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IJSTR Volume 5 - Issue 9, September 2016 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Kisman M. Mahmud, Sri Anastasia Yudistirani, Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan

Thermoelectrically Generator (TEG) can generate electricity from the temperature difference between hot and cold, at the junction thermoelectric module with two different semiconductor materials, there will be a flow of current through the junction so as to produce a voltage. This principle uses the Seebeck effect thermoelectric generator as a base. By using these principles, this study was conducted to determine the potential of the electric energy of the two Peltier modules which would be an alternative source for micro electricity plant using heat from methylated. The focus of this research is to design a model TEG (Thermoelectric Generator) Small Modular to produce the kind of material that is optimum for a TEG on the simulation Computer Aided Design (CAD) with a variety of four different materials that Bi2Te3 (Bismuth Telluride), PbTe-BiTe, CMO-32 -62S Cascade and CMO-32-62S [Calcium Manganese Oxide], to its cold side using the heat sink fan and simulating heat aluminum plate attached to the hot side of the TEG modules with heat source of methylated. Model simulation results on TEG Small Modular micro electrical plant material obtained CMO-32-62S Cascade thermal material that has a value greater than 3 other material.

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1-6  



Mohamed R. Elabnody

Open Source LMSs are fully flexible and customizable, so they can be designed in line with your school/organization's brand image. Open Source LMSs can also be converted to social learning platforms. You can create an online community through your LMS. This paper describes the most important features in learning management systems (LMS), that are critical to compare and contrast depend on your system requirements. Also represents a multiple LMS providers that are designed to use in university environment.

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7-11  



Md. Lokman Ali, Md. Zahidur Rahaman

We have investigated the electronic and optical properties of TiB monoboride using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for exchange and correlation. Ground state properties such as lattice constant, cell volume and bulk modulus are calculated. The optimized lattice constant is in good agreement with the experimental and available theoretical results. The band structure and density of states (DOS) have been calculated along high symmetry directions in the first brillouin zone. The calculated band structure predicts that the TiB compound is metal. Further the features of optical properties such as reflectivity, absorption, refractive index, dielectric function, conductivity, loss function are obtained and discussed. All these calculations have been carried out using CASTEP computer code. This is the first theoretical prediction of these properties.

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12-15  



B.M.MJ. Harshani, R.A.U.J. Marapana

One of the most important processes in soft drink production is bottle washing; high quality of the product depends on that. A main objective of the present study is to determine the impact of total caustic and effective caustic strength on the washing performance of glass bottles. Total and effective caustic strength in samples were measured based on titration results. Four parameters were considered on the washing performance of glass bottles such as Microbiological Tests (APC and Yeast & Molds), Methylene blue test, Phenolphthalein test and Physical inspection. Ten samples were tested for every test per each time and three times were considered for a day and conduct for 43 days (within two caustic drains out periods). Negative correlations in between total, effective caustic strengths with time (Days) indicate from 29 days onward in tanks. There is a Positive correlation (P < 0.05) in between Carbonates (g/ml) and time (Days) onward. Positive correlations (P < 0.05) indicate from 35 days onward for the number of algae present bottles, number of dirty bottles and APC too. Twenty nine days from the initial charge of caustic soda can be taken as the most suitable day for the caustic discharge. Under the practical scenario, mean differences of total and effective caustic strengths (%) are negligible compared to the standard value and not significantly difference (P > 0.05).

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16-18  



Okolie Paul Chukwulozie, Oluwadare Benjamin Segun,Obika Echezona Nnaemeka,Nwadike Emmanuel Chinagorom, Olagunju Suraj Jare

The ever-increasing demand on engineers to lower production costs to withstand global competition has prompted engineers to look for rigorous methods of decision making such as optimization methods, to design and produce products and systems both economically and efficiently. This paper improved the batch production per month of Glass production, a case study of Beta Glass limited. Their production data was optimized using Response surface modeling tool to obtain the optimum production process of the raw materials. Response surface regression analysis was used to estimate the coefficient of the dependent variables using the production raw data with the coefficient of determination (R-sq.) being 100%, this shows the relationships of the variables.From the analysis, their production yield increased from 4,280 batches of bottles per month, to an optimal value of 5,340 batches of bottles per month.

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19-27  



Mulumpwa, M., Jere, W.W.L., Mtethiwa, A.H.N., Kakota, T.Kang’ombe, J.

The Labeo mesops together with its family members, the cyprinids have been reported declining in population. The exploitation levels are not matching the species carrying capacity for the populations to rejuvenate. As such several management strategies including restocking were put in place to restore the fishery. There is a need to quantify the efficiency of these strategies in managing and restoring the species fishery. The study aimed at modelling and forecasting Labeo mesops (Ntchira), yield from artisanal fishery on Lake Malawi in Mangochi district based on time series data on catches of the species during the years of 1976 to 2012 collected from the Department of Fisheries in Malawi. The study considered Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) processes to select an appropriate stochastic model for forecasting the species yield. The appropriate model was chosen based on ARIMA (p, d, q). The Autocorrelation function (ACF), Partial autocorrelation (PACF), Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), Box–Ljung statistics, correlogram and distribution of residual errors were estimated. The selected modelwas ARIMA (0, 1, 1) for forecasting the artisanal landings of Labeo mesops from Lake Malawi in Mangochi District from the year 2013 to 2022. The forecast showed that the species could have already collapsed since the forecast were in negatives meaning that the stock of Labeo mesopsmay no longer be available by the year 2022 in the landings holding other factors constant. The study showed that the current fisheries management strategies are failing to manage the artisanal Labeo mesops fishery in the region as it is succumbing to the theory of ‘Tragedy of Commons’.

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28-40  



Sumaira Yousuf Khan, Nasir uddin Khan, Mushtaq Hussain, Farhan Mazhar, Abdul Mannan

Calculating the shortest path between two locations in a road network is a significant problem in network analysis. Roads play a pivotal role in day to day activities of masses live in places and areas. They travel for various purposes that are, to study, to work, to shop and to supply their goods and the like, from one place to another place. Even in this modern era, roads remain one of the mediums used most frequently for travel and transportation. Being ignorant of the shortest routes people sometimes have to travel long distances, consume extra precious time, money and bare undesirable mental stress. Karachi is the second most populated and the seventh biggest city of the world. It is the central place of Pakistan, which is famous for industry, banking, trade and economic activity, and there are places which frequently visit by the inhabitants for their miscellaneous requirements. Federal Board of Revenue (FBR) is one of the departments that deal with taxation and revenue generation in the country. A common man residing near or distant areas often visit FBR to settle their business / property and tax related issues. In order to facilitate the masses, an effort is being made to develop a prototype based on Dijkstra’s Algorithm (DA) to establish a shortest route, that will help individuals in navigation and subsequently alleviate difficulties faced by them in travelling/ road networks.

