International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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IJSTR Volume 6 - Issue 12, December 2017 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Ramchandra Bastola, Bhawana Sigdel Bastola, Rupa Gurung , Jagat Jeevan Ghimire, Shree Krishna shrestha

Objective: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and tolerability of a probiotic against a symbiotic in reducing the frequency and the duration of acute diarrhea. Methods: One hundred children aged 6 months to 6 years, with acute diarrhea, admitted in the Pediatric ward of Pokhara Academy of Health Sciences(PAHS) were recruited in the study. Group A (n = 50) received standard therapy plus probiotic 5 m (Enterogermina®) twice-daily for 7 days. Group B (n = 50) received standard treatment plus symbiotic 5 mL (Bifilac® dry syrup) twice-daily for 7 days. Patients were assessed for diarrhea and dehydration. Results: The frequency of diarrhea was reduced from 9.03 on Day 1 to 0.81 on Day 3 in Group B, compared with 10.1 on Day 1 to 6.24 on Day 3 in Group A. On comparing the two groups on Day 3, Group A produced a statistically significant reduction in the frequency of diarrhea. Similarly, there was a statistically significant reduction in the duration of diarrhea on comparing Group A with Group B. The mean duration of diarrhea was 36.2 hours in Group B, compared with 72.6 hours in Group A. The adverse events were mild and no serious adverse effects were reported. Conclusion: From our study, it can be concluded that the symbiotic is more effective in reducing the frequency and duration of diarrhea then the probiotic and is well-tolerated.

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Angilyn Leoncio, Florocito Camata

The research focuses primarily on the following problems and solutions cited by the researchers. Scientific methods were applied to this research from observation by each of the participants and consolidated a common observation. Aside, from the research made, through actual observation, observation was made through using the internet. These were various references related to the subject matters, us observed and referred to as well, local and foreign comparisons were made also. Model of eTicketing were looked as a model from the various models and applicability to the Philippine situation were made. Upon making these application and models work together, the research goes on to interview and conducted surveys at Edsa and Commonwealth Avenue, both in Quezon City. The Proponents conducted the study with the survey and analysis that has been done to their area of Investigation which was the main building of Metropolitan Manila Development Authority Office located at Guadalupe, Makati City, this government is involved in providing services and implementing regulation regarding traffic issues. The enforcers and MMDA Main Guadalupe Makati City are involved in this research. The researchers agreed to conduct investigation on different enforcers but different assigned locations because distinct enforcers have diverse assigned place, particularly to those enforcers whose places are assigned by the MMDA main office. Enforcers who are in the MMDA are more approachable for the reason that they are the ones that we interview on the first part of the research. The researchers discuss the results of the frequency of the driver respondents in terms of age, type of vehicle, category of vehicle. Researchers also discuss the assessment and significant difference of the driver-respondents on the existing and proposed traffic violation ticketing system for MMDA.

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N.Nishanthan, K. Thiruthanigesan, Dr. Panos Georgakis

Managing the increasing traffic is a big problem in Sri Lanka. The following transport system such as roads, railways, waterways and two international airports are available in Sri Lanka but the country mainly based on the road network. These transportations face many issues like accidents rate, traffic congestion, traffic & carbon emissions air pollution, etc. The idea of Development Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) provides the solution to these problems with the help of new technologies. The paper highlights different systems and also gives the future scope in the field of ITS to make it more user-friendly and accessible.

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Mokhtar Karami, Rasol Sarvestan, Ali Mohammad Mansourzadeh

Examining the status of a city in the surrounding metropolitan area network not only helpful for Specialists to understand the ups and downs of city life and surrounding it ,but also can set the groundwork for hierarchical relationships settlements and planners for discipline the urban network is studied. Research to study the evolution of the urban population in Khuzestan province was conducted during the statistical period (1957-2012). The method is a descriptive and analytical study. To collect the data, in addition the study of literature, the Facts Sheet (the statistical yearbooks and census of population and housing censuses in all courses) has been used. Then to enter data and analysis it the Excel and Minitab software was used. Models used in this study are Ginsberg index, Urban Primacy Index, Two City Index, Four City Index, Mehta’s Four City Index, Moomav and Alwosabi. The results show that is balance between the parameters of the Urban Primacy Indexes in Khuzestan province since 1957 to 1977. The process of balancing continue and is destroy until the beginning of the Imposed war and the depletion of the population of cities and in 1987 the Urban Primacy Index reached its highest level and due to the problems of the war in Ahvaz it earns the highest the Urban Primacy Index. Since 1987, the Urban Primacy Index reduced and their balancing process continues until 2012 that this balancing process due to natural population growth since after 1997.

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Kanita Petcharat

Non-parametric or distribution-free control charts are useful in statistical process control when there is limited or a lack of knowledge about essential process distribution. In this article, nonparametric control charts were considered based on Mood and Sukhatme statistics. Two non-parametric statistics were applied on Exponentially-Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) and Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) charts for monitoring process variation. Simulations showed that the EWMA control chart based on Mood statistics was more sensitive for detection of small shifts in process variation, but moderate and large shifts in CUSUM based on Mood statistics were more sensitive than other charts.

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Chinyere Okeke, Benjamin Uzochukwu, Ekpereka Nawfal, Evi Abada, Baron Uzochukwu.

