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IJSTR Volume 4 - Issue 12, December 2015 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Mary Adu Kumi, Isaac Nyamekye, John Adu Kumi, Benjamin Adu Kumi

Abstract: The incidence of unknown routes of infectious diseases has become a major public health concern. Restraint devices such as handcuffs used by selected security agency from three (3) Police Stations in Accra were investigated for bacterial contamination. Five (5) handcuffs including two (2) slightly used ones, two (2) frequently used ones and one (1) sealed unused handcuff was purposely selected for the study. The presence and quantity of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and total coliforms on the handcuffs were measured. The Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and coliforms showed positive on all the four (4) used handcuffs but were not found on the sealed, unused handcuff. There was more contamination on frequently used handcuffs than slightly used ones. The presence and quantity of bacterial contaminants indicated Staphylococcus aureus (64%), Escherichia coli (8%) and total coliforms (28%). This shows that, used handcuffs harbour pathogenic bacteria, and could serve as potential routes of infectious diseases among users. This requires sensitization of the public on the cleaning of handcuffs between uses with disinfectants. Education on the use and cleaning of handcuff to users and security agencies could enhance environmental hygiene of restraint devices.

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Dr. Mohammad Jamil Abd-Alghani

Abstract: Aniline derivatives containing carbonyl group in the side chain was extracted from crude oil received from Al- Dora refinery. The crude oil was dissolved in xylene (1:3) and extracted through a column containing activated cationic resin type Amberlyte (15), then eluted by absolute ethanol and identified by infra red spectroscopy then examined as antioxidant for lubricant oil stock 50. FT-IR spectroscopy for the lubricant oil was performed before employing in an internal combustion engine and 190 hrs after. It was seen that the FT-IR of the oxidized oil contains a new peak in the region 1700– 1800 cm–1, which is formed due to the oxidation of base oil which belongs to carbonyl group. The FT-IR specter for the formulated crude oil with a specific concentration of the extracted substituted aniline after applying the same conditions of oxidation (190 working hrs. in an internal combustion engine) showed a minimum peak intensity at 1710 – 1770 cm-1 than that observed in FT-IR done in absence of extracted antioxidant. The values of induction periods in presence of (0.20 and 0.30) mol/l of the extracted sample in the lubricant oil at 393 K were: (766 sec. 1630 sec.), while in their absence was (55 sec.). The values of maximum rates of oxidation were: (3.0x10-4 and 2.0x10-4) mol/l. sec. These values were still not arrived the value of maximum rate of oxidation for the lubricant oil (3.5 x10-4) mol./l.sec. The same study was applied on the universal antioxidant inhibitor 2, 6-diter-butyl-4-methyl phenol (phenolic type) under the same conditions. The obtained induction periods were (150, 290 sec.) respectively. This means that the values of induction periods obtained by formulating the lubricant oil with the extracted aniline molecule were (7) times greater than do the 2, 6- diter-butyl-4-methyl phenol molecule. From the literatures, it is known that the value of stochiometric factor for inhibition (f) for 2, 4, 6-triisobutyl phenol is equal to (2) so, as a result, the value of stochiometric factor of inhibition (f) for the extracted sample will be equal to (7x2=14).

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Cletus Eligius Ndjovu

Abstract: The British took over Tanganyika from the Germans in 1919 after the First World War. In facilitating colonial economic policies the British Colonial Government enacted Land Ordinance Cap 113 of 1923 and Land Acquisition Ordinance Cap 118 of 1926. These laws facilitated the acquisition of native lands and considerably changed the way expropriation was handled leaving behind permanent marks on the later practice. The colonial practice exposed the inner most economic intents of the British government. Use of legal phrases like “for public purpose” embedded in the ordinance had multiple legal interpretations and loose definition befitting the colonial economic cravings of the time. Although major provisions of the colonial acquisition laws are reflected in the later laws, evidence suggests that a few elements of colonial expropriation practices have also sneaked in as “silent laws” of expropriation but others have not. Quite a few practices had been deliberately discarded or inadvertently forgotten for lack of a political will to purify and emulate them or due to lack of good record keeping. Using historical data and archival records from the Tanzania National Archives, this study explored colonial expropriations, mainly by focusing on the principles, laws, practices and procedures used. The main objective of the study was to identify “good practices” used during the said era, the intended and unintended consequences of these unreported practices especially those which need to be emulated by the current laws and practices. The study concluded by shedding light on “bad practices” which are being exercised to date uncritically but also acknowledging “good colonial expropriation practices” which existed then but could be emulated. First, the study insists that “public purpose clause’ in expropriation must be affected with “good and fair” intentions and a mechanism to check this be set. Secondly, PAPs’ involvement in land acquisition and compensation negotiations should be codified into laws. Thirdly, adequacy of compensation should be improved by legalising payment of solatium on top of the basic compensation amounts. Fourthly, the practice ought to institute “financial ability to develop a plot” as a basic prerequisite for obtaining an alternative plot during expropriation. Lastly, there is a need to institutionalise statutory time limits for processing land acquisition and compensation claims, and the time needed to remove PAPs from lands so acquired.

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O. I. Ani, S. N. Omenyi, S. C. Nwigbo

Abstract: Antiretroviral drugs are usually used for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This virus specifically attacks the lymphocytes so the antiretroviral drugs are designed specifically to block the virus from penetrating into the interior of the cell. The attachment of the virus on the surface of the lymphocyte will cause a change in the surface area of the cell. Such surface area change is followed by change in surface free energy. This work attempted to estimate the surface free energies of five antiretroviral drugs from absorbance data and their possible effects on the surfaces of the lymphocytes. The absorbance values were measured and using modified form of Lifshitz equation through the concept of Hamaker constants, surface energies were calculated. Coating effectiveness studies showed that the drugs preferentially coated the surfaces of lymphocytes, as expected. The surface free energies for the drugs varied from 48.9 mJ/m2 for drug 1 to 37.7 mJ/m2 for drug 4. This means that drug 4 that has the lowest surface free energy, is more hydrophobic than drug 1. The surface free energies of HIV-infected lymphocytes varied from 9.3 mJ/m2 for drug 3 to 13.9 mJ/m2 for drug 2 being lower than for uninfected lymphocytes by up to a factor of 77% with drug 1 and 62% with drug 4 (in blood of patients without previous drug treatment) confirming the surface energy-reducing capacity of HIV. The low value of the free energy in drug 4 of 39.5mJ/m2 is in line with effectiveness value 0.0245 for drug 4 which is the lowest as shown in table 3. It is interesting to observe that drug 1 which has the highest coating effectiveness (0.5102) also has the highest surface free energy (47.5mJ/m2) confirming the existence of some relationship between drug coating of the surface of the blood cell and the cell surface free energy. It is interesting to note that Ozoihu (2014) reported the surface free energy of infected lymphocyte as 31.81+2.36 mJ/m2 and that of uninfected cell as 39.94+2.82 mJ/m2. While the values for uninfected cell are close to within 3.2% of each other, the values for infected are widely different (up to 19.5%). The findings of this research work suggest possible existence of a thermodynamic criterion for HIV-drug interaction prediction that will be a valuable tool in HIV-blood interaction study. This work gives more understanding on the surface properties of antiretroviral drugs and the effects of HIV on the surface energies of blood samples.

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Doni Purnama Alamsyah, Ria Yuli Angliawati

Abstract: Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of "Green Marketing". This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products, which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk. The research model with three hypotheses to explained the relationship and influenced between the constructs that perception of quality, perception of risk and purchase decision. In these empirical studied treated 366 respondents from customer of retail supermarkets in West Java - Indonesia. Results of research founded a significant negative relationship between perception of quality and perception of risk. As well as the behavior of perception of quality and the perception of risk has a significant influenced on purchase decision. Retail self-service needs to improve the perception of quality and reduces the risk perception of the consumers, if purchasing behavior of consumers want increase on organic products. This studied was useful in raising awareness of self-service retail and consumers for environmentally friendly products.