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41-44  



Tony Imunyo Isebe

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an aquatic weed infesting rivers, dams, lakes and irrigation channels. The plant has affected the marine environment with billions of shillings being lost yearly in controlling it and also in economic losses. The plant is causing severe hindrances to the individual nation’s developmental activities. It clogs waterways making boating, fishing and all other water activities impossible. The plant spreads via the waves from the bay to bay blocking waterways and affecting aquatic life as it takes up oxygen from the water. Owing to its tremendous growth, it has threatened the diversity of local native plants alongside the physical and chemical composition of the aquatic environment. It grows very fast and spreads widely across the water body. However, despite this problem the plant has the potential to be used as a medicinal plant. The primary objective of the study was to determine the phytochemical composition and the antibacterial properties of the plant against selected strains of bacteria and determine whether it can be exploited for therapeutic purposes. The plant material for use in the study was obtained from Lake Victoria and classified taxonomically at Botany Department, Egerton University. The crude extract of Eichhornia crassipes was analyzed for phytochemical composition. The crude extract was then subjected to antibacterial assay against bacterial isolates such as Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Phytochemical analysis of Eichhornia crassipes depicted the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids and the terpenoids. Additionally, the crude extract of the plant portrayed potential antibacterial activities against some bacterial isolates. Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus showed some level of sensitivity to the crude extract of Eichhornia crassipes. However, there was no activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured for the bacterial isolates that showed sensitivity towards the aqueous extract.

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45-52  



Ali Hadian

Today the organizations used information technology in performing human resource department affairs and this is called as electronic human resource management (EHRM). In fact as the competitive complexity increases, the need for implementing EHRM in production and service businesses increases too. This paper is written in order to specify the importance of implementing EHRM in production and service organizations and also to evaluate efficiency rate and the importance degree in these two ones. In this paper first the topic's literature and the most important aspects of implementing these systems will be reviewed and after categorizing these views, the hierarchal model will be proposed by applying AHP method. The result of analyzing this model by EXPERT CHOICE software shows that implementing EHRM in both kinds of organizations has the same importance; however there is a large difference between them in implementing aspects.

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53-56  



Amna Batool, Mahira Arooj

Complex Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) exhibit complex etiological and genetic features, and the mutations have a fundamental role in this complexity, including common polymorphisms and rare variations in a single gene or cluster of genes. The analysis of complex NDDs have shown that the genetics has the major role in causation of such complex diseases. Interestingly both mutations and polymorphisms are involved, occurring in a single gene or clusters of genes. Likewise, a single gene variation may also be involved in multiple neurological disorders making the diagnosis of neurological diseases more difficult. Many candidate genes and chromosomal regions have been identified that are widely involved in neurological symptoms which necessitates the genotypic approach for describing the phenotype.

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57-67  



Ramesh G, Kavitha C, Narendra Swaroop K

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology that is creating an enormous network of things communicating with one another. It involves a broad set of technologies, hardware and software stacks. Data, humans, devices and communication are critical elements of an IoT ecosystem. The primary purpose of this research paper is to provide an advantageous application in day to day life in redeemable time factor. Now a day’s shopping at malls is a daily or weekly activity of domestic life. Survey states during the initial week of month and weekends are the peak sale periods at shopping malls and super markets. Often equivalent time is taken for billing and payment as time taken for shopping. The Application introduced in this paper provides smart solution to redeemable time.

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68-70  



Chun-Chin Chiu, Hao-Erl Yang

The design of a website interface plays an important role in online purchasing, and customers are more likely to visit and buy from better-designed websites. However, previous studies have not provided consistent information about the features a website should provide. Based on Hausman and Siekpe’s (2009) comprehensive model, this study aims to empirically verify whether the model can be applied in e-service markets to predict and explain website users’ behavioral intentions (trade intentions and revisit intentions). Based on the data from a survey of 303 Internet users, the results indicate that computer factors and human factors, the key website design features, are significantly related to website users' experiences: perceived usefulness, perceived entertainment value, and perceived informativeness, in turn, significantly affect the intermediary outcomes of attitude toward the site and, ultimately, influence users' behavioral intentions.

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71-78  



Hery Sutejo, Mustofa Agung Sardjono, Abubakar M. Lahjie, Abdul Fatah

The purpose of this research to determine the type of crops cultivated by people in Community Forest in Sungai Wain Protection Forest . Purposive sampling, interviews and field observations were used to obtain primary data. The results showed that the types of annuals crops that are grown are banana, rice, maize, ginger, celery, and others, and the perennials crops species is jackfruit, rubber, lai, durian, etc.Conclution : community planted types of annual crops and perennial crops in community forests of the protected forests.

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Shisia K. Silvanus, Naumih N., Nyambaka H, Andala D.M

The increased demand for oil to supply the needs of industry and motorists has exposed the water sources to one of the greatest threats. The removal of selective organic pollutants such as phenanthrenes in aqueous solution was investigated by adsorption process on fabricated CNT-IPSF/Fe3O4 nanocomposites. Characterization of products confirmed the synthesis of individual nanomaterials in the nanocomposites. The SEM image of prepared CNTs showed configuration with abundant threadlike entities whose TEMs further confirmed evidence for formation of MWCNTs. The silica modified magnetite (Fe3O4.SiO2) nanoparticles had clear, distinct and spherical shaped nanoparticles arranged in a 2-D closed packed manner. The XRD diffraction pattern showed well crystalline magnetite silica NPs with particle size 22.4 nm from the Debye-Scherrer equation. The SEM–EDAX analysis revealed large quantities of dispersive magnetite NPs with moderately uniform and cubic structures in the fabricated CNT-IPSF/Fe3O4 nanocomposites. Adsorption parameters were optimized at adsorbent dose (6 mg/20ml), contact time (40 mins), pHPZC (4.5) and pH 5. Adsorption kinetics followed pseudo second order kinetics while the adsorption isotherm favored was Freundlich isotherms. The nanocomposites were not largely affected by of counter PAHs as its removal efficiency was 42.2 % and 40.8 % in the presence of naphthalene and anthracene respectively. This was replicated in its application in phenanthrenes removal from industrial wastewater in which the nanocomposites showed 63 % phenanthrenes removal. The trend for the studied desorption solvents was acetone > hexane > methanol which had 47 %, 42 % and 22 % removal efficiency respectively. The adsorption-desorption cycles involved a small volume of phenanthrene concentrates being recovered with gradual decrease in adsorption capacity for phenanthrene from 33.46 - 28.68 µg/g after three cycles. The desorption efficiency of phenanthrenes increased from to 49.81 to 56.98 wt.% implying that the developed nanocomposites could be advantageously be reused several times in removal of toxic phenanthrenes from industrial waste water.

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Dr. Eliana Sari, M.M.

The phenomenon of the rise of unemployment among educated scholars, particularly in urban areas, can be a serious threat to the stability of the economy, politics and security in Indonesia. The low absorption of labor among the educated scholars, indicate the educational process in college is not optimal. The quality of education in Jakarta Capital City becomes the mirror of the quality of education in Indonesia, as a reference for the educational process in other areas and a quality barometer of education in Indonesia in the eyes of the international community. The not optimally information system in educational environments management proved has an effect on student learning motivation and resulting in low quality of educated bachelor graduates in Jakarta. Increasing the effectiveness of optimally information system in educational environments management through the provision of an information collection of the physical elements maintenance and the information unit of social elements development that conducted in integrated manner is believed to strengthen the students' learning motivation. Students that have a high stimulation of learning requirement, a strong encouragement of learning energy and an increasethe intensity of learning effort, there will be more enthusiasm in learning, determined to complete the task, tenacious in facing the adversity, thoroughly solve the problem, dare to show an interest, and the desire to show a talents in a creative ways. In the end, students will become more skilled, confident, and productive economically and socially.

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93-98  



Puji Astuti, Wawan Kustiawan, Sukartiningsih dan Afif Ruchaemi

This study aimed to test the tolerance of callus cells of the Al and get Falcataria moluccana Al tolerant plantlets in vitro. The study used a completely randomized design (CRD) 2 factors. To determine the effect of treatment, the use of variance . To determine the level of treatment that significantly by Tukey's test used SPSS v.22.0. The results showed that callus cells F. moluccana tolerant of Al to the level of 180 ppm, while media treatment with 2,4-D 1 ppm favor callus cell tolerance to Al. F. moluccana tolerant Al plantlets until the Al content of 180 ppm which has a high average of 3.15±0.52 cm and 9.02±0.60 cm, number of roots, 2.40±0.70 to 9.10 and root length averaging 1.33 ± 8.23 cm . Tolerance plantlets F. moluccana against Al indicated by the PAR of 81.68 % on the Al content of 135 ppm , while at 180 ppm Al is somewhat tolerant.

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99-105  



Sukanta, Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan

PT Asia Pacific Fibers Tbk is a leading polyester producer in Indonesia precisely in Karawang, West Java. Production produced namely chip Semmidull (SD) and Chip Super Bright (SBR) in the production process of the company cannot make a product Chip simultaneously or only producing one type of product and if there is a request to change the product it must go through a transition phase in advance, in every transitional phase requires considerable material or suboptimal use of raw materials. In this study using the Simplex method in an attempt to minimize the amount of material used up activities of the transition process to be optimal. Research was conducted on the transition process of polyester chips which is one of the production process flow which often experience obstacles - obstacles or activities - activities that do not add value so that a lot of unused material optimally. Based on the research that has been done by using the Simplex method with the optimum solution is obtained by focusing the use of materials amounted to 1.4274 Kg PTA and EG at 0.2632 Kg material so as to minimize the cost of material amounted Rp.111967, 72. Calculated starting from the beginning of the transition process that begins by setting the level of 0.27% until the establishment titan SBR chip. With the amount of use of the material is expected to be enough to meet the transition process products, and the company also benefited from the use of the amount of material standards can reduce the production costs of the process of transition, and taking into account the quality of the product that has become the rule, such as the levels of phosphorus in Chips SBR should appropriate that has been set at 25 + 5 ppm, and does not contain compounds TiO2 (titan) which can reduce the quality of the SBR Chips.

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106-110  



Degadzor F. Asigbe, Adamu M. Mustapha, Collinson C. M. Agbesi , Botchey F. Ephraim , Anibrika S.K. Bright Prof. Somuah Clement

Due to the increase in the easy accessibility of computers and mobile phones alike, routing has become indispensable in deciding how computes communicate especially modern computer communication networks. This paper presents performance analysis between EIGRP and OSPFP for real time applications using Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET). In order to evaluate OSPF and EIGRP’s performance, three network models were designed where 1st, 2nd and 3rd network models are configured respectively with OSPF, EIGRP and a combination of EIGRP and OSPF. Evaluation of the proposed routing protocols was performed based on quantitative metrics such as Convergence Time, Jitter, End-to-End delay, Throughput and Packet Loss through the simulated network models. The evaluation results showed that EIGRP protocol provides a better performance than OSPF routing protocol for real time applications. By examining the results (convergence times in particular), the results of simulating the various scenarios identified the routing protocol with the best performance for a large, realistic and scalable network.

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111-117  



Ethar Ali, Dr. Ahmed Elzain Elhassan, Hamid M. Mustafa, Omer Hassan Abdelrhman Alyas

This research is focused on the economic feasibility of using multi-effect evaporators (MEV) for the production of potable water, for the city of Port Sudan, the main port of Sudan. Port Sudan city suffers from chronic shortage of potable water. The study has shown that five effect evaporator plant in Port Sudan can produce 1.41*106 m3/year at a unit cost of 5$/m3 with a pay-back period of 7 years. A simulation of the MEV has been performed using Aspen Hysys (version 7.3) and produced results were very much similar to these obtained manually.

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118-121  



Anjana Mariam Alex, P. Geena George, Dr. Alice Mathai

Right from lift-off, launch vehicles are subjected to extreme dynamic pressure, aero and structure borne excitations. Inter-stage is fundamental to the vehicle as it houses the different control equipments, actuators, sensors, motors and avionic packages. This paper involves the creation of two different models so as to study the correlation using two approaches, Finite Element method and Hybrid Method, involving Statistical Energy Analysis and Finite Element Analysis. The correlation of the response obtained on the Inter-stage from an acoustic ground test to that from the analytical test results carried out with VA One is also addressed in this paper.

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122-125  



Purohit Sadanand Chandrashekhar

Concept of the multilevel inverter is same as the other inverter which is to converts Direct current (DC) to Alternating current (AC) .The inverted current can be at any vital voltage and frequency with the use of pertinent transformers, switching, and control circuits. From the source like batteries, solar panel, wind turbine, or fuel cell the inverter will convert the DC electricity to AC electricity. In this modern technology, Power electronics is very important where it used in a great variety of product. With the high potential in high power for industry, multilevel inverter will become most popular for so many applications.

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126-128  



Nada M. Al- Galawi, Ali A. H. Al-Tameemi, Sarah H. Al-Jarrah

Corrosion of reinforcing steel bars in reinforced concrete is considered as one of the biggest problems that face countries overlooking to the Arabian Gulf, including Iraq. The research aims to study the effect of the corrosion of steel bars in concrete structures that are exposed to wetting and drying via waves. Reinforced concrete samples were exposed to marine simulated environment for 90 days using prepared system for this purpose. At the end of exposure period, polarization test was implemented to measure the actual corrosion rate in each sample. After that, the corrosion process was accelerated using "impressed current technique" by applying a constant electric current (DC) to the reinforcing bars. Depending on the corrosion current in natural conditions which was measured in polarization test, periods of exposing samples to accelerated corrosion current so as to maintain virtual exposure ages of 5 and 25 years of exposure to natural corrosion, were calculated. The results showed a remarkable increase in the corrosion current of steel bars in samples that had lower concrete cover thickness. The increase in the cover thickness from 20mm to 40 and 65 mm had a significant effect on reducing the corrosion current at the age of 90 days to about 70% of its original value, in both cases. At the virtual exposure age of 5 years, the reduction percentage in the corrosion current resulted from increasing cover thickness from 20mm to 40 and 65 mm were 43% and 79 % respectively.

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129-133  



GOPAL SINGH

In the present work, a simple and very effective mathematical model is designed for tourist hotels of LEVEL 2. Location of hotels, building structure of hotels, quality of hotels, feedback of hotels and advertisement of hotels are as input factors. Trapezoidal membership function and triangular membership function are used for fuzzification process and defuzzification is done by COG technique. The fuzzy logic has been utilized in several different approaches to modeling “the selection of tourist hotels” process. This model addressed the hotel of LEVEL2 and this model concludes that the hotel is LEVEL 2 with degree of precision 52.15 %.

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134-139  



Sunethra Gunatilake, Sarath Malavipathirana

This research was focused on the understanding of the biodegradability of synthetic anionic detergent powder available in Sri Lankan market. Eight different types of synthetic detergent powders were selected. LAS contents of the selected products were measured according to ASTM: D 3049-89 standard. The biodegradability was measured as the reduction percentage of LAS initially present, within a specific period. The phosphate content in the detergents were measured by SLS: 760, 1986 method and the pH of the media also was obtained to find any relationship between these parameters. The results found that the biodegradability of LAS in detergent powder is ranged between 24%-79%. This study found that the biodegradability of anionic surfactants highly depend on the phosphate content of the product. According to SLS 760:1986, minimum LAS %which has to be maintained in the Sri Lankan synthetic detergent and the existing legislations for the manufacturing, marketing and consuming of detergent products should have modified for the health and safety environment. Therefore further studies need to be conducted to determine the maximum allowable level of phosphates lead to the highest level of biodegradability.

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140-142  



Karan Bhatta, Balaram Khadka, Peter Wilhelm Schnoor

The D-layer is the lowest layer of the ionosphere which is capable of reflecting Very Low Frequency (VLF)/Low Frequency (LF) waves. In this work, we analyze the VLF/LF waves of 37453.125 Hz transmitted from two VLF/LF transmitting towers in Grindavik, Iceland which was received in the Kiel Longwave Monitor, Germany for the year 2015. We did a graphical analysis of the variation of the intensity of the field associated with the VLF/LF of the respective frequency along with time. We recorded the Sunrise terminal time, the Sunset terminal time and compared the VLF/LF day and normal day, which is an indicator of the state of the formation of the D-layer. The comparison of sunrise and D-layer formation times with the standard 2σ lines was done. For several months such as January, February and March of 2015, intense anomalies were observed in both the sunrise terminator times and d-layer formation times. This gives us a possibility that the changes in these timings might be associated with intense volcanic activity which was observed in Iceland which stated off in Bardarbunga in August 2014 and ended only on 27th February 2015. Along with the volcanic activity, large amount of earthquakes were associated with the volcano. The magma released from the volcanoes along with huge amount of Radon gas released from the earthquakes might have caused these anomalies.

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143-146  



Sileshi Mengistu

The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges of livelihood diversification as a means to ensure food security in the South Omo Zone pastoral groups. Data was collected through household survey questionnaire, focus group discussion, interview and observation. The findings indicate that though pastoralism is the main source of survival farming is found to be the dominant type of diversification. In terms of wealth group the well- off households have more opportunity to diversify income sources than the poor and average households in the study area. The challenges of diversifying livelihood include: communal resource administration system, lack of financial services, lack of access to market, lack of proper extension services. In conclusion, with the right combination of market access, training, infrastructure, services, capital and fair administration the pastoralist population of the study area can undertake successful livelihood diversification.

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147-153  



LaShana M. Lewis

Many theories support that both static electricity and gravity contain properties that allow items to orbit or float around them. Quantum physics, the science of the very small, attributes this to positive and negative charges. General relativity physics, the science of the very large, attributes this to gravity. This paper attempts to discuss any similar properties and dialogue about proofs that suggest that these two concepts may be similarly related. It will examine the relationship between static electricity and gravity by utilizing common examples, formulaic expressions, and everyday equations.

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154-158  



Achmar Mallawa

Research on size structure of skipjack captured by pole and line fishermen inside and outside of fish aggregation device area has been done from January until June 2016 in Gulf of Bone waters. The objectives of research were to analysis of size structure, percentage of suitable length to catch, and yield composition of pole and line with FAD and without FAD. Size structure was analyzed by method of Bhattacharya, percentage of suitable length to catch by method of Mallawa, and catch composition by column diagram. The result showed that the size structure was different between skipjacks captured by pole and line with FAD and without FAD, where skipjack captured by pole and line with FAD dominated by small fishes while skipjack captured by pole and line without FAD dominated by large fishes, percentage of suitable length to catch of skipjack captured by pole and line without FAD was high than pole and line with FAD while both were still low, yields of pole and line with FAD and pole and line without FAD consist of skipjacks and yellow fin tuna where skipjack was dominant for all trip.

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159-163  



Abdullah Almutairi

Incidence and prevalence rates of the top five causes of morbidity and mortality in Afghanistan are poor nutrition, lack of healthcare facilities, neonatal deaths, acute respiratory infections, and common infections. The annual population growth rate stands at 2.2 %. Statistics from the World Health Organization report in 2013 shows that the life expectancy rate in Afghanistan is 61.3 years. The rates for males are 60.5 while that of the female stands at 62.1. The rise in the expectancy rates is attributed to improved healthcare conditions and decreased morbidity rates. Another report published by the WHO in 2009 suggests that the infant mortality rates were 257 deaths per 1000 live births and this number was estimated as the third highest in the world.

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164-165  



Alfred K. Bienibuor, Kwasi Preko, David D. Wemegah, Evans Manu

Electromagnetic and electrical resistivity geophysical methods, were used to map out potential groundwater sites for boreholes drilling in the Adoe community in the Sunyani west district of Ghana. The electromagnetic data was taken with the Geonics EM-34 conductivity meter while the electrical resistivity data was taken with the ABEM SAS 1000 C Terrameter using the Schlumberger electrode configuration. Results from the measurements revealed four subsurface geological layers of the following resistivity and thickness ranges: quartzitic sandstone with clay (42-118 Ωm, 1-2.2 m); sandy clay with silt (27-487 Ωm, 9-12 m); lateritic sandstone (13-728 Ωm, 6-14 m); and clayey shale (20-29 Ωm, 6-14 m), The overburden ranged in thickness from 14 m to 24 m. Sites selected for borehole drilling had a groundwater yield range of 0.94 -12 m3/h.

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166-170  



I Ketut Budaraga, Fridarti, Usnel, Ermen

The increasing number of farmers will have a negative impact on the increase of waste generated. Waste from the farm can be either solid, gas and liquid waste. Livestock waste can be processed to produce biogas as an alternative energy substitute for oil stove and organic fertilizers. The research objective is: a) know how the biogas production process in Kanagarian Kasang District of Batang Anai, Padang Pariaman, b) know how to slug biogas applications in rice plants. The usefulness of this research would be useful to increase incomes of farmers, especially in Kanagarian Kasang District of Batang Anai, Padang Pariaman district on the field of alternative energy, and the use of organic fertilizers and can support government programs to support the development of the field of energy and sustainable agricultural development. The research concludes that: a) The process of making digester system balloon is most appropriate at household level because they are cheap and the manufacturing process is that starting with the manufacturing process digester system balloon, when the digester is ready, followed by installation of biogas and biogas stove using secondhand goods. b) sewage sludge biogas very well be used as organic fertilizer because it can be directly available for the plants and very good impact on the environment.

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171-175  



M.Chitra, Radhakrishnan.S

The unsteady unidirectional laminar flow of Newtonian, viscous, compressible fluid with uniform distribution of dust particles under the influence of uniform magnetic field during inhalation in the trachea of the human respiratory tract have been investigated. The effects of dust particles under influence of magnetic micro particles are described in three parameters, the mass concentration of the dust β , relaxation time γˈ and magnetic field H, which measures the rate at which the velocity of the dust particles with magnetic field adjusts in the velocity of the clean air and depends upon the size of the individual particles. Analytical expression for the velocity of clean air , air with fine and coarse dust particle under the influence of uniform magnetic field with arbitrary constant pressure gradient have been derived. The velocities, wall shear stress distribution flow rate for clean air and air with fine dust particles, and air with coarse dust particles with uniform magnetic field in the human trachea for different radial coordinate and for different time due to effect of dust parameters β and γˈ with magnetic field H are computed graphically.

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176-181  



Sayuthi

The objective of this articleis to design business processesan organization efficiently and effectively. Based on our literature review, the design of business processes that is best suitable for an organization belongs to Harrington (1992), namely the concept of Business Process Improvement (BPI), which is a systematic framework that helps organizations in making significant progress in the implementation of business processes. BPI provides a system that will simplify or streamline business processes, to provide an assurance that the internal and external customers of the organization will get a better output. One advantage of BPI concept suggested by Harrington is the continuous improvement, whereas the other authorsor experts of BPI have not recognize the idea of continuous improvement. With thisidea, the products / services offered by organization becomes more innovative.

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182-188  



Mannu Kaur, Dr. Pankaj Srivastava, Dr. Vaishali Singh

By dispersing nanoparticles in a base fluid, we get a colloidal suspension called Nanofluids. These possess important properties required in thermal engineering application, physical, chemical stability and high thermal conductivity. In this work, we have synthesized Silver, Copper and Nickel nanofluids by greener reduction method, using Tannic acid. So prepared nanofluids were characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering Techniques. We have measured Ultrasonic Velocity of synthesized nanofluid by using Nanofluid Interferometer NF-10 as a function of concentration, at different temperature, also we have calculated Thermal Conductivity and Adiabatic Compressibility of the nanofluids.

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189-195  



Kanwalpreet Kaur, Sandeep Kad

Vehicular Ad-hoc System (VANETs) is really a component with smart transport systems. It has ability to prevent accidents and the road congestion issues on highways but it suffers from the accomplishment and scalability issues. To handle these difficulties from the Inter Vehicular Communication (IVC), we apply Name Data Networking (NDN). All though in NDN the users are only concerned about necessary data and give no attention on the number of locations from where the data is coming. The NDN layout is usually much more worthy for IVC circumstance getting the ordered material labeling design as well as flexible material retrieval. In this report we propose vehicular network dependent on fuzzy membership function which offers the fundamental NDN style to improve support location dependent forwarding, content aggregation and distributed mobility management. This paper finally winds up the several boundaries regarding earlier approaches.

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196-200  



Fredrick Ojija

Despite the high abundance of arthropods in many terrestrial environments, our understanding of their ecological diversity and abundance remain unknown in some habitats. The aim of this study is to assess the abundance, diversity and species richness of some arthropods found in grassland and woodland habitats at Mbeya University of Science and Technology in Tanzania. A total of 1719 arthropods belonging to 63 species under 12 orders and 46 families were collected. Parameters such as Shannon index, Simpson index, Margalef index, Evenness index and Sorenson similarity index were used to analyse the diversity of arthropods. Result showed that, Hymenoptera (33.101%), Coleoptera (28.098%) and Orthoptera (17.510%) were the most dominant orders, whereas the least abundant order were Diptera (0.814%) and Scolopendromorpha (0.291%). The grassland showed high species richness, Margalef index (D = 6.930), abundance (n = 1177), Evenness (E = 0.854) and Shannon diversity (H = 3.339) of arthropods. The abundance of arthropod groups between grassland and woodland differed significantly (p<0.05). Sorensen similarity index in both habitats showed 53.5% similarity. Therefore, result indicates that the grassland habitat has the potential to support arthropod diversity and act as effective refugia for some arthropods from woodland.

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201-210  



Dr Kedar Narayan Choudhary

Many of us do not know whether we are effective or ineffective, even if we know that we are unable to perform still we do not know where to improve and how to improve. This paper will help individual to evaluate themselves and find a self-solution to become effective.

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211-215  



Afifuddin Dalimunthe, Budi Utomo, Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar Angga Wijaya, Bambang Irawan

Utilizing forest while maintaining sustainability is absolutely necessary. Plant Multy Purpose Tree Species (PMPTS) Adaptive is a solution to increase the income of local forest communities. This study aims to identify the type of PMPTS in the catchmnet areas of Lake Toba are recorded from Dairi regency, Samosir, Humbang Hasundutan, Toba Samosir and Simaungun. The research was conducted from May to July 2016. The method used in this research is the belt transect method. The results were obtained districts Silahisabungan, Regency of Dairi is the most commonly found types of MPTS. Mango and hazelnut plants are plants that are most often found in five counties. Removal of saplings is silviculture techniques most widely used by the public, reached 87.76 % and the biggest obstacle growth MPTS according to respondents is the climate, especially the strong winds that 54.60 %.

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216-219  



Wei-Seng Ho, Kit-Siong Liew, Shek-Ling Pang

Isolation of high-quality genomic DNA from Dryobalanops beccarii is obviously difficult due to the existence of large amounts of camphor and other secondary metabolites. These contaminants will co-precipitate with DNA during DNA isolation and purification processes, and therefore, resulting in a brownish DNA pellet that is unsuitable for downstream applications. Many DNA isolation protocols are available for various plant tissues; however these protocols are inefficient in yielding high-quality amplifiable genomic DNA especially from camphor containing timber tree species. A CTAB based protocol has been optimized for isolating genomic DNA from camphor containing timber tree species. Key steps include: 1) using 1% β-mercaptoethanol and 2% PVP 40 (Mr 40,000) in the extraction buffer; 2) sample incubation time, 40 minutes at 65°C, and 3) DNA precipitation at room temperature (25°C). The isolated DNA pellet was transparent colour and the purified genomic DNA is suitable for PCR amplification.

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220-223  



Yanti Puspita Sari, Wawan Kustiawan, Sukartiningsih, Afif Ruchaemi

Propagation of Myrmecodia tuberosa was developed for induction shoot from different explant sources by using various plant growth regulators (PGRs). Cotyledons, hypocotyls, tubers and roots on initiation; shoot tip and axillar bud on multiplication stages have been successfully regenerated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium agar. The effects of PGRs BA-6 benzylaminopurine (BAP) on initiation, BAP + GA3-Gibberelic acid (GA3) on multiplication and NAA-α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on rooting were studied. Various medium both single and combination viz coco peat, fern, charcoal, and moss on acclimatization stage were describe. The results showed that different explant sources of M. tuberosa were potentially produced high number of shootswhich was influenced by the varying concentration of PGRs. In initiation stage, the optimum number of shoots, 15.60 per explant,was obtained from hypocotyls on MS medium agar with BAP 4 mg/L for 12 weeks while axillar bud on MS medium agar BAP 9 mg/L resulted the highest number of shoots (36.60 per explant) for 12 weeks in multiplication stage. In rooting stage, the addition of NAA 0.15 mg/L on MS medium agar was found as optimum PGRs to obtain highest number of root (18.40 root per explant). Plantlets of M. Tuberosa were also successfully acclimatized at green house in coco peat+moss and fern+moss medium in acclimatization with 100% survival. Therefore, it is suggested that the use of specific source e1xplant, PGRs either initial, multiplication, or rooting; and certain combination of medium in acclimation stage are important to be applied in order to increase the population of Myrmecodia tuberosa from North Borneo Island.

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224-230  



Laith Muayyad Abdul-Hameed Al-Hayali, Dr. M. Morsy, M. M. Abdul-Razak

Automated Detection for Human Cancer Cell is one of the most effective applications of image processing and has obtained great attention in latest years, therefore. In this study, we propose an automated detection system for human cancer cells based on breast cancer cells. This study was conducted on a set of Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) biopsy microscopic images that have been obtained from the “Pathology Center - Faculty of Medicine - Mansoura University Hospital - Egypt” is made up of 72 microscope image samples of benign, 72 microscope image samples of malignant. The purpose of this study is to detect and classify the benign and malignant cells in the breast biopsy. The images are exposed to a series of pre-processing steps, which include resizing image such as 1024*1024, 512*512, enhance images by remove noise through (Median Filter) and contrast enhancement through (Unsharp Masking – Adjust Intensity). The system depends on breast cancer cells detection using clustering-based segmentation (K-means clustering, Fuzzy C-means clustering) and region-based segmentation (Watershed). Shape, Texture and Color features are extracted for Detection. The results show high Detection Rate for breast cancer cells images either (Benign or Malignant). Finally classification stage by using (Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbors and Back-Propagation Neural Networks). The final classification with the best accuracy in SVM is (97.22%), in K-NN and BPNNs is (98.61%).

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231-236  



Workneh Gebreseleassie Adwa

Introduction Teachers are very important people to implement successfully the programs and interventions, introduced to enhance the implementation of education and training policy. Quality of education demands planned and properly designed capacity building programs for teachers and other officials in education system Derebssa Dufera, 2006). Unless we acknowledge that we are talking about a human problem and not solely a curricular judgment we will not attract bright young minds in teaching. one bad teacher is more dangerous than one bad surgeon because a surgeon can only hurt one person at a time, but good teachers out member the bad. So the quality of education can be no greater than the dignity we assign to teaching. We expect our teachers to work miracles every single day, what our homes churches and communities have been unable to accomplish. and when teachers fall short and where along the line we condemn them for not meeting our idealized expectations (David d. Dill 1995).The FDR government of Ethiopian has introduced several programs and interventions to enhance the successful implementation of the education training policy.This research work would have an importance in assessing the reaction of teachers of Adwa town .And it can initiate educational policy makers and educational administrators to check their programs and interventions. Objective :To assess the reaction of Adwa teachers to the introduced programs and interventions. Methodology- School based cross sectional study design was employed. This research work has been carried out by dispatching self-administered questionnaire randomly. Among the 698 teachers of Adwa town 278 (39.9%) were respondents. Among the 307 female 87 (28.4%) and among the 391 males (48.9%) were respondents. Ten elementary, three secondary andschools teachers had been participants. The collected data was entered in to a computer using SPSS version 16 and analyzed by using percentages, Chi square, ANOVA and sign test Result-311 questionnaires were dispatched randomly to Adwa town teachers of ten elementary schools and three secondary schools. Among these 278 (89.4%) had been returned. Majority 171 (61.5%) recruited to the profession with interest(t<0.03). Among those who recruited to the profession interest, 86(50.3%) developed negative attitude later on(t<0.1). Among those who recruited to the profession without interest, 107 (38.5%) 97 (90.7%) have continued with their negative attitude(t<0.01).In total among those who recruited with interest or without interest 183 (65.8%) have developed hatred to the profession later on(t<0.02). And among these 101(55.2%) have decided to leave the job(t<0.09). Among the programs and interventions, introduced by MEO, in order to bring quality, of education in the country, the most recommended one by the teachers that they are bringing quality of education as expected is, networking for special help and tutorial 64 (31.5%). Among those which are not bringing quality of education is continuous professional development 44 (24.2%), Most respondent teacher 135(48.6%) are with very great dissatisfaction feeling with the new salary introduced for teachers.Conclusion and recommendations This research work has shown, majority of the teachers have dissatisfied with their profession and have developed negative attitude towards it, even many of them are preparing to leave it. So it is better to improve the working condition, strengthen the implementation of the programs and intervention which are positively recommended and review those which are not recommended. In addition it is better to arrive consensus with the teachers on the given salary scale.

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237-252  



Jitesh Rana, Anshuman Silori, Rohan Ramola

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a solar air heater has been carried out using artificial roughness in the form of thin circular wire in V-shaped, V-shaped with gap, Multi v-shaped ribs and Multi v-shaped ribs with gap geometries . The effect of these geometries on heat transfer and friction factor was investigated, Comparison of CFD data with Dittuse-Boelter empirical correlation and Blasius equation for smooth duct has been done. Renormalization k-epsilon model (turbulence model) is used to predict heat transfer and friction factor in the duct as results based on this model have been found in good agreement with that of experimental.

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253-261  



Workneh Gebreselassie

Introduction Most experts agree that in the general population old teenagers and young adults tend to be the most sexually active and therefore at higher risk than some other groups (Curtin, 1996). Making continuous assessment on the degree of awareness and behavioral change on prevention of HIV/AIDS is uninterrupted work. Since this age group is found in high schools, colleges, and University .This research work is interested to assess the sexual behaviors related to the prevention of HIV/AIDS in these education institutions. This study may contribute in initiating concerned policy makers, health workers, teachers, administrators, and parents, NGOs to assess their strategies and strengthen their efforts in order to create better awareness, behavioral change and accessibilities for prevention of HIV/AIDS. It may also strengthen the global efforts on prevention of HIV/AIDS. Objectives-To assess the status of safe sexual behavior in the educational institutions and promote prevention of HIV/AIDS Methodology-Institutions based cross sectional study design was employed. This research work has been carried out by dispatching self administered questionnaires randomly among the students of secondary, preparatory, TVET, CTE, University educational institutions found in central zone of Tigray region, Ethiop[ia. Two sections (departments) were selected randomly from each institution. The collected data was analyzed quantitatively entering in to a computer using SPSS Version 16 using Chi-square, Annova, Sign test. Result More students found, abstinence, females (82.8%), males (72.4%). Sexually active students not found in first primary level. But in both sexes sexually active students found in junior primary level (7th&8th grade), in which males are significantly more than females. In both sexes majority students have started sexual activity in their secondary level (9th &10th). The very interesting thing here is all female students, who have arrived with abstinence to university level continue likewise. But among the male students who have arrived with abstinence only 4.4% of them break, their abstinence in their university life. In both sexes majority of those who have started sexual activity continue likewise, females (85.5%), males (67.4%). Unlike to this half of the male students who have arrived sexually active to university level stopped their sexual activity after their arrival. Majority students in both sexes used to mate only with their friends, females (73.6%), males (71.2%). Unlike to this majority of the sexually active preparatory male students (80%) found to used promiscuous sexual behavior. Similarly about half the female (58.3%) and male (53.8%) university students found to use promiscuous sexual behavior. The other unlike behavior is, majority female students (69.6%) as well as male students (66% were not on using condom regularity. The main reasons given by, female students not to use condom regularly was because of trusting their boyfriends (37.1%), they dislike it (31.4%), their boyfriends, dislike it (25.7%). Likewise the reasons given by male students were, because they trust their girlfriends (44.3%), they dislike it (24.3%), their girlfriends dislike it (22.9%). In both sexes as well as in all level of education, majority students had made HIV/AIDS checkup. And among these 1.6% females and 2% males found HIV/AIDS positive, in which the secondary level students account highest, females (8.6%) and males (9%). However15.5% female and14.6% male students have been found unchecked for HIV/AIDS. The given reason by female students was, lack of available chance (40.7%) confidence (35.6%), and frighten the news might be bad (22%). Likewise the reason by male students was confidence 43.3%, lack of available chance (31.7%) and frighten the news might be e bad (18.3%). Conclusion and recommendation Although majority students found sexual abstinence. considerable number of them had been sexually active. About half of the female and male sexually active university students were found to make promiscuous sexual behavior. In addition to this condition 69.6% the sexually active female students as well as 66% of the sexually active male students were found not, on regular use of condom. These two conditions shows considerable numbers of students are on unsafe sexual behavior. This urges the ministry of education as well as ministry of health and other responsible bodies to intensify the awareness creation programs in students as well as in the rest of the society. According to this research, 84.5% of female as well as 85.4 % of male students found perform HIV checkup. Among these 1.6% females and 2% males found HIV/AIDS positive, This HIV positive condition is not small, so it urges the ministry of education as well as ministry of health and other stake holders to work hard in their formal as well as informal programs.

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262-267  



Workneh Gebreselassie

Introduction Rape is sexual act with an expression of violence, anger or power. It is the act of penile penetration achieved by force or the threat of force. Rape is an act of violence and humiliation in which the victim experiences over whelming fear sense of powerlessness, helplessness, feels frightened or threatened (Groth 1979; Sarrel 1980; Sarrel and Masters, 1981; Estrich, 1987; Gordon and Riger, 1989; Hilberman, 1976). Our female sisters encountered with rape most of the time, when they arrive to adolescence stage, commonly in their high school and higher education level, So this research work is helpful in assessing the condition of rape in high schools, college, TVET institutes, and university found in central zone Tigray region, Ethiopia Objective- Status of rape in students of high schools, colleges and university in order to recommend its preventive measures. Methodology _Institutions based cross sectional study design was employed. This research work has been carried out by dispatching self administered questionnaires randomly among 643 students of secondary, preparatory, TVET Adwa college of teachers and educational leadership education and Axum university students. Two departments (sections) has been taken from each institute. The collected data was analyzed quantitatively entering in to a computer using SPSS Version 16 using Chi-square, Annova, Sign test. Result Among the sexually active 96 females 35(36.5%) of them have enforced to be initially involved in sex by rape.. When we see the number of rape accident revealed per one female student, 66.6% of the victims encountered once, whereas 44% of the victims encountered more than one, which extend up to six times per one female student.. The known perpetrators to the rape victim female students account, 55.3% which include, boyfriends 23% (3), instructors (teachers), and 46 %( 6). And class mate 7.7 %( 1). The unknown perpetrators account 23 %( 3). Majority of the rape incidents revealed in secondary (38.3%) and preparatory (29.8 %), followed by university (19.1%) then by TVET (6.4%), then by elementary (4.3%) and CTE (2.1%). Majority of the rape incidents revealed when the victims made trip to and from school (46.8%), followed by in residence area of the victim or perpetrator (40.4%). Lastly when the victim was on the way to perform duty of her parents (12.8%). Among the 47 female students revealed with rape danger, 80.9% (38, 60.6 % them faced with psychological problem of anxiety, 29% of them faced with unwanted pregnancy, then 5.2% of them faced with HIV/AIDS, and 5.2% of them faced with physical harm, like crack in the sexual part, including the womb. Among the 47 victims of rape, 27.7 %( 13) of them have claimed that they have faced with rape incident in their present institution. This is mainly university (46.2%), next secondary school and TVET (23%) each, lastly CTE, 7.6 %( 1). Among the university perpetrators 66.7% (6) of them are instructors whereas 16.7% (1) unknown while 16.7% (1) is class mate. Among the secondary perpetrators 66.7% (2) are teachers, while 33.3% (1) is unknown to the victim. In case of CTE, Perpetrators, 100% (2) of them are boyfriend of the victim. Likewise, in case of the TVET perpetrators, 50% (1) is boyfriend, whereas 50% (1) is unknown. Here the major perpetrators in the present institutions are instructors (teachers) (46%), which comprise 66.7% (4), are university instructors and 33.3% (2) are secondary teachers. Conclusion and Recommendation- This research has investigated; rape incident is series problem of our female student. It is affecting their life and education process. Almost half (49%) of the sexually active female students revealed rape accident. Even (44%) of the rape victims encountered more than one rape incident which extend up to six time per one victim. The very alarming condition is 36.5% of the sexually active students at initial enforced to be involved to sex by rape. Therefore, in order to make free our female students from this series danger, the MOE, as well as the regional bureau of education should include in primary and secondary curriculum focusing on conditions which give ground for rape incident and its prevention . Ant-rape policy should be produced and all responsible body should make overall efforts

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268-272  



Workneh Gebreselassie

Introduction The federal democratic republic government of Ethiopia has practiced the education training policy, since 1994. The target of the policy has been the improvement of access, quality, relevance, equity, efficiency in education sector In order to enhance the implementation of the policy several programs and interventions have been introduced, such as system of training quality teachers, both pre-service, and in-service, (USAID and MOE 2008). This research work has intended to assess the reaction of the 2012 graduates of Adwa teachers and educational leadership College, after they covered their three years training program, and prepared to celebrate their graduation. Objective Assess the reaction of the senior trainees to the quality of the training program and identify specific areas that need further intervention. Methodology-institutional based cross sectional study design was employed. This research work has been carried by dispatching 250 questionnaires randomly to 2012 graduate students of Adwa Teachers and Educational leadership College. Among these 220 (88%) returned. In total among the 424, 2012 graduates of Adwa Teachers and Educational leadership College 220 (51.9%) were involved in responding the questionnaires. The collected data was analyzed quantitatively entering in to a computer using SPSS version 16 using Ch-square, Annova, Sign test. Result- Among the respondents of this pre-service teachers training majority 152 (69%) entered to the training with interest towards the teaching profession, whereas, 68 (31%) entered without interest. Majority of the trainees 111 (73%) had joined to the training with interest, to the teaching profession, because the profession plays a role as foundation for the development of the country. Among of the trainee who joined to the training without interest to the profession 59 (86.8%) were with negative attitude to the profession, because teachers are with subsistence life condition. Majority of the trainees weather, he/she entered to the training with interest or without interest to the teaching profession, have influenced positively towards the profession, due to the pre-service training given in this college 176 (80%). The degree of the pre-service teachers training given in this college in influencing the trainees both who entered with interest and without interest to be in positive attitude towards the teaching profession is ranked, majority of the trainees 130 (59.1%) had said very high, 46 (20.9%) had said high, 28(12.7%) had said average, Majority of the trainees who joined to the training with interest continued with their positive attitude towards the teaching profession, even after they completed their training 144 (94.7%) .In the other way round 32 (47%) of the trainees who entered to this pre-service training without interest to the profession, develop positive attitude towards the profession, after they completed the training, whereas, 36 (53%) of them continued with their negative attitude towards the profession, even after they completed the training. Majority of the trainees 130 (59.1%) rated the contribution of the Adwa teachers educational leadership college pre-service training in developing positive attitude towards the teaching profession was very great. And all of them reason out it, by saying, because of the afforded courses as well as the instructors were building sufficiently the trainees both academically professionally and ethically. Followed to this 46 (20.9%) of the trainees who rated the contribution of the training in developing positive attitude towards teaching profession is great, among these 40 (87%) of them forwarded their reason, because most of the instructors of the college were building the trainees both academically professionally as well as ethically. Conclusion and recommendation Majority of the 2004 E.C graduated pre-service teachers training trainees of ACTELE joined to this pre-service training program having an interest in teaching profession. This positive attitude towards the teaching profession continued even after they completed their training. It had been assured by majority of the graduate trainees that the college played very great role in developing academically, professionally and ethically well build up trainees. But considerable amount of them claimed, problems in some instructors, accommodation, service and infrastructure and administrative case, therefore although the college is in very good situation, better to strengthened positive side and respond the claims of the trainees and be ready more to create conducive environment.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - July 2017 - Volume 6 Issue 7