_universal_access_to_cyberspace.pdf
[101] UNESCO. (n.d.). Linguistic diversity and multilingualism on the internet. https://en.unesco.org/themes/linguistic-diversity-and-multilingualism-internet
[102] United Language Group. (2020, February 21). The preservation of culture one language at a time. https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.unitedlanguagegroup.com/blog/the-preservation-of-culture-one-language-at-a-time%3fhs_amp=true
[103] United Nations. (n.d.). International day of the world’s indigenous people. http://www.un.org/en/events/indigenousday/
[104] United Nations Secretary-General. (n.d.). Multilingualism. United Nations. https://www.un.org/sg/en/multilingualism/index.shtml
[105] UN News. (2017). Multilingual education is ‘absolutely essential,’ unesco chief says on mother language day. United Nations. https://news.un.org/en/story/2017/02/551942-multilingual-education-absolutely-essential-unesco-chief-says-mother-language
[106] Valore, P. (2011). Multilingualism: Language, power, and knowledge. Edistudio, Pisa.
[107] Vaughan, J., & Singer, R. (2018). Indigenous multilingualism’s past and present. Language and Communication, 62, 83-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2018.06.003.
[108] Vizi, B. (2012). Minority languages and multilingualism in Europe and in the European union. In Multilingual Europe, Multilingual Europeans. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401208031_009
[109] Walter, S., Dekker, D., & Dekker, G. (2010). The Lubuagan MTB-MLE program. In R. Nolasco, F. Datar, & A. Molina (Eds.), Starting where the children are: A collection of essays and mother tongue-based multilingual education and language issues in the Philippines (pp. 38–42). Talaytayan MLE Inc.
[110] Wheatley, D. (2008). Introducing macaronics. Contemporary Literature Review. https://etoninstitute.com
[111] Zirker, K. A. (2007). Intrasentential vs. intersentential code switching in early and late bilinguals. Scholars Archive. https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1926&context=etd