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IJSTR Volume 