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Elhartiti Abla, Elhabchi Souad, Hichar Abdelhadi, Omar Bazdi, Ounine Khadija

Abstract: This study is implemented for the isolation, purification and identification of endophytic bacteria which produces antifungal substances from the roots of Mentha rotundifolia L. The 59 obtained bacterial isolates were tested for their antagonistic activity by the dual confrontation against the phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus Niger and Botrytis cinerea. Eight bacterial strains were selected for their strong antifungal activity. These are strains M21, M23, M3a, M4, M14d and M3c which belong to the family Bacillaceae, M12 and M3b which belongs to the family of Pseudomonadaceae. Among these, three bacterial strains namely M21, M23 and M12 induce 70% of inhibition of mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus Niger while the five bacterial strains M3a, M3c, M3b, M4 and M14d have proved to be effective in inhibiting more than 60% of mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea.

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Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher, Md.Farhad Ali, Md.Mahmudul Hasan, Md.Rezaur Rahman, Md.Mahamudul Hasan

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of turning cattle stomach into novelty leather and then leather product which would add value to end of cattle. Four pieces of green buffalo stomachs were taken through soaking, liming, deliming, pickling, tanning, neutralization, retanning, dyeing and fat liquoring operation. Then mechanical operations like drying and staking operations were also done. Some physical (tensile strength, stitch tear strength and colour rub fastness) and chemical (chromic oxide content, fat content and pH) tests were accomplished .The results of physical tests were poor compared to the grain leather as the composition of raw outer coverings of animals and their stomachs are different. The stomach leathers could be used for making coin purse, key case, bracelet, wrist watch belt, ear-ring, necklace, hair band, iPod case etc. as novelty leather product item.

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Estrellita C. Pinca

Abstract: This study aimed to describe the profile of the mobile teachers, assess their competencies, determine the level of their performance and identify the problems they encountered from 2010-2014 in the Department of Education, Division of Northern Samar, Philippines. The descriptive evaluative research design was used. Questionnaires, actual observation, focus-group discussion and interview were utilized in gathering the data. All mobile teachers during the conduct of the study served as respondents. Others sources of information were the ALS Education supervisor, ALS specialist, the District supervisor, barangay officials, learners and completers. The performance rating given by the District supervisor was used as the basis in determining the work performance of the mobile teachers. The mobile teachers were young adults, majorities were males, educationally qualified but their formal training were inclined towards the conduct of formal classes. Several mobile teachers have pursued graduate studies geared towards administration and supervision. All were passers of the Licensure Examination for Teachers but were relatively young in service as mobile teachers. They have higher competence in the conduct of learning sessions, and have very satisfactory work performance. Their major problems were lack of community-based instructional materials, delayed release of travel allowance and absence of permanent room during the conduct of the learning sessions.

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Mange Gladys Nkatha, Dr. Michael Kimwele, Dr. George Okeyo

Abstract: Institutions of higher learning are facing greater challenges to change and subjected to various transformations in the surrounding environment including technology. These challenge and motivate them to explore new ways to improve their teaching approaches. This study sought to investigate the use of social networking site in institutions of higher learning. To this end two objectives were formulated (1) to investigate the current state of the use of social networking sites by the students (2) investigate how social networking sites can be used to promote authentic learning in institutions of higher learning. The study adopted exploratory approach using descriptive survey design where a sample of 10% (67 students) were picked from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) main campus. The findings indicate the use of social networking sites is a viable option as the students are not only members of social networking sites but also that majority have access to the requisite technological devices. Additionally, recommendations for ensuring authentic learning were presented. The researcher recommends the exploration of the leveraging of the existing social networking sites for learning in conjunction with key stakeholders.

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M.F. Younes, Y.K. Younes

Abstract- Liquid sloshing is a kind of very complicated free surface flow and exists widely in many fields. In this paper, the sloshing phenomenon in a partially filled rectangular tank under a sway excitation is studied experimentally. A small scale test rig is designed and constructed to measure the dynamic tank wall forces and interaction forces, the baffles are fitted to attenuate the lateral motion of the liquid slosh. Lower mounted and upper mounted vertical baffles of different heights are tested. Lower mounted vertical baffles with central hole of different sizes are considered. The results show that the size and position of the vertical baffles significantly improve damping.

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Aluko, O.G, Oke, O.L, Awolusi, T.F.

Abstract: This paper investigates the compressive strength of compressed stabilized earth block (CSEB) by partially replacing the cement (stabilizer) in the block with Waste Glass Powder (WGP). The soil sample was tested for moisture content and as well consistency limits which showed satisfactory characteristics. The two types of waste glass powders considered were those passing through sieve 150 µm with replacement levels varied at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and those passing through sieve 75µm with replacement levels varied at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% respectively. 65 blocks were made with size 225 x 225 x 112.5 mm and cured for 7, 14 and 28 days. Irrespective of the WGP particle sizes used in this study, it was observed for the percentages of cement replacements used (up to 60%) that the compressive strengths recorded were higher than 3N/mm2, the minimum recommended strength for CSEB at 28 days. As no optimum was observed for the addition of WGP to CSEB in this study (the higher the content of WGP in CSEB, the lower the strength), the result suggests that 20% replacement of cement with WGP whether at 150 µm or 75 µm could be used. The compressive strengths recorded at 28 days at this level were as high as 5.14N/mm2 and there was no significant difference in strength performance when compared with the control mix (with 0% WGP) at early stages.

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W.A.D.N. Wijesekera, W.M.J.I. Wijayanayake

Abstract: Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems have become the trend in image retrieval technologies, as the index or notation based image retrieval algorithms give less efficient results in high usage of images. These CBIR systems are mostly developed considering the availability of high or normal quality images. High availability of low quality images in databases, due to usage of different quality equipment to capture images, and different environmental conditions the photos are being captured, has opened up a new path in image retrieval research area. The algorithms which are developed for low quality image based image retrieval are only a few, and have been performed only for specific domains. Low quality image based image retrieval algorithm on a generic database with a considerable accuracy level for different industries is an area which remains unsolved. Through this study, an algorithm has been developed to achieve above mentioned gaps. By using images with inappropriate brightness and compressed images as low quality images, the proposed algorithm is tested on a generic database, which includes many categories of data, instead of using a specific domain. The new algorithm developed, gives better precision and recall values when they are clustered into the most appropriate number of clusters which changes according to the level of quality of the image. As the quality of the image decreases, the accuracy of the algorithm also tends to be reduced; a space for further improvement.

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Alfitouri Ibrahim Jellah, Mohamed Almabrouk Alhashi

Abstract: Production decline analysis is the analysis of the past trends of declining production performance, that is, rate versus time and rate versus cumulative production plots, for wells and reservoirs. In petroleum industry there are four methods to evaluate the reserves such as volumetric, material balance, numerical simulation and decline curve analysis. Decline curve analysis has been used to provide a best-fit equation for series of data point by least squares method. This method has been proved useful for decline curve analysis in order to estimate the initial decline rate (D), initial rate (qi) and the hyperbolic exponent (b), which can be used to plot the declining rate versus time after calculating the future rate at any desired time and calculating the reserves from certain time to an economic.

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Abera Assefa, Fitih Ademe

Abstract: Land degradation is the most chronic problem in the Ethiopia. Soil erosion and denudation of vegetation covers are tending to enlarge the area of degraded and west land in semi-arid watersheds. It is, therefore, watershed management is believed as a holistic approach to create a climate smart landscape that integrate forestry, agriculture, pasture and soil water management, with an objective of sustainable management of natural resources to improve livelihood. This approach pursues to promote interactions among multiple stakeholders and their interests within and between the upstream and downstream locations of a watershed. Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre (MARC) has been implementing integrated watershed management research project in the Jogo-gudedo watershed from 2010-2014 and lessons from Jogo-gudedo watershed are presented in this research report. Participatory action research (PAR) was implemented on Soil and Water Conservation (SWC), area enclosure, Agroforestry (AF), Conservation Tillage (CT), energy saving stove, drought resistance crop varieties in the Jogo-gudedo watershed. Empirical research and action research at plot level and evaluation of introduced technologies with farmers through experimental learning approach and documentation were employed. The participatory evaluation and collective action of SWC and improved practices brought high degree of acceptance of the practices and technologies. This had been ratified by the implementation of comprehensive watershed management action research which in turn enabled to taste and exploit benefits of climate-smart agricultural practices. Eventually, significant reduction on soil loss and fuel wood consumption, improvements on vegetation cover and crop production were quantitatively recorded as a good indicator and success. Field visit, meetings, trainings and frequent dialogues between practitioners and communities at watershed level have had a help in promoting the climate smart agriculture practices and improving productivity that could help to improve the livelihoods of the local people and sustainable watershed resource management.

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Kishalay Bairagi

Abstract: “In computer science, an application programming interface (API) is an interface that defines the ways by which an application programming may request services from libraries.”[7] Libraries of a programming language are the list of all classes and interfaces, along with their fields, constructors and methods that are part of that language. For example, java is an object oriented programming language which has a rich set of built-in classes and interfaces packaged in the API also known as java API[7]. Therefore, a programmer can easily borrow built-in classes or interfaces to use the fields, constructors and methods of those classes and interfaces in his or her application and is able to be free from the hazards of thinking the implementation details of those functions and constructors and writing it down to the application he or she is developing. An API [7] also helps a programmer to write a short and compact code, to save time of program and application development and to produce a quality code having readability and understandability than the code without having the application of API. Almost all the modern programming languages come up with the rich set of APIs. The basic difference between an API and library lies in the fact that while “API reflects the expected behaviour, library is an actual implementation of this set of rules”. [7] On the other hand, “the relation with framework is based on several libraries implementing several APIs but instead of normal use of an API, the access to the behaviour built into the framework is made possible by extending its contents with new classes and interfaces”.[7] This paper presents a component of framework[4] where the API for the distributed algorithms has been plugged into the framework so that a programmer can get services from the built- in classes and interfaces for easily understandable, compact and faster program development. Here a concept of meta language consisting of very simple constructs has been introduced in order to make the language user friendly.

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Nazali, Alma Manuputty, Farida Patittingi, Muhammad Ashri

Abstract: The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective, which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan, in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.

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Bahar, Taufiq

Abstract: Scope of area very large, the use of conventional media socialization and communication that has limited range of space and time, such as: brochures, newsletters, magazines, newspapers, books, radio and television, as well as visit the seminar directly to the location of stakeholders, business process management information which has not been well established, as well as the data management system not well ordered, causing Non-Formal and Informal Early Chilhood Education Development Center (BP-PAUDNI) not properly socialized, a partnership is not carried out effectively, especially to stakeholders located in urban areas outside, behind the communication process (response) is not subjected to ineffective, and are not available centralized data bank that provides comprehensive information related to the activities of BP-PAUDNI that can be easily accessed by the general public and stakeholders related. This paper describes a model of Business Process Management Implementation Work Program Development Model Non-Formal and Informal Early Chilhood Education (PAUDNI), as a foundation for building Web-based information system that is supported by Communication Network Technology.

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Md. Abdullah-al-mamun, Mustak Ahmed

Abstract: Humans are capable to identifying diverse shape in the different pattern in the real world as effortless fashion due to their intelligence is grow since born with facing several learning process. Same way we can prepared an machine using human like brain (called, Artificial Neural Network) that can be recognize different pattern from the real world object. Although the various techniques is exists to implementation the pattern recognition but recently the artificial neural network approaches have been giving the significant attention. Because, the approached of artificial neural network is like a human brain that is learn from different observation and give a decision the previously learning rule. Over the 50 years research, now a day’s pattern recognition for machine learning using artificial neural network got a significant achievement. For this reason many real world problem can be solve by modeling the pattern recognition process. The objective of this paper is to present the theoretical concept for pattern recognition design using Multi-Layer Perceptorn neural network(in the algorithm of artificial Intelligence) as the best possible way of utilizing available resources to make a decision that can be a human like performance.

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G. Priya Vasudha, G. Navya, Y.Mahesh, Ch.Deepika

Abstract: The important factor for design and construction of pavement is the behavior of underlying sub-grade. Large deformations in the sub-grade will lead to a continuous deterioration of the paved surface. As the sub-grade soil is too weak to bear the load, engineering solutions such as geo reinforcement using geo-synthetics are additives which are earlier used in sub-grade improvement and such experimental study is carried by pervious authors. This paper deals with the sub-grade improvement using geo-textile as a reinforcement sheet and quarry dust as admixtures. In order to increase the strength of the sub-grade the quarry dust is varied with different percentages i.e., 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. In this study, Proctor’s compaction tests, and CBR soaked and unsoaked tests are conducted on locally available soil with reinforced material and with admixture. For this study it is identified that the engineering properties of the soil is improved in all conditions. The soil with quarry dust at optimum value is 20% has CBR soaked value is obtained 6.83% and unsoaked value is obtained 7.02% is increased when compared with conventionally soil. The soil, quarry dust at optimum value is at 20% and Geo-textile has CBR soaked value is 6.59% and unsoaked value is 8.95% is increased when compared with conventionally soil and soil with quarry dust.

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Fredrick Ojija

Abstract: It was found that habitat types and age may influence diurnal activities of cattle egrets. In average, the grassland comprised 41.59% of all of diurnal activities, while forest and bushland comprised 21.54% and 35.79% of all of diurnal activities respectively (P<0.05). Variation in the performance of diurnal activities overtimes of the day differed significantly (P<0.05), similarly, the time spent by cattle egrets to perform diurnal activities was different (P<0.05). Activity budget of cattle egrets differed significantly with age classes (P>0.05). The adult cattle egrets spent much time feeding than sub-adults and juveniles. The feeding behaviour was the diurnal activity of cattle egrets performed most often in the morning hours. The diurnal activity patterns and time budgets of the cattle egrets may be due to their strategies to cope with environmental factors such temperatures, different habitats and food availability; and high foraging behaviour can be due to high energy demand.

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Ronaldo Pornillosa Parreno Jr, Rowaldo Del Mundo

Abstract: In this study clustering algorithm was developed to optimize electrification plans by screening and grouping potential customers to be supplied with electricity. The algorithm provided adifferent approach in clustering problem which combines conceptual and distance-based clustering algorithmsto analyze potential clusters using spanning tree with the shortest possible edge weight and creating final cluster trees based on the test of inconsistency for the edges. The clustering criteria consists of commonly used distance measure with the addition of household information as basis for the ability to pay (ATP) value. The combination of these two parameters resulted to a more significant and realistic clusters since distance measure alone could not take the effect of the household characteristics in screening the most sensible groupings of households. In addition, the implications of varying geographical features were incorporated in the algorithm by using routing index across the locations of the households. This new approach of connecting the households in an area was applied in an actual case study of one village or barangay that was not yet energized. The results of clustering algorithm generated cluster trees which could becomethetheoretical basis for power utilities to plan the initial network arrangement of electrification. Scenario analysis conducted on the two strategies of clustering the households provideddifferent alternatives for the optimization of the cost of electrification. Futhermore,the benefits associated with the two strategies formulated from the two scenarios was evaluated using benefit cost ratio (B/C) to determine which is more economically advantageous. The results of the study showed that clustering algorithm proved to be effective in solving electrification optimization problem and serves its purpose as a planning support tool which can facilitate electrification in rural areas and achieve cost-effectiveness.

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Ernita, Firmansyah

Abstract: This study aims to apply the concept of balanced scorecards in measurement of co-operatives performance based on vision and mission. So far, the assessment of co-operative performance in Indonesia is not take into account the social hold co-operative, while co-operatives carrying a dual mission. Research conducted in in North Sumatera Province in Indonesia. The sample consisting of one hundred co-operatives that are still active run annual members meeting. Co-operative performance was assessed based on its fourth perspective i.e. membership, financial, internal process and learning & growth. The indicator key of cooperative performance was determined by taking into account the performance assessment on co-operatives, as articulated of State Minister for Co-operatives and SMEs No.129/KEP/M/KUMKM/XI/2002, and the regulations of the State Minister for Co-operatives and SME No.06/Per/M./KUKM/V/2006. Therefore, this research were contributed a method in assessing co-operative performance using Balanced Scorecard concept with the four perspective, namely membership perspective, financial perspective, internal process perspective and learning & growth perspective.

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Sandamali K. P. S.

Abstract¬: Masterful writers use literary devices and techniques in a unique way to exemplify their mastery in writing. In American literature, Ernest Hemingway’s novel The old man and the sea is a worthy symbolic novel which conveys the ability of the author to employ symbols to give literary value of the text .The objective of this work is to explore the symbols used in the novel to decode these symbols and identify the various interpretations that they stand for. This work divides into four chapters. The first chapter deals with aestheticism in general and tells about the common stylistic devices in literature such as simile, metaphor, irony and so on. The second chapter makes the connection with the concept of symbol and some theories that are related to symbols such as Langer’s Theory, Whitehead Theory, Frye’s Theory and Saussure’s Theory. The third chapter gives the general overview about American literature and the major works of Ernest Hemingway focusing on his masterpiece The old man and the sea and its literary analysis while the forth chapter stands for the symbols used in the novel and their interpretations This work aims at showing the interest of Hemingway for symbols and his intention to represent themes behind the use of symbols in The old man and the sea.

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Vaibhav Jori, Pratik Gagare, Amol Gore, Swapnil Gawari, Atul Pawar

Abstract: Now a days successful functioning of computer networks is important. For that network management systems are very much important. This paper describes the method by using which a LAN network can be controlled by a user with the help of android application. For monitoring and controlling of the various activities of the network, the user friendly interface must be created so user should be able to execute many commands to control the activities happening on the network. To connect the phone to the server. Wi-Fi can be used as internet connectivity tool.

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Amrita Bhatt, Sunil Shah, Dr. M. S. Ansari

Abstract: Conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference in embedded and VLSI systems have become important in recent years with increase in clock frequency and reduction in physical dimensions of interconnects. It is important to understand the noise components in terms of current paths and the mitigation techniques. Although the common mode and differential mode components of conducted noise are analyzed in the context of a power electronics system, the analytical and theoretical techniques hold good for other domains as well such as embedded systems and VLSI. This paper deals with modelling, design, and development of an EMI filter for conducted mode noise in flash lamp power supply. Also, a design procedure of EMI filters sustaining to the military standard 461E is presented and it is based on practical measurement of conducted emissions. Design procedure in this paper considers common mode and differential mode separately. The paper also consists of considerations for magnetic core material, integrated common mode (CM), common mode choke size optimization, and differential mode (DM) choke etc. Design examples are given and are experimentally verified.

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Liza Jacob, Romilly Margaret Mendez, Bindu Antony

Abstract: In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyse the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soil in an industrial area. The soil samples were collected from Eloor industrial area of Kerala. The parameters of soil analysis were pH, Alkalinity, Sulphate content, Total solids, Organic matter and Microbial activity. The result of pH analysis revealed that the two samples from industrial area had noticeable pH variation from that of control. The alkalinity of the polluted samples was lesser than that of control. Sulphate content and total solids were high in polluted samples compared to control. Microbial activity is very low in acidic polluted samples, where in control it was very high. The total solid content of polluted soil was high due to the presence of heavy metals. The organic matter and microbial activity were less due to the acidity of the polluted soils.

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Dr. Nagla Hamdi Kamal Khalil El- Meanawi

Abstract: Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation one of the most emergency management, the nurse has a pivotal role and should be highly qualified in performing these procedures. The aim of the study is to assess performance of nurses during Cardio pulmonary resuscitation for patient with cardiac arrest In Intensive Care Unit and Cardiac Care Unit at the Alexandria main university hospital. To answer the question; what are the most common area of satisfactory and area of neglection in nurse's performance during Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation. The sample consists of 53 staff nurses, working in Intensive care unit & cardiac care unit at Alexandria main university hospital. The tools of data collection were structured of questionnaire sheet and observational cheek list. The results showed that unsatisfactory performance between nurses in both units. The study concluded that all nurses need to improve their performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for patient with cardiac arrest , it is crucial for nursing staff to participate in CPR courses in order to refresh and update their theoretical knowledge and performance skills and consequently to improve the safety and effectiveness of care. The study recommended that continuous evaluation of nurses' knowledge and performance is essential, the optimal frequency with which CPR training should be implemented at least every 6 months, in order to avoid deterioration in nurses CPR knowledge and skills.

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Adesuyi Adeola Alex, Nnodu Valerie Chinedu, Akinola Modupe Olatunde, Njoku Kelechi Longinus, Jolaoso Anuoluwapo Omosileola

Abstract: Potable water is an essential ingredient for good health and the socio-economic development of man. Groundwater is an important natural resource for this. The majority of the Nigerian population depends on groundwater for drinking. Thus, availability of clean groundwater is of utmost importance. Hence, quality assessment was carried out to ascertain the groundwater quality in Eliozu Community in Obio/Apkor Local Government area of River State, Nigeria. The study assessed the level of contamination and quality of the groundwater of randomly selected boreholes. Water quality analysis was performed on samples collected from thirty (30) boreholes within Eliozu community for the following physicochemical parameters; pH, temperature, Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate, chloride, Cu, and Zn using standard methods. The result from the present study showed that the pH of groundwater samples ranges from 5.5 – 8.0, indicating slight acidity in some of the water samples. The values for electrical conductivity, salinity and total hardness were ranged between 10.1 – 25.4 uS/cm, 0.001 – 0.45 mg/L and 3.59 – 381.9 mg/L respectively and were all within the World health organisation (WHO), Department of petroleum resources and Federal environmental protection agency (FEPA maximum permissible limits. The COD, chloride, nitrate and heavy metal content of water samples were also within WHO, DPR and FEPA permissible limit. This indicates that most of the physicochemical properties of the tested water samples were within the WHO, DPR and FEPA permissible limits however, water samples from borehole points 5, 16, 22, 25, 28 and 30 were slightly acidic; those from borehole points 2, 17, 18 and 30 had DO levels below the WHO recommended limits of 6.0 mg/L while BOD was higher than the WHO recommended limits of 5.0 mg/L in most of the study locations. It was evident from this study that water samples from Eliozu community were possibly contaminated as a result of its DO and BOD values; it was therefore recommended that there should be regular monitoring of these physicochemical parameters from groundwater sources in Eliozu and other Niger Delta communities to ensure quality water supply for human health.

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Mohammad Khaled Awwad Al-Maghasbeh, Habes Mahmoud Masoud Al-Khraisat

Abstract: To understand the structure function paradigm, in this paper, a new algorithm for proteins classification and prediction is proposed. It uses multi agent system technique that represents a new paradigm for conceptualizing, designing and implementing software systems to predict and classify the protein structures. For classifying the proteins support vector machine (SVM) has been developed to extract feature from the proteins sequences. This paper describes a method for predicting and classifying secondary structure of proteins. Support vector machine (SVM) modules were developed using multi-agent system principle for predicting the proteins and its function, and achieved maximum accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, of 92%, 94.09%,and 91.59% respectively. The proposed algorithm provide a good understanding for proteins structure, which affect positively on biological science specially on understanding the behavior, and the relationships between proteins.

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Pragyaditya Das., S. Pragadeesh

Abstract: Accidents due to drowsiness can be controlled and prevented with the help of eye blink sensor using IR rays. It consists of IR transmitter and an IR receiver. The transmitter transmits IR rays into the eye. If the eye is shut, then the output is high. If the eye is open, then the output is low. This output is interfaced with an alarm inside and outside the vehicle. This module can be connected to the braking system of the vehicle and can be used to reduce the speed of the vehicle. The alarm inside the vehicle will go on for a period of time until the driver is back to his senses. If the driver is unable to take control of the vehicle after that stipulated amount of time, then the alarm outside the vehicle will go on to warn and tell others to help the driver.

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Wisam Saad Azeez, Hasril Hasini, Zamri Yusoff

Abstract: Extensive Computational Fluid Dynamic simulations on combustion process in a 120 MW natural gas-fired industrial boiler have been performed. The boiler is of tangential system by which, natural gas and air are fired into the furnace from its four corners at three different elevation levels. Fuel burners and air nozzles can be tilted in the range of ± 30º.The simulation results show good prediction of temperature profile and distribution as compared to practical observation. The flow in the furnace is highly swirling with intense mixing of natural gas and air. The turbulence level is extremely high and combustion gas flows in helical shape in anti-clockwise direction towards the furnace exit. The results revealed the importance of the effect of heat transfer to the water wall, as the temperature distribution and flow pattern is significantly difference with heat transfer and without heat transfer cases. Temperature distribution prior to the entry to the re-heater elevation is non-uniform with lower velocity at vortex core, where the fireball is located. The average temperature at re-heater level reduces when the burner is negatively tilted up to -10º. A slight change in firing angle will interrupt the temperature and flow contour at furnace-re-heater. However, this is only true for air nozzles where the overall flow pattern inside the furnace is dominated by these sources..

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Tasleem Arif

Abstract: Name disambiguation has become one of the hard to crack problem in a virtual setup. With each passing day more and more entities with identical features are emerging online making it quite difficult to distinguish them. Digital libraries face similar problems in differentiating publications of similar looking authors. This leads to incorrect attribution of publications, thus making the entire effort of indexing publications of individual authors ineffective. This paper proposes a two stage hybrid similarity computation mechanism that combines the best of both the worlds. The proposed method use a token-based similarity score in this first stage of comparison and based on the results of the first stage it uses a character-based similarity score in the second stage. Experimental results obtained on standard datasets indicate that the proposed technique shows a lot of improvements over the existing methods.

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Nabajit Das, Naveen Tripathi, Sukant Khurana

Abstract: Gene regulation is vital for life and it involves plethora of mechanisms, including microRNA (miRNA) based RNA inhibition. Messenger RNA (mRNA) inhibition by miRNA requires less sequence specificity than inhibition by small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) and has different set of enzymes required for processing. The regulation and richness of RNA inhibition and specifically miRNA action is just beginning to be studied, while much work has undergone in the study of synthesis and processing of miRNA. More than 1800 unique human miRNAs have been computationally predicted and several have been experimentally validated. Given their ability to act as sequence specific regulators of the transcriptome, miRNAs have potential in therapeutics and diagnostics. We specifically focus on synthesis of current therapeutic applications of miRNA. We discuss the two different strategies in miRNA treatment: mimics and antagonists, and bring forward the promises and perils of miRNA therapy in its journey from lab to medicine.

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Aviation services industry is an important industry that holds Indonesia. Indonesia has approximately 17 thousand islands scattered with a long coastline over 5,000 kilometers. Air transport is an essential component for connecting approximately 250 million people with a population growth of 1.49 percent annually. Air transport services become business areas that are needed by today's modern society. This study aims to quantify the relationship between customer perceptions on the concept or product, price, service quality and relationship quality on customer loyalty of domestic airline in Indonesia. This study took a sample of 300 respondents. The data analyzed using SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). The results of this study is theoretical findings suggests that the product has a significant positive effect on trust, customer satisfaction and loyalty, but positive effect is insignificant on commitment. The price has significant positive effect on trust, commitment, satisfaction, but positive effect is insignificant on loyalty. Service quality has a significant positive effect on trust, commitment, satisfaction, but positive effect is insignificant on loyalty. Trust has significant positive effect on satisfaction and loyalty. Commitment has significant positive effect on loyalty, but positive effect is insignificant on loyalty. Satisfaction has significant positive effect on satisfaction and loyalty.

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Sutiawati, M. Syukri Akub, Alma Munuputty, Farida Patittingi

Abstract: This study aims to identify and understand the policy of the Indonesian criminal law on the settlement of criminal cases of domestic violence, the implementation of restorative justice on the settlement of criminal cases of domestic violence and the concept of settlement of criminal cases of domestic violence that ideal through a restorative justice approach. Overall the study population was associated with the implementation of restorative justice approaches on the settlement of criminal cases of domestic violence that the perpetrators and victims of domestic violence. Moreover chosen informant from investigators at PPA Police Unit Bone, Gowa, Tator and Majene. Samples were purposively selected. Data collection techniques used were interviews, questionnaires and documentation. Data were analyzed qualitatively. The results showed that the policy of the Indonesian criminal law on the settlement of criminal cases of domestic violence did not reflect the restorative justice approach. The application of restorative justice approach towards the settlement of criminal cases of domestic violence carried out by police investigators to reconcile victims and perpetrators and implement diversion. Concept completion criminal cases of domestic violence that ideal through a restorative justice approach is to involve the active participation of victims, offenders, families, law enforcement officers and the public, loss recovery of victims and the perpetrators.

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Oladipo Oluwasegun, Akomolafe, O.T., Oyedeji A.I

Abstract: One of the challenges facing result processing in Nigerian tertiary institutions is the problem of insecurity. Untraceable changes are made to students’ result and this result to various disasters such as innocent people losing their jobs since their innocence cannot be proven. Biometric based systems operate on behavioral and physiological biometric data to identify a person and grant required access to a user. Physiological characteristics such as fingerprint remains unchanged throughout an individual’s life time and thus, it can serve as a viable means of identifying and authenticating users who are to access a system. In this study fingerprint biometric based result processing software is developed to ensure that users are well authenticated and are made to see only what they are pre-configured to see and work with. The fingerprint authentication system was developed using visual basic.net. Staff fingerprints were enrolled into the system to form a biometric template which the system validates against at every login attempt on the result processing software. The digital personal one touch ID sdk and other libraries were used in developing the authentication system. The result processing software also ensures that all write transactions to the database are confirmed and identified by forcing another biometric authentication at the point of making a write request to the web server and associated database. This ensures that the exact person initiating the transaction was the same user who logged in to the application. The users identified at login and various confirmation milestones set for write transactions are logged into a table for future reference and audit trail. Conclusively, the developed system has helped to eradicate the problem of user impersonation by ensuring only authorized users are made to access the software and in-turn participate in result processing activities.

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Borget Alfred Anoye

Abstract: The objective of this paper was to present the factors that impede the implementation of ISO 9000 QMS within the manufacturing and service Industry of Ivory Coast. It wasn’t the intention of the author to provide detailed strategies for the readers to implement ISO 9000. It was an effort to present the relationship, if any, between the lack of ISO 9000 adoption and the perception of Ivoirians business organization leaders. For that purpose, five research questions were associated with this study. The population for this study was all non-ISO certified business organizations, in both public and private sector and was physically located in Ivory Coast. The population sample for this study was the 5044 members of the Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie de Cote d’Ivoire (CCI) from which the author utilized the sample size of 60 business organizations randomly selected. This study utilized a survey questionnaire of face to face interview as data collection method. The survey questionnaire contained thirty three (33) questions, organized in six parts, and was proposed to 60 business organizations’ leaders. The result showed that business organization leaders in Ivory Coast were aware of the ISO 900 QMS but do not have enough knowledge on the ISO 9000 QMS implementation and certification. This could be due to the poor job done by CODIMORM, the local national bureau of standards, as a source of information. However, it was found that business organization leaders in Ivory Coast intended to pursue and obtain ISO 9000 QMS certification. With respect to perceived benefits, they indicated customer satisfaction improvement as the most important benefit that ISO 9000 QMS certification could bring to their general management activities. With respect to perceived improvements, they selected quality of products/services as the most important improvement that ISO 9000 QMS implementation and certification could help to achieve. Overall, business organization leaders in Ivory Coast overall perception indicated that ISO 9000 QMS is a good quality management tool that is applicable to their organization and the country. However, they perceived the ISO 9000 QMS process as being too costly and time consuming to implement, but they are prepared to obtain more information about the ISO 9000 QMS implementation and certification processes as they will consider implementing..

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Wisam Elshareef, Hesham A. Ali, Amira Y. Haikal

Abstract: Today, cloud computing has become a key technology for online allotment of computing resources and online storage of user data in a lower cost, where computing resources are available all the time, over the Internet with pay per use concept. Recently, there is a growing need for resource management strategies in a cloud computing environment that encompass both end-users satisfaction and a high job submission throughput with appropriate scheduling. One of the major and essential issues in resource management is related to allocate incoming tasks to suitable virtual machine (matchmaking). The main objective of this paper is to propose a matchmaking strategy between the incoming requests and various resources in the cloud environment to satisfy the requirements of users and to load balance the workload on resources. Load Balancing is an important aspect of resource management in a cloud computing environment. So, this paper proposes a dynamic weight active monitor (DWAM) load balance algorithm, which allocates on the fly the incoming requests to the all available virtual machines in an efficient manner, in order to achieve better performance parameters such as response time, processing time and resource utilization. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is analyzed using Cloudsim simulator, which proves the superiority of the proposed DWAM algorithm over its counterparts in literature. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed algorithm dramatically improves response time, data processing time and more utilized of resource compared Active monitor and VM-assign algorithms.

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Demba Diallo, Moustapha Dieng, Dr. Alain Kassine Ehemba

Abstract: The performance of the chalcopyrite material Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) used as an absorber layer in thin-film photovoltaic devices is significantly affected by the presence of native defects. Multivalent defects, e.g. double acceptors or simple acceptor, are important immaterial used in solar cell production in general and in chalcopyrite materials in particular. We used the thin film solar cell simulation software SCAPS to enable the simulation of multivalent defects with up to five different charge states.Algorithms enabled us to simulate an arbitrary number of possible states of load. The presented solution method avoids numerical inaccuracies caused by the subtraction of two almost equal numbers. This new modelling facility is afterwards used to investigate the consequences of the multivalent character of defects for the simulation of chalcopyrite based CIGS. The capacitance increase with the evolution of the number of defects, C- f curves have found to have defect dependence.

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Koninika Tanzim, M. Z. Abedin

Abstract: The potential of Pomelo peel for adsorption of Methylene Blue from aqueous solution has been studied. Batch adsorption studies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of contact time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. The adsorption of methylene blue was maximum at pH 5.0. The adsorption studies show that the removal percentage of methylene blue corresponds to 95% with a retention time of 90 minutes. The optimum adsorbent dose was 1g/150ml for initial dye-concentration of 100 ppm. The Langmuir adsorption model was used for the mathematical description of adsorption equilibrium and it was found that the experimental data fitted very well to the Langmuir model.

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Priyanka Chaudhary, Kalawati Shukla, Jitendra kumar

ABSTRACT: The ground water is most prime water which has multipurpose use ranging from drinking to industrial and agricultural uses. The continuously increase in the level of pollution of water is a serious problem. The city of Gorakhpur is not untouched with this serious issue .The pollution level of the major water sources in and around the city is increase rapidly. The main objective of the present study is to study the variation of ground water quality in Gorakhpur district, by collecting 20 samples of water from hand pump from 20 locations well distributed with in Gorakhpur district were analyzed for different parameters such as pH, electric conductivity , chloride total ,free chlorine , hardness, fluoride, nitrate, iron, Turbidity, potassium. Groundwater is polluted from seepage pits, refuse dumps, septic tanks, barnyards manures, transport accident and different pollutant. Important sources of ground water pollution are sewage is dumped in shallow soak pits. It gives rise to cholera, hepatitis, dysenteries, etc. especially in areas with high water table.

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Deendayal Choudhary, Ganesh Kutty, Kaustubh Deshpande, Rechana Nadar, Sumit A. Hirve

Abstract: Internet of things is emerging to be a promising trend towards an era of connectivity. IoT is powered by the internet boom and all the different devices connected to it that share data and communicate with each other. The applications of IoT range from smart clothes to smart cities to healthcare and security and so on. This paper deals with the scope of gaming as an application of IoT. Gamers today demand complete freedom in gaming experience and are always asking for more. To provide this, the technology must be invisible yet omnipresent-that’s the essence of IoT. Alternate reality gaming is the genre of gaming that has close resemblance to the essence of IoT. ARGs are driven by storyline and typically supported through some type of online game portal that manages the game. Websites, social media tools, media broadcasts, phone calls, text messages, and sometimes person-to-person interactions are all potential elements that move the storyline along. In ARGs a story drives the game play and players are performing activities that mirror their real life. It also explores the scope of IoT games beyond just gaming and into the business world.

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Mashamba Tarashika

ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to investigate the perceived impact of the PPTCT programme on the management of parent-to-child HIV and AIDS transmission in Chikuku rural hospital community in Bikita district. A case study was used. A sample of ten expecting couples on Chikuku PPTCT programme and ten expecting mothers who were not on Chikuku PPTCT, but attending ANC there participated in the study. Five professional counsellors also participated. Questionnaires and the interviews were used as data collection instruments. The data collected was analysed and interpreted using descriptive statistics and narratives. Tables were used to present the data and each question was analysed. The general findings agree with the reviewed literature as reflected that awareness and knowledge of PPTCT services and knowledge of its benefits was common, but there were certain hurdles that need to be overcome in implementing and utilising them effectively. The clarion call is to review and reorganise the existing polices and current approaches in increasing PPTCT service uptake in communities similar to the study area. Recommendations were also made for programme implementers and policy makers in respect of the research findings in order to plan for the future.

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Obinwanne, Cletus Okechukwu

Abstract: The study evaluated some physico-chemical properties of water samples from Port Harcourt, Bonny and Opobo to determine the safety of water from the areas for sustainable coastal tourism development in Rivers State, Nigeria. Three water samples were collected with three sterilized plastic containers with a capacity of 25cl which were subjected to laboratory tests to know their constituents. The parameters tested were appearance, temperature, colour, turbidity, conductivity, PH, alkalinity, lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Ammonia, BODs and Dissolved Oxygen. The results of the water samples were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard to determine the safety of the water for human consumption and tourism development. The study revealed that Port Harcourt site has more prospects for tourism development more than Opobo study site because the Ph, alkalinity and BODs levels were lower than that of Opobo making the water safer except that the amount of dissolved oxygen was a little high in Opobo and turbidity was not detected in Opobo. The study revealed that Bonny water was very dense in appearance, dark brown in colour, highly turbid, basic and with mean concentration of the heavy metals – Lead, chromium and cadmium higher than the recommended World Health Organization (WHO) water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard and therefore not safe for drinking and swimming. Treated portable water should be provided for the people of Port Harcourt, Opobo and Bonny especially people from Bonny area and development of tourism in the state to save the people and tourists from imminent danger of fecal contaminants and toxic substances.

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Obinwanne, Cletus O., P.U. Okpoko

ABSTRACT: The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo, Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny, Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State, Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist, and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest, sacred forests, sacred rivers, lakes, beaches, fishing rivers, natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument, shrines, museums, different cultural festivals, cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park, zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore, efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

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T. Aly Saandy, M. Rakotomalala, Said Mze, A. F. Toro, A. Jaomiary

Abstract: This article presents to an analytical calculation methodology of the Steinmetz coefficient applied to the prediction of Eddy current loss in a single-phase transformer. Based on the electrical circuit theory, the active power consumed by the core is expressed analytically in function of the electrical parameters as resistivity and the geometrical dimensions of the core. The proposed modeling approach is established with the duality parallel series. The required coefficient is identified from the empirical Steinmetz data based on the experimented active power expression. To verify the relevance of the model, validations both by simulations with two in two different frequencies and measurements were carried out. The obtained results are in good agreement with the theoretical approach and the practical results.

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Somanna M B

Abstract: Nanobots will help bridge the technological gaps between physics, chemistry and biology on the nano-scale. This will lead to many innovative approaches which will result in new methods and products for both, technological and medical-pharmaceutical applications. In this report the following questions are addressed: How a nanobot works and how nanobots can contribute to medical technology. Advancement in technology is essential for the treatment of many problems such as implants related to bones and membranes. Furthermore nanobots are good candidates for these complex treatments with their size being very small. Nanobots are also considered and some are already in use as drug delivery systems and contrast agents. It is argued that coated nanobots functionalized with target molecules are interacting with external devices offering real prospective for medical applications.

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Prashant Dhotre, Sayali Shimpi, Pooja Suryawanshi, Maya Sanghati

ABSTRACT: The Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) are the primary sources to study the enhancement of health and medical care. The rapid development in science and medical technology has produced various methods to detect, verify, prevent and treat diseases. This has led to the generation of big health-care data and difficulties in processing and managing data. To capture all the information about a patient and to get a more detailed and complete view for insight into care coordination and management decisions big data technologies can be used. A more detailed and complete picture about patients and populations can be identified along with patients at risk before any health issue arises. Optimal strategies to commercialize treatments and the next generation of health care treatments can be identified and developed by it.

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Yahaya Mobmi Musa

ABSTRACT: The leaves of Carica papaya (150g) was defatted with N-Hexane and extracted with Methanol. The N-Hexane exract showed the presence of Flavonoid, Saponin, Tannin, Glycoside, Anthraquinone, Resin and Steroid while Methanolic extract showed the presence of Flavonoid, Saponin and Resins. 6g of the Methanolic extract was chromatographed using Column chromatography over Silica gel of column (200g:60-200 mesh) and eluted with the solvent mixture of CH2Cl2/CH3OH /H2O in the ratio of (70:30:1). The yield of the isolated Flavonoid was 0.23%.

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Israa M. Alsaadi

Abstract: With the fast increasing of the electronic crimes and their related issues, deploying a reliable user authentication system became a significant task for both of access control and securing user’s private data. Human biometric characteristics such as face, finger, iris scanning ,voice, signature and other features provide a dependable security level for both of the personal and the public use. Many biometric authentication systems have been approached for long time. Due to the uniqueness of human biometrics witch played a master role in degrading imposters’ attacks. Such authentication models have overcome other traditional security methods like passwords and PIN. This paper aims to briefly address the psychological biometric authentication techniques. Also a brief summary to the advantages, disadvantages and future developments of each method is provided in this paper.

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Francisco Martínez Flores

ABSTRACT: We have carried out an exhaustive analysis of the scope of Relativity, showing that it is possible to couple it with Quantum Theory, but not with Classical Mechanics In order to do that, we have introduced the concept of electromagnetic and virtual mass to all particles subjected to Quantum Field Theory, radically different from the real or inertial mass included in Newtonian Dynamics, which turns out the adequate status to understand quantum phenomena without resorting to explanations difficult to admit. In that line we have considered the particles so-called Tachyon, for which we made a reformulation of the relativistic equation avoiding the space-like or negative interval (non-causal); thus, it has been demonstrated its identification with antiparticles, on account of the peculiar behavior of energy and momentum regarding the particles and photons.

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Nilesh B. Kalani

Abstract : This paper discusses about IEEE 802.11b simulation model implemented using LabVIEW® software and its analyses for impact on bit error rate (BER) for different parameters as channel type, channel number, data transmission rate and packet size. Audio file is being transmitted, processed and analyzed using the model for various parameters. This paper gives analysis of BER verses ES/N0 for various parameter like data rate, packet size and communication channel for the IEEE 802.11b simulation model generated using LabVIEW®. It is proved that BER can be optimized by tweaking different parameters of wireless communication system.

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Munzali S. Zubair, Musa Hassan.Muhammad, R.G. Ahmad, Umar A.A

Abstract: Many softwares that have been used for identification DNA mirror repeats were not simple and effective for finding mirror repeats, so a new method for the identification of mirror repeats within the gene sequences in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms has been developed and now is available. The method is called FAST PARALLEL COMPLEMENT BLAST which is the easiest method for observing mirror repeats in bacterial genome and other eukaryotic genome. This simple method involves only three steps: Downloading sequence of mycobacterium tuberculosis gene using NCBI in FASTA format, Making a Parallel complement, and searching for mirror repeats using BLAST which shows the homology between the original sequence and the parallel complement sequence. We explored twenty genes (20) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv for DNA mirror repeats and the result shows that mirror repeats of 18 genes were successfully found. Furthermore, nobody knows the exact role of mirror repeats yet and detailed mechanisms and functions of most repeats are still unknown.

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Romeo C. Ongpoy

Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the phytochemical contents and evaluate the antimicrobial property of Alocasia sanderiana Bull. against a large number of pathogens. To do this, Alocasia sanderiana Bull. was screened for qualitative phytochemical tests including thin layer chromatography. Aside from the crude extract from the Rotary evaporator, three fractions from the plant were prepared using methanol, dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane. The 4 solvent extracts were then evaluated for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion method on 18 strains of organisms. About this study, it was found out that triterpenes, tannins and saponins are present during phytochemical screening. Zones of inhibitions during the antimicrobial tests were observed but did not reach the desired zone for antimicrobial activity. The DCM fraction produced 4 mm zone against Proteus mirabilis, 3 mm for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 mm for Pectobacterium carotovorum and 1 mm for Candida albicans. The methanol fraction also produced a 1 mm zone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results show that Alocasia sanderiana Bull. leaf extracts contain polyphenolic compounds but this study shows that it exhibits non-active antimicrobial activity against the 18 strains that it was tested and may not be utilized as a potential antimicrobial drug for the said strains.

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Roopali VIj

Abstract: as the world of knowledge based systems and digital knowledge sharing grows, business models involving document management and storage of large blocks of files is becoming the need of the hour. It is very essential to select the correct and efficient file system to store the files in order to ease the retrieving and addition of files. Alhough using cloud technologies to save such data offers flexibility, the biggest challenge is to select whether to opt for a distributed file system mounted over cloud virtual machines or use Paas based file storages available as platforms. Here, we compare the performance of two environments both deployed on a same storage account on Azure cloud. One is GlusterFS file system mounted on a virtual machine on Azure and the other is Paas based Azure blob storage using a website for encryption hosted on Azure.

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Adjei Mensah Isaac, Agyei Wallace, Kwasi Boateng

Abstract: Maternal Mortality in Ghana continues to be a major public health problem despite many strategies devised by the international community to reduce it. The United Nations (UN, 2009) reports indicates that more than 1500 women die each day from pregnancy related causes resulting in an estimated figure of 550,000 maternal deaths annually. This paper applies logistic regression model to determine the key factors that have significant effect to predicting the occurrence or non-occurrence of maternal mortality incidence. An annual maternal mortality data from 2007 to 2012 from Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) was analyzed. The results showed that AGE, PARITY and GRAVIDA contributes significantly to the occurrence of maternal mortality.

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Dr. Ch. Beda Devi

Abstract: The present study is an attempt to examine school adjustment and academic achievement among tribal adolescent students in two districts of Manipur. The study also attempts to examine the high and low academic achievers of tribal students of the two areas. The sample comprised of 629 XI standard tribal adolescent students. Out of which 136 were from Imphal West and 493 were from Ukhrul district. A standardized school adjustment inventory for adolescent students developed by the investigator was used. For academic achievement the last public examination i.e. H.S.L.C. marks were used as the index of academic achievement. The findings revealed that a low positive correlation between school adjustment and academic achievement in both the districts. It was also reveals that high academic achievers had better adaptability in school than that of low academic achievers

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Ismail Mohamed Fangama, Abubaker Haroun Mohamed Adam, Mohammed Ibrahim Abdelsalam, Mohammed Abdelkreim, Gammereldean Abderahman Ibrahim, Abdelbasit Alhaseen Almagboul

Abstract: The objectives of the research is to find out the organic compounds of the leaves and seeds ofAervajavanicaand to find out means to know more about the shrub which is unknown by the majority of people.The sample measured in the Near infra-Red Spectrometer (NIR) to find out the percentage of organic composition of the leaves and seeds after three readings. The analysis shows that Protein in the seeds is very high than in the leaves which is equal to 74.93% of the total composition of the seeds and the acid detergent fibers is higher in the leaves than in the seeds which is equal to 72.03%.

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Azhar Susanto

Abstract:The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of quality of accounting information on the implementation good study program governance. The unit of analysis in this study is head of the study program, secretarial of the study program, accounting staff, lecturer and student of higher education in Bandung-Indonesia. The results showed that the quality of accounting information have a significant effect on the implementation of good study program governance. Furthermore it was found that the quality of accounting information has implication for good study program governance.

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Amanze B.C,Ononiwu C.C, Nwoke B.C, Amaefule I.A

ABSTRACT: This paper was centered on computerized stadium information management system. It is worthy to note that the current process of information management is being operated manually and due to this procedure, numerous problems are encountered especially in the management of the crowd and ticket processing. The motivation of the software is to eliminate the manual procedures in the stadium and proper auditing is carried out in ensuring that those selling the tickets are authorized personal. The objective of the system is to successfully implement the computerized procedure and to overcome the obstacle that would hinder the successful implementation of the system. Research methodology (practical and objective research techniques) was used to outlines the way in which research was undertaken and, among other things. The new system which is the expected data provides management software and advisory services to the sports and entertainment sector; the new system was designed using Microsoft visual studio (2010 Ultimate) as the front end and Microsoft SQL server as the back end. This language was chosen because it is easy to read and understand. It is real time and user friendly.

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Abubaker Haroun Mohamed Adam, Ismail Mohamed Fangama Abdalla, Mohammed Abdelkreim, Gammareldain, A. Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to investigate soil type, potentiality and reaction in relation to the scattered remaining vegetation species, and to quantify soil suitability for growing field crops. Adham area witnessed serious land degradation due to the rapid expansion of Rain-fed Mechanized Farming and overgrazing. Consequently, the low crop yield enforced the local communities to shift to the alternative sources of income generating activities, particularly those related to forest products like charcoal making, firewood production, logging and tree lobbing. By using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), with emphasizes on Macro nutrients, particularly the Nitrogen, Phosphorous and potassium (NPK) in addition to soil pH and Electrical Conductivity (EC.), random soil samples, each with three levels of depths (0 - 15, 15 - 30, 30 - 45 cm.) were collected. All collected data were analyzed in the laboratory. The result of revealed several types of soils including the cracking and non -cracking clay, sandy, and red soils. The result of statistical analysis depicted variability in NPK, pH and EC between the different locations and soil depths. Furthermore, the result showed an association between some studied soil attributes and the spatial distribution of the vegetation species. Rational use through participatory approach is recommended for natural resources management, conservation and sustainability. Moreover, further study using space technology also recommended.

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Wali Saputra

Abstract: Audit Quality is an audit conducted in accordance with auditing standards generally acceptable that can detect and report material misstatements in the financial statements include disclosure relating either caused by an error / fault or fraud, is able to provide assurance of internal control, and is able to provide going concern warnings. audit quality is affected by the auditor's independence. The more independent an auditor then increasing audit quality.

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S. Vijayalakshmi

Abstract: The symbiotic and associated four marine bacteria BR1 (Flavobacterium sp.) isolated from Barnacle Balanus amphitrite,EM13 (Micrococus sp.) from Seaweed Enteromorpha compressa,PC4 (Alcaligenes sp.) from Ascidian Polyclinum constellatum and SW12 (Bacillus sp.) from seawater were cultured and extracted for pharmacological activities. The ethyl acetate extracts of these marine bacterial culture supernatants were screened for pharmacological activities such as Anti inflammatory, Analgesic and CNS depressant activities using experimental animal model. In this study,SW12 exhibited high activity for both Anti inflammatory and Analgesic. Especially which exhibited highest analgesic activity than standard drug pethidine. Another one PC4 showed highest analgesic activity similar to standard drug. Other two extracts EM13 and BR1 showed high activity in CNS depressant. Based on the result, SW12 is a highly potent strain, it may produce novel compound for pharmacological drug.

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Yunusa Tukur, Haruna Ibrahim

Abstract: This investigation was necessitated to find other feedstocks for biodiesel production that would not compete with food. Kapok oil with 0.8 FFA was transesterified with methanol using a heterogeneous catalyst, CaO to determine its potential for biodiesel production. Methyl esters yields of 70.4, 65.6, 78.2, 71.9 and 72.5% were obtained with catalyst loading of 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0 and 2.4% (wt. of oil). The products had high compositions of FFA and alcohols which indicates that the oil require more esterification to reduce the feedstock FFA far below 0.8. Some unsaturated hydrocarbons such as alkenes and alkynes were also formed which could make the products unstable.

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P. Sumathi, T. Brindha

Abstract: Let G=(V,E) be a simple, undirected, finite nontrivial graph. A set SÍV of vertices of a graph G = (V, E) is called a dominating set if every vertex vÎV is either an element of S or is adjacent to an element of S. A set SÍV is a set dominating set if for every set TÍV-S , there exists a non-empty set RÍS such that the subgraph is connected. The minimum cardinality of a set dominating set is called set domination number and it is denoted by γs (G).Let P=(V1,V2) be a partition of V,from E(G) remove the edges between V1 and V2 in G and join the edges between V1 and V2 which are not in G. The graph G2p thus obtained is called 2-complement of G with respect to ‘P’.

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A. Acharya, R.L.Nayak, T.Sahoo

Abstract: The form factor of a separable interaction between a pair of particles is an important input in a three body calculation for a transfer reaction. The three body equations of Alt, Grassberger and Sandhas have been solved for a system of three particles viz.(p, n and 16O)and (p, n and 40Ca) when coulomb interaction is included between the particle pairs. The input in this calculation i.e. the two body t-matrices representing the interaction between the pairs of particles is taken to be of a separable form conforming to the bound state of the pair. The form factors of the total interaction between the particle pairs are constructed using the prescription of Ueta and Bund.

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Sarah E Van-Ess, Justice Nonvignon, Duah Dwomoh, Michael Calopietro, Wim van der Hoek, Flemming Konradsen, Moses Aikins

Background: The world leaders have decided to increase the sanitation coverage in areas of with poor access and monitor the progress. However, data collection via existing paper-based monitoring and evaluation (M & E) survey tools has limitations, including the approach used in Ghana. Therefore, there is the need to test new innovative M & E tools for monitoring sanitation practices. Objective: To compare a mobile phone short messaging service (SMS) M & E survey tool with a paper based format in a rapidly expanding peri-urban setting of Prampram, Ghana. Methods: Four hundred and fifty-eight adults with access to a mobile phone were purposely selected. Next, they were randomly assigned to the group using SMS or the group reporting on sanitation practices through a paper-based survey method. Respondents were asked to answer 5 questions on sanitation practices once every quarter over a one-year period. Non-responders were interviewed to ascertain reasons for non-response. A subset of 227 respondents were interviewed to obtain information on acceptability, ease of use and level of privacy of the two M & E survey tools. Results: Respondents from this study, found the mobile phone SMS M & E survey tool to be feasible although the tool was unacceptable, not user friendly and offered a low level of privacy as compared to the paper tool. Conclusions: The mobile phone SMS M & E tool cannot replace paper-based tool for sanitation M & E in Ghana. Further studies could examine alternative mobile phone applications, for example the use of pictorial mobile phone technology for data collection among low-literacy populations.

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T. Aly Saandy, M. Rakotomalala, Said Mze, A. F. Toro, A. Jaomiary

This article presents to an analytical calculation methodology of the Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements applied to the prediction of Eddy current loss in a single-phase transformer. Based on the electrical circuit theory, the active and reactive powers consumed by the core are expressed analytically in function of the electromagnetic parameters as resistivity, permeability and the geometrical dimensions of the core. The proposed modeling approach is established with the duality parallel series. The equivalent diagram elements, empirically determined by Steinmetz, are analytically expressed using the expressions of the no loaded transformer consumptions. To verify the relevance of the model, validations both by simulations with different powers and measurements were carried out to determine the resistance and reactance of the core. The obtained results are in good agreement with the theoretical approach and the practical results.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - December 2016 - Volume 5 Issue 12