Developing countries face the double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases and of the later, hypertension is the most common. It is a major public health challenge with an ever increasing global prevalence which inherently increases the global disease burden whereas awareness of this disease and its determinants are poor. It contributes to about 500,000 deaths every year. This was a cross-sectional descriptive community survey carried out in urban and rural communities of Enugu southeast Nigeria. A multi-staged sampling technique was used to recruit 260 participants and data was collected by administering questionnaires. Blood pressure measurement and weight of all the subjects were done. These were analysed using EPI info statistical software version 6.04. The result shows that the prevalence of hypertension in urban and rural areas was 15.4% and 13.8% respectively but was not statistically significantly different. About 17.6% and 23% were perceived hypertensives for urban and rural areas respectively. From the study 17% and 44.5% of urban and rural respondents respectively have suffered from hypertension related illnesses (stroke, kidney disease, heart disease and eye problem). Approximately 45% of urban respondents and 83.7% of rural respondents believed that hypertension can be cured. The source of information and general knowledge of hypertension in urban and rural area was statistically significant (p≤0.05). In the urban area, their method of cure include drugs and lifestyle modification while in the rural areas, drugs and spiritual means was their way of curing the disease. Prevalence and awareness of hypertension is higher in the urban areas, however both communities are grossly unaware of the hypertensive associated diseases. Proper health education is recommended to reduce the prevalence of complications of the disease, change the trend and ultimately reduce the death in our environment.

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Mayssa Salem Flayh, Dr. Mahmoud Dheeab Ahmed

Soil is exposed to the migration of fine particles in some cases because of some conditions, including excavation and the presence of a level of groundwater, which is equal to the level of soil in this case and because of the existence of this water leakage, which would work on the migration of fine particles in the soil. This migration of fine particles will change the structure of the soil and change its properties. In this study, we will know the change in the properties of the fouling soil due to the migration of fine particles and four types of soil. The first type does not contain fine particles , and the second type, the third and the fourth contains 10, 20 , 30% granules respectively, and tests were carried out for these soils (Atterberg limits, sieve analysis, specific gravity , shear resistance, permeability, modified Procter, consolidation). A model was created to simulate the reality of soil exposed to excavations. Three levels were selected in the model to compare the results of each of the four soils under study. The total number of models (24) model, through laboratory work obtained the initial and final voids ratio before and after aft the initial and final voids ratio er the particles migration. After these tests, it was found that the migration of granules clearly affects the increase in the voids ratio.

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Poorvi Bhatt

Penetration testing is very important technique to find vulnerabilities in commercial networks. There are various techniques for ethical hacking via penetration testing. This report explains a white hat hacker approach of penetration testing. I have performed this test on private network where three PCs are connected through LAN via switch and without firewall. This network is not connected with Internet. All the PCs have windows operating system. The attacker host has windows server 2003 with Service Pack1, second host has windows XP with Service Pack 2 and third host has windows 2000 with service pack 4.

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Everleen Wanyonyi, Anthony Rodrigues, Silvance Abeka, Solomon Ogara

Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems enhance efficiency and effectiveness in handling patients’ information in healthcare. This study focused on the EHR security by initially establishing the nature of threats affecting the system and reviewing the implemented security safeguards. The study was done at a referral hospital (level 6) government facility in Kenya. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample of 196 out of 385 staff and a questionnaire designed for qualitative data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. Correlations and binary logistic regression were obtained. Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) was used to establish the effect of the safeguards (predictors) on EHR security. It was established that physical security contributes more to the security of an information system than administrative controls and technical controls in that order. BLR helped in predicting effective safeguards to control EHR security threats in limited resourced public health facilities.

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Lilian Mwebia

The rising cases of unemployment in many countries are a worrying trend. In Kenya despite the rising levels of education, many graduates remain unemployed. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between university degree programmes and self-employment. The selection of private and public universities to participate was done by purposive sampling. Stratified sampling was used to select degree programmes under investigation. Simple random sampling was used to pick the participants. Data was collected through administration of self administered questionnaires. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages) and presented in tables. This study found that most universities have degree programmes aimed at ensuring self reliance and self employment among its graduates. However, there are dismally low efforts by most universities in holding workshops on self employment and self reliance every semester, establishment and support of many mentorship programmes for students by successful entrepreneurs and mainstreaming of self employment and self reliance in the curriculum. This study recommends that the university programmes offered in the country should be monitored to ensure that they instill skills for self employment, self reliance and self direction on the part of the learners. This would compel the learning institutions to offer programmes that are more relevant and reduce the menace of unemployment.

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Laode Abd. Rahman, Subandiyah Azis, Bambang Wedyatadji

The research aimed to analyze the needs of the construction of the Crossing Bridge of Muara Teweh - Jingah. The type of the research including the applied research was research concerning the application of theory to solve certain problems. The location of this research was at the Bridge Crossing of Muara Teweh - Jingah in North Barito District. Data analysis technique was feasibility study. The result of the research showed that: (1) the construction of the Crossing Bridge of Muara Teweh - Jingah is needed to reduce the traffic density; the traffic of the daily transportation in the development area has an effort to balance the traffic volume with road capacity in order to avoid LOS decrease and increase people's prosperity level, (2) the celebration of the construction of Muara Teweh - Jingah Crossing Bridge in terms of technical and economic and cultural aspects, is stated to have fulfilled the feasibility, (3) the feasibility of bridge development in terms of economic and cultural aspects is fulfilled, because the value of BCR is greater than > 1.0 and interest rate that is applicable is equal to 12% (in 2015). Finally, the bridge construction is feasible to be implemented.

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Muneeb Bin Muzzamal

Life stock is the major sector of agriculture which is of great importance for Pakistan. It has a major contribution towards the economy of Pakistan with a 55.9 % participation in agriculture sector. Pakistan is fourth largest country in milk production with 50.9 Billion tons per annum out of which only 5% is processed and pasteurized hardly and remaining milk is handled by milk men under non-hygienic conditions which causes milk borne diseases. Milk is perishable food having shelf life of few hours therefore milk processing is done to deactivate the microorganisms in the milk and increase its shelf life for future use. It is an energy intensive process and mostly conventional form of energy is used for this purpose. Solar power is the sustainable source of energy and there is an average solar global radiation of 5.3kWh/m2/day persist in the country with more than 300 sunny days in a year. The objective of the study was to design and develop a solar assisted milk pasteurizer and to evaluate its performance. The developed solar assisted milk pasteurizer consisted of heating and cooling unit. Heating unit made of shell and tube type coil to heat up the milk up-to 730C for 15 seconds. Cooling unit has a chiller for sudden cool down the milk from 350C to 40C within 2 hours. Solar milk chiller had capacity of 200 liters, chiller semicircular pug mill type SS-304, a 2kWp PV system having eight PV modules each of 250Wp, a hybrid inverter 3kVA that convert 24V DC current into 220V AC current and two batteries 150Ah each as a backup source to meet weather fluctuations. One ton of vapor compression refrigeration system was filled with R410a refrigerant with inlet pressure of 118psi and the outlet pressure of 300psi was coupled with the chiller through coils at bottom side of the vessel. An agitator was installed with a lid on the tank to stir the milk continuously inside the chiller to make sure that homogeneous milk cooling to avoid freezing of the milk in the bottom of the chiller. Inverter technology was also coupled with the chiller to eliminate the torque load of 9-10 ampere to a uniform torque load of 3.2 ampere which is a big hurdle in using solar PV system. Efficiency of the system was achieved up-to 69%. The Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system was found to be 3.18 and the cost of the processing milk was calculated1.17Rs/liter.

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James Simanjuntak, M. Syukri Akub, Muhadar, Andi Sofyan

The criminal act of corruption is more systematic and has been categorized as extraordinary crime and its scope has entered all aspects of community life. The importance of research is conducted to determines law enforcement of corruption crime in the return of State’ financial loss and the return of corruption asset through money laundering crime instrument. The research was carried out in Papua Province - Indonesia. The results shows that the relation between corruption and money-laundering is closely related. The corruption is one of the predicate crimes from money laundering. The corruption is an extraordinary crime that has resulted in huge State financial losses, which in fact the large of State financial losses as proceeds of corruption is not proportional to the large of the return of the State financial loss, because the orientation of law enforcement of corruption is still to perpetrators. Therefore, in order to return the State financial loss optimally, law enforcement orientation should also be directed against the assets of the criminal act of corruption.

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Aripurnomo Kartohardjono , Sarwono Hardjomuljadi

The Increasing of infrastructure development in Indonesia, and the need of facilities and infrastructure for the resident, and also upgrading and advancing the technology, every subject need to have a proper contract, and this may result in prolonged disputes, when in to a project contract and disputes that are not handled carefully, especially when associated with a broad of territory of Indonesia that has diverse cultures, languages, and customs. Referring to Act no. 18, 1999 on Construction Services, Act no. 30, 1999 on Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Settlement, and Act No.2 of 2017 concerning Construction Services, that is Indonesia path of law for construction disputes settlement Legal culture in Indonesia, among others, consensus for consensus as one of the legal component also greatly affect the work of the legal system. Attitudes of eastern society that put forward the values of harmonization for the application of law in solving the problem. The eastern people tend to reject the application of the third party to solve the construction dispute, because the court is considered as the rifters of social relations of society. The value of harmony and tend to close the problem is the culture of the eastern society, and this is certainly very different from the way of view and attitude of western society in looking at the law. The modeling given the variables which need to be observed so that the conflicts can be minimized. The results of the questionnaires modeled with the model proved statistically to provide information that dispute resolution with the dispute board is the preferred system of society in the scope of the study area. This is to increase awareness or prevent the happening of dispute. So dispute resolution could resolve quickly and appropriately and must be handled from the beginning of contract by independent experts, trusts and people respect to it. So the project continues, but the settlement of claims and / or disputes is still being processed.

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Katrina Rushford, Corey Gemelli, Gerri Wilson, Mohamed Asfour, Hamed Benghuzzi, Drew Hildebrandt, Joseph Lichtenhan, Michelle Tucci

INTRODUCTION: Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane is making advancements towards medical application as an effective material for drug delivery. POSS is a unique molecule because of its structure. It is a class of organosilicon- three-dimensional compounds with cage frameworks and different degrees of symmetry. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to introduce a biomedical application for POSS in area of drug delivery. For large open wounds it should have a capability to reduce bleeding and as well as provide the release of an antibiotics to reach minimal inhibitory concentrations at the site for infection coverage. If the treatment is successful, POSS can be applied in the field as a protective dressing that is capable of enhancing clot formation, prevent infection, and ultimately enhance tissue repair. METHODS: Two formulations of POSS were prepared and tested in vitro to release inhibitory concentration of Clindamycin. Clindamycin release was determined spectrophotometrically, and the MIC was determined using a bacterial pig skin wound model were determined. RESULTS: Minimal inhibitory concentration of Clindamycin was detected from both POSS formulation for up to 96 hours. In the pig skin wound model the POSS formulation without kaolin reduced the bacterial load more efficiently than POSS containing kaolin and was comparable to a triple antibiotic cream coverage. CONCLUSION: Nanocomposites of POSS can be formulated to limit bacterial growth and further reduction of bacterial load can be accomplished by attaching an antibiotic to the functional groups of the caged nanostructure of POSS.

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Pater Yikwa, Syamsul Bachri, Aminuddin Salle, Farida Patittingi

Utilization of forest and forest area can be adjusted with its main function that is conservation, protection and production. In order to maintain the sustainability of the main function and condition of the forest, rehabilitation and reclamation of forest and land are also carried out. The research is empirical research or commonly called non-doctrinal legal research. This research was conducted in the territory of Papua Province, Indonesia, precisely in Districts of Jayapura, Keerom, Sarmi and Nabire. The results show that the government’s responsibility to improve the welfare of Papuan people from forest management has not been well realized and has not yet strengthened the fiscal capacity of government in Papua Province. Therefore, the government of Papua Province has regulated the management of customary forests by issuing and enacting the Special Regulation of Papua (Perdasus) No. 21 of 2008 on Sustainable Forest Management in Papua Province, and the policy of economic empowerment of communities in and around customary forests. Law enforcement of illegal logging practices is based not only on juridical approaches but also socio-political and socio-cultural approaches.

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Pardeep Kaur, Sandeep Kad

There has been plenty of interest in building and deploying sensor networks. Wireless sensor network is a collection of a large number of small nodes which acts as routers also. These nodes carry very limited power source which is non-rechargeable and non-replaceable which makes energy consumption an significant issue. Energy conservation is a very important issue for prolonging the lifetime of the network. As the sensor nodes act like routers as well, the determination of routing technique plays a key role in controlling the consumption of energy. This paper describes the framework of wireless sensor network and the analysis and study of various research work related to Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks.

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Olayanju, G. M, Adigun, O. E

Radiometric and petrographic study was carried out over a typical basement terrain of southwestern Nigeria in order to evaluate possible impact of high radiation in the environment, which can pose any health hazard. In this study, the radiometric mapping was done using a portable hand-held Geiger-Muller counter with the aim of establishing the background radiation level within the campus and possible association with lithology pattern in the area. The petrographic analysis of the rock samples obtained from outcrops of rock masses in the study area revealed that the major minerals are Quartz, Biotite, Plagioclase, Orthoclase, Myrmeckite, Microcline and Opaque minerals. The radiation emitting mineral in these rock samples are Biotite, Orthoclase and Microcline. A strong linear relation was established between the percentage mineral composition in the rocks and the background radiation measured over the study area at 95% confidence level. The local high values in background radiation can be attributed to high percentage of potassium and aluminium minerals in the rock composition as observed over charnockites and migmatite-gneiss. The background radiation level in most of the study area falls within the range of 0.16μSv/hr (1.4mSv/yr) and 0.27μSv/hr (2.36mSv/yr), considered to be within the normal world average background radiation level. In addition to oxyphile and biophile tendency of radioactive elements in the mineral assemblages of the rocks, resulting in their concentration in the organic compounds, humus and other agricultural soils, notable high radiation levels can be attributed to human activities, especially where radiation level is above the 0.27μSv/hr (2.36mSv/yr). High background radiation levels within the range of 0.28μSv/hr (2.45mSv/yr) and 0.38μSv/hr (3.33mSv/yr) recorded in some parts of the study area are at car parks, around laboratories and isolated areas close to the farm in the area.

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Rita Yani Iyan, Taryono, Toti Indrawati, dan Rahmat Richard

The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution pattern, stabilization of the availability of basic needs of rural communities based on oil palm commodities in Riau Province. The analytical method used is descriptive analysis. The data obtained is processed and tabulated into the frequency distribution which is then presented in the form of tables, graphs and charts to explain the behavior of the variables studied. The results show that the pattern of distribution of basic needs in rural areas based on oil palm commodities in Riau Province is generally taken by land with the road surface conditions are relatively good and can be passed throughout the year. Distribution of basic necessities used in the form of shops / grocery stores, shopping groups to minimarket and permanent and non permanent markets. The prices of basic commodities are relatively fluctuating and tend to increase, but they are still in a stable category. The availability of basic needs sources is seen from the area of land, harvest, and production decreased while consumption as the population increase. So that the supply of basic needs from outside the region is the road taken to ensure the availability of sufficient stock of basic needs.

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Budy Rahmat, Suharjadinata, Rudi Priyadi

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water content and particle size of sawdust on its liquefying into wood adhesives. The water content and particle size of the sawdust as the respective treatment factors were arranged in a randomized block design, namely: (i) water content was varied as w1 (22%), w2 (19 %); and w3 (14 %); and (ii) the particle size was varied as s1 (sieved in 0.5 mm), s2 (sieved in 1 mm); and s3 (sieved in 1.5 mm). Experimental data were analyzed by Anova and continued with Duncan's multiple range test. The results of the experiments showed that, no interaction between the water content and the particle size of the sawdust to the volume of adhesive as the liquefying yield and the weight of the residue, but the interaction occured on the bonding strength of the adhesive. Sawdust size of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 were not affected on the liquefying process. While the water contents were affected to : (i) reduce volume of adhesive, which the highest by 22 % for 59.89 mL; and (ii) rise weight of the residue, which the highest was for 74.75 g. The highest bonding strength was obtained at a water content of 22% and size of sawdust between of 1 to I .5 mm.

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Dr. Fachrurazi

After the collapse of New Order regime one side, Indonesian Islam showed an interesting discourse another one. This situation gave opportunity to manage of Islamic expressions in public sphere. At the same time, Indonesian faced the globalization and commodification that affected the social relation and religious life as well. The encounter of Islam, globalization and commodification have been creating Islamization symbols in any forms, such as sharia business labels, Islamic self-help industries even effected the shifting of religious authority. This article examined the expression of Indonesian society after the reformation era. This research method used the critical cultural studies of the Frankfurt School. I argued that the expression of Islamic society after the reformation era was not only to understand in terms of increase of personal piety. But, the influencing of globalization and commodification elements were more dominant factors. In doing so, both the globalization and commodification of Islam have been leading of Indonesia Muslim society to moderate side, but they have scraped the Islamic values and spirituality itself.

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M.Jusuf Jamanawar Purba, Bahtera Tarigan, Sabam B. M. Tampubolon

In the industrial field, the good controlling system is definitely required to improve the working efficiency of a system. The type of controller, PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), used in “Clean Water Controlling System in Electrical Workshop with PLC LS XBC-DR30E”. Furthermore, such system consistently uses two types of component, they are Relay and Timer. The clean water pump control aims to pump the water in well A to storage tank B. The pump will work when water-contained well A is marked by “sensor level well A on” and the water inside storage tank B is under level 3. When the water inside storage tank B is under level 2, both pumps (M1 and M2) will work to fill storage tank B. on the contrary, when storage tank B is above level 2, only one pump (M1) works until the tank reach level 3. In addition, when storage tank B is above level 3, both pumps will stop working. However, along with the advancement of recent technology, the above system can be controlled by using PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). Therefore, it is possible to apply the controlling method of PLC as the semester V’s practical module. Based on the trial performed, the PLC-based clean water system is well-functioned as the working description compiled before the operation of the tool.

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Robert Samosir, Trahman Sitepu ,Yosua Fransisko Sinaga

Electrical energy has become a basic need for human being. In some remote areas, however, electricity is unreachable and poses a taboo subject and cannot be enjoyed by local people, such as in Tigaraja Village, Sub-District of Tigadolok, Regency of Simalungun. The sun is a renewable energy that it is beneficial for power plant use. With PLTS, solar energy can be changed into the sun through the solar panel. Battery Charge Regulator (BCR) operates stabilizing voltage from solar panel to battery. The battery will save electrical power to be distributed for household consumption. Since battery power has direct current, however, Inverter operates changing its direct current into alternating current. To optimize absorption of solar energy, a servo motor is used to make solar panel moving by following the sun’s path. Arduino Uno as direct control of solar panel using solar sensor gives current for servo motor. Then, the servo motor can move in reverse and forward. Therefore, Household goods, like water pumps, lamps and televisions have been worked when people come home from their work.

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Metin ONAL, Elif ONAL

Roofs are construction elements which form the upper part of a building and protect it from the all kinds of fall, wind and sun lights. They are made as inclined or terrace shaped according to the climatic characteristics of the area they are located and their intended use. Inclined type roofs are preferred for aesthetic and / or functionality. It is in interest of mechanical engineering that falling snow on long and effective regions of winter conditions accumulate on the roof surfaces with low inclination due to adhesion force between snowflakes and the roof covering. The mass of snow that turns into ice due to cold weather and wind creates stalactites in the eaves due to gravity. This snow mass leaves/breaks off from inclined surfaces due to the effect of the sun or any vibration and can damage to people or other objects around the building. Falling snow and ice masses from rooftops in urban areas where winter months are intense are also a matter for engineering applications of landscape architecture. In order to prevent snow and icing on the roofs of the buildings located especially in busy human and vehicle traffic routes, the use of heating cables is a practical method. The icing can be prevented by means of the heating cables selected according to the installed power to be calculated based on the type of roof and the current country. The purpose of this study is to introduce heating systems to be mounted on the roofs with a lesser workmanship in a short period instead of difficulties and costs that would occur by increasing the roof inclination in present buildings as well as explaining their working principles.

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Muhammad Syafi’i Basalamah

Purpose: (1) Analyze the motivation of working effect on the performance of employees on the Government of the city of Makassar, (2) Analyze the competency of the effect on the performance of employees in the city of Makassar, (3) Analyze the individual characteristics of the influential effect on the performance of employees in the city of Makassar. The population in the study are all employees of the entire SEGWAY on Makassar City Government consisting of the Secretariat, the data in this study is a questionnaire, interviews and documentation. Methods of data analysis using the method of descriptive and quantitative methods with multiple linear regression analysis used to measure the influence of motivation, competence and Individual Characteristics. Based on a test of the free variable F (work Motivation, competence and Individual Characteristic) simultaneously have a positive and significant influence against variables bound (employee's performance). Through testing (R) correlation coefficient obtained that level of correlation or relationship between work Motivation, competence and Individual Characteristics on performance Clerk is a high relationship i.e. 91.2%. And competence is the most dominant factor influencing the performance of Employees on the Government town of Makassar.

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Lilik Farida, Ahmad Ahsin Kusuma

Coastal culinary tourism is one of potential destination and economic source in Jember district, Indonesia. Majority of coastal culinary tourism in Jember is operated by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) with limited ability in developing their customer value and strengthening their competitive advantage. This study seeked to examine the effect of service quality and marketing mix on customer value and competitive advantage and to examine the effect of service quality and marketing mix on competitive advantage through customer value. As many as 350 respondents were participated in this study. Purposive and convenience sampling were employed to select the sample. The data were collected by distributing questionnaires. Tools used to analyze the data is Partial Least Square (PLS)-Structural Equation Model (SEM). The result showed that there were positive and significant effect of service quality and marketing mix on customer value and competitive advantage and customer value could mediated the effect of service quality and marketing mix on competitive advantage of coastal culinary tourism in Jember district.

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Syed Daniyal Ali Shah

In fifth generation networks, much emphasis is given to reduce the handset and base station sizes while incorporating even more features for ubiquitous connectivity. Polarization diversity is one of the methods in which a single multi-polarized antenna brings the advantages of antenna diversity. The multiband handset antennas can be made dual-polarized for improved compensation of fading effects of propagation environment, especially in terrestrial bands. This paper focuses on the outcomes of the development of a horizontal and vertical polarized patch antenna scheme that operates on 3 bands, 900 MHz, 1.8 GHz and 2.4 GHz. The antenna system is tested for gain, directivity, reflection loss, polarization, radiation pattern and other parameters. The results are published and found are found to satisfy the requirements of cellular and data communication networks in the specified bands.

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Dina Fitriana Rosyada

Health care is one area that requires a technological development. The development of the world of health services can not be removed with the need for presentation of data information that can be processed more accurately using an information technology software. A training of data processing using GIS application for health personnel in Puskesmas should be provided to support the knowledge of the main health officer in health data processing officer in order to have the ability to use geographic information system. The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in knowledge of healthcare workers before and after basic training of health data processing using GIS. This research is an experimental analytic research with cross sectional design. This research was conducted at Puskesmas working area of Health Office of Kulon Progo Regency, Yogyakarta. The samples are officers of health centers in the region of the Department of Health Kulon Progo as many as 25 people. The independent variables is variable basic training, while the dependent variable is the knowledge of health workers. Technical data analysis in this research is with statistical test that is Paired t-test to know difference before and after done tretmen or certain treatment on sample. From the statistical test using paired t-test p = 0.00 obtained with α = 0.05, which means that H0 received so there are attendant knowledge before and after basic training of health data processing using GIS.

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Nur Zeina Maya Sari

Changes in accounting information systems world is highly dependent on the structure of the organization and culture of the organization, the quality of accounting information systems, the information generated will affect the success of a quality information systems. This study aims to determine the effect of organizational structure and organizational culture on the quality of accounting information systems at PT.KAI. This study also examines the influence of organizational structure and organizational culture on the quality of accounting information systems. The population using in this study were PT.KAI located in East Bandung area. The samples in this study were taken using purposive sampling method of data collection techniques are observation and questionnaires to employees of PT.KAI. The analytical method used is descriptive and verifikatif method with quantitative approach, as well as the methods used to analyst the data is multiple linear rergresion analysis method.

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Osman M. S. A., Zein EL din. R. A., Emam A. M.

This paper presents a modified approach based on Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) for minimizing interference in Frequency Assignment Problem (FAP). This problem, known to be NP-hard, is to find an assignment of limited available frequencies for a number of communication cells. The main goal of the minimum interference FAP (MI-FAP) is to minimize the interference penalty cost provided in the solution. This cost related to the number of violated interference constraints, which predefined in interference matrix (IM). The modified algorithm named Guided search PSO (GPSO), which improve the particle location update strategy of the regular PSO to escape from local minimum. The proposed algorithm, enhance the convergence rate; robustness of the regular algorithm, and optimization stability of the search results. The computational efficiency and quality of the solutions obtained from the presented algorithm has been tested on well-known benchmark problems. The results obtained shows more efficiency than other results of previously related works.

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Rashmi Parab, Nilima Nikam

Today people are depending more on the corporate data for decision making, management of customer service and supply chain management etc. Any loss, corrupted data or unavailability of data may seriously affect its performance. The database security should provide protected access to the contents of a database and should preserve the integrity, availability, consistency, and quality of the data In this paper, we analyze and compare five traditional architectures for database encryption. We show that existing architectures may provide a high level of security, but have a significant impact on performance and impose major changes to the application layer, or may be transparent to the application layer and provide high performance, but have several fundamental security weaknesses. We suggest a sixth novel architecture that was not considered before. The new architecture is based on placing the encryption module inside the database management software (DBMS), just above the database cache, and using a dedicated technique to encrypt each database value together with its coordinates.

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M.C. Tri Atmodjo, Bambang Singgih, Ngatinem J.P

The current agricultural system should be able to create agriculture that has high productivity but with low cost input. The agricultural system is an efficient and environmentally friendly agricultural system which capable of utilizing the potential of local resources optimally for the purpose of sustainable agriculture development. This low input farming system is better known as Low Input Sustainable Agriculture (LISA).Optimization of Integrated Farming System intended to exploit the potential of local resources for the purpose of sustainable agricultural development.. Integrated agriculture is a system that reuses or recycles the waste arising from the system. for the utilization process to occur effectively and efficiently., it should be integrated agricultural production in one area. In the area there are sectors of production of crops, livestock and fishery are interconnected to obtain an area that has a complete ecosystem in which all components of production will not be waste because it will be utilized by other components. The main characteristic of crop-cattle integration is the presence of synergism or mutually beneficial linkages between crops and livestock. Livestock uses plant waste as a source of feed and plants get organic fertilizer from livestock manure.

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Dr. Mustapha Bin Danquah

The main purpose of the present study is to ascertain the relevance of English language curriculum supervision in senior high schools and it practices in selected schools Cape Coast Metropolis. The study adopted descriptive survey and quantitative paradigm. The accessible population comprises all the heads and their assistants, all English teachers and the English department heads of the ten senior high schools selected for the study. Using multistage sampling technique, schools and participants were selected for the study. Stratified sampling technique was employed in selecting the ten schools for the study while purposive sampling technique was used in selecting participants for the study. Sample size for curriculum leaders was 30 comprising headmasters, assistant headmasters/mistresses and heads of English department. English teachers selected via purposive sampling technique for the study were 70 from the selected schools. Findings of the study revealed that purposes of curriculum supervision are monitoring performance, resolution of thorny issues pertaining to curriculum planning and dissemination of relevant information between the supervisor and supervisees. The study also showed that supervisors should involve teachers in curriculum planning and conduct regular but frequent observation so as to fulfill the focus of curriculum supervision. In view of the findings of this study which emphasizes professional development of teachers through constructive criticism and active involvement during curriculum supervision, it is recommended that supervisors willingly involve teachers in the planning of curriculum supervision and see to it that there is mutual understanding and agreement of his or her procedure to curriculum supervision. It is also recommended that English teachers should see curriculum leaders as partners in progress who is keenly interested in their professional development and improvement in students’ performance.

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This research study has an aim of finding out the overall view of the banking sector in Kuwait and the lending by the small scale businesses operating within the economy. In this research mixed research methods was applied where both qualitative and quantitative information was included. The outcome of the research clearly indicates that banking system of Kuwait has evolved over the past few years and it has changed the lending processes to small scale businesses within the economy of Kuwait. Further, the study is also able to provide different factors that have an impact on the banking system and lending of small scale businesses operating in the economy of Kuwait.

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Rio J. M. Marpaung, Ifa Adina Yafiz

The purpose of this study is to analyze the level of clean water sales forecast for approximately one year ahead by using the best analytical method, and then to formulate strategies that can be applied by Clean Water Management Company (PPAB) in Rokan Hulu District. The method used is the time series method that is moving average. Exponential smoothing, and trend projection. Then determine the best error rate of the method used through several approaches: mean absolute deviation (MAD), mean square error (MSE), mean absolute percent error (MAPE).

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Zuki Kurniawan

The purpose of this study is describing and analyzing the influence of competence, organizational culture and career development for job satisfaction and its implications on the performance of employees. The purpose of this study is determining the effect of competence, organizational culture, and career development for satisfaction and its implications for employee performance improvement of SOEs in the region of Cirebon either partially or simultaneously. The method used is descriptive verification with the type of survey, sampling using simple random sampling technique. The object of the study is conducting on employees of State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) Cirebon region with the sample of 240 respondents from the population of 605. The data analysis is descriptive analysis and verification using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) with the program Linear Structural Relationship (LISREL 8.80). The results showed that partial and simultaneous job satisfaction, career development, competency, and organizational culture affect the performance. Competencies, organizational culture, career development and job satisfaction simultaneously positive and significant effect on employee performance. However, the partial organizational culture is not significant to affect the performance of employee. The greatest good for job satisfaction on employee performance and career development is variable. Managerial implications based on the analysis of research need to improve performance through job satisfaction in any aspect expectations are met, while the priority in improving job satisfaction and employee performance should give priority to the aspects of career development assessment, further premises employee competence skills and later human aspects of organizational culture with aspect results orientation.

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Ali Rosit, Subandiyah Azis, Bambang Wedyatadji

This research is a feasibility study of Batching Plant development on Tanjung Redeb - Talisayan Highway (Km 102) Biatan District, Berau Regency, which aims to know whether the development project can be built in terms of technical and economic aspects, and to analyze the sensitivity with 3 types of economic situation. The data from this field study are analyzed using Present Value, Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) and Payback Periods (PBP). The results of the analysis show that Batching Plant Development on Tanjung Redeb – Talisayan Highway (Km 102) in Biatan District, Berau Regency is quite feasible to be implemented with the assumption of 10 years investment period. Based on the calculation of Net Present Value (NPV) of IDR 11.499.703.942; (positive) Internal Rate of Return (17,27 % > 12%), Benefit Cost Ratio (2,309 > 1) with Payback Period is 5 years 7 months, from the sensitivity analysis results, the condition of the initial investment cost rate run up reaches to 127%, the state of interest rates rose to < 14,54% due to uncertainty in the national and international economies, and the circumstances when cash flows fell as a result of the decrease in revenues to < 16,84%, where the circumstances state that the project which is about to be affected is not feasible or break event.

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Fadli, Kustamar, Edi Hargono Dwi Putranto

This study aims to identify, analyze, and describe the factors that affect the project maintenance delay on Harun Nafsi - HM. Rifadin Street in Samarinda, East Kalimantan. This research uses qualitative research method by utilizing questionnaires. The 30 participating respondents consist of 14 project implementers and 16 field implementers. The data are analyzed by descriptive statistical technique, factor analysis, and linear regression analysis. The results show that the factors influencing the delay of maintenance project of Harun Nafis - HM Rifadin Street include: (1) time factor and workmanship factor; (2) human resources and natural factors; (3) geographical conditions, late approval, plans change, and labor strikes; and (4) non-optimal working levels and changes in the scope of the project during the work are still ongoing. Based on multiple linear regression analysis, coefficient of determination value of 0.824 is obtained. It means that the four factors studied affect 82.4% of project delays and the rest of 27.6% is influenced by other variables out of this study. The results of this study also indicate that the dominant factor for road maintenance project delays is the fourth factor of the factors mentioned. The effort that the contractor needs to undertake is not to expand the employment contract if the project is underway or the contractor does not have the capability to complete another project.

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Irode Philip Luvuga, Elisha O. Abade, Andrew M. Kahonge

Insurance telematics is a new technology that has been poised to transform and change the way we buy and underwrite insurance by 2030. Insurance Premium Rate is a major variable that determines if a client will buy or take up a policy cover or not. With the current stiff competition being felt in the Industry, the local insurance industry continues to suffer big losses due to unhealthy business practice of competitor undercutting among the insurers to attract more clients but exposing the underwriting companies to potential high risks. This, in most cases means that the product is totally underpriced to the extent that it would be uneconomical and unsustainable in the long run for the insurance firms. This research outlines a technology defined model that should be used to determine the ideal premium rate payable in the Motor Insurance industry, taking into account all the variables and the risk exposure of the policy holder. The system model is able to determine the insurable risk based on the drivers attributes, and profile, location of the vehicle in relation to risk geo-locations map, monitoring the driving parameters of the vehicle by the driver, and the driving style. This enable the insurance company determines costs associated with the risk cover based on factual facts which are scientifically determined by the real risks.

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Yunelly Asra, Teguh Widodo

This study aims to find the factors forming and indicator builder model of brand personality of traditional retail traders through measuring the influence of retail mix and culture. The formation of brand personality uses Aaker brand personality dimension to 250 consumers in Bengkalis Regency. The type of research is causal research design. The research variables are brand personality, Retail Mix and Brand Personality. Data collection is done by probability sampling with purposive method. Data analysis was done by perception analysis, frequency distribution and multiple regression using SPSS version 21.0. The results of this study are: The factor of retail mix partially has a positive and significant impact on the brand personality of traditional retail traders in Bengkalis Regency. Factor cultural partially does not affect the brand personality of traditional retail traders in Bengkalis Regency. Simultaneously, retail mix and cultural have positive and significant influence on traditional brand trader's brand personality in Bengkalis Regency. Initial forming factor of brand personality model of traditional retail traders in Bengkalis Regency is Retail Mix Factor. Indicator of the model of traditional trader's brand personality builder in Bengkalis are: sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, competence, ruggedness.

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Ngusha Tavershima Almighty, Amah Alexander Nwabueze

An experimental set up for examining the variation of detection intensity with explosive quantity has been studied. Containers made from ceramic, carbon steel, wood and HDPE were filled with explosive masses ranging from 10 kg to 500 kg and irradiated by a 14.1 MeV point isotropic neutron source. The resulting gamma photons were analyzed for their C, N and O composition and the sum computed to yield a quantity known as the material quotient (MQ). Examination of MQ values indicates an initial increase in detection intensity with increasing explosive quantity. Saturation is however reached at an explosive quantity of about 25kg where detection intensity reduces with further increase in explosive quantity. Effects of variation in explosive quantity appeared to be more pronounced for explosives contained in HDPE and wooden containers and least pronounced for those in steel containers. Source-detector configuration was identified as a major factor affecting effective detection of large masses of explosives.

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P.T. Lamin-Boima

This paper attempts to investigate the lack of knowledge, attitude and practices of street food vendors in Bo the Southern Province of Sierra Leone. A cross – sectional study conducted among eighty-seven respondents vendors in forty-four in Bo City. Data was collected using a structured and semi – structured questionnaire. The collected data is analysed using a simple descriptive statistics with the help Excel Microsoft ware. A statistical significance was found in relation to knowledge. Attitude towards food safety was negative, self-reported practices by Street Food Vendor’s were statistically significant with low hygiene standards, while predisposing factors showed relatively low personal hygiene, poor environmental sanitation and low food safety practice. The realize consequences are utmost health risks of consuming street foods as food contamination has caused food borne diseases and outbreaks. It is recommended that standard training be provided for these vendors by the Bo City Council in collaboration with Njala University. It is essential that poor people in a developing country such as Sierra Leone be allowed to earn their livelihood by means of an ‘easy-to-enter’ business such as street food vending when hygiene standards are sustained.

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Chogo C.N., Githua, B.N., Changeiywo, J.M.

Mathematics is globally valued for use by an individual and society. It plays a significant role in the development of modern science and technology. Despite its importance, students’ motivation to learn and achievement at national examinations globally and at the KCSE mathematics examination in Kenya particularly has been dismal over the years. The learners’ low achievement in the subject has been attributed to the didactic teaching methods that the teachers use among other factors. The study of geometry in Mathematics poses a number of difficulties to learners which are different in nature from those of arithmetic and algebra. This is because geometry is primarily abstract in nature. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Open Ended Teaching and Learning Approach (OETLA) on Secondary School students’ mathematics achievement in learning Three Dimensional Geometry (3DG). The study employed Solomon four non-equivalent control group design. The two experimental groups (E1& E2) received OETLA treatment while the control groups (C1&C2) were taught using the conventional teaching and learning methods. Only E1& C1 took a pre-test and a post test for all the groups. The target population for this study was form four 17 year old students of secondary schools in Marani Sub County in Kisii County. Purposive sampling was used to obtain the four county mixed-sex secondary schools for the study. A total of 152 students formed the sample size. Students’ Mathematics Achievement Test (SMAT) was used to collect data. The instruments were validated by three experts from the department of curriculum and instruction of Egerton University and three Secondary School Mathematics Heads of Department. The reliability of the instruments were established using Cronbach’s Alpha. A reliability coefficient of 0.92 was obtained and thus considered acceptable. The SMAT was administered to two groups as a pretest before the treatment and as a posttest to all the four groups to yield scores. ANOVA and t-test were used for data analysis. The level of significance for acceptance or rejection of hypothesis was coefficient alpha value of 0.05. This study concludes that the use of OETLA resulted to a higher academic achievement in learning Three Dimensional Geometry when compared to the traditional method of learning mathematics. This study recommends that mathematics teachers in secondary schools make use of OETLA to improves their academic performance in the subject.

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S. A. Osemeahon, M. A. Hamma’Adama, A. M. Kolo, I. J. Opara

The sorption capacity of Immobilized karkashi leaves (IKAL) for the removal of metal ions (Pb2+,Cu2+and Zn2+) were studied using batch experiments. The residual metal ion concentrations were investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The influence of factors such as contact time, initial concentration,ionic strength, pH and temperature were investigated. The metal ion sorption capacity by IKAL decreases with increasing ionic strength but increases with increasing pH values and initial metal ion concentration. The sorption rate for the metal ions (Pb2+, and Cu2+) was rapid and reached equilibrium within first 30 minutes while equilibrium was established within 1hr for Zn2+. The maximum sorption capacity for Pb2+, Cu2+and Zn2+were found to be 80.75%, 40.60% and 39.55% respectively. From this study the sorption capacity of IKAL sorbent showed that the abundantly wasted Karkashi leaves could be turned into an environmentally friendly and cost effective sorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2022 - Volume 11 Issue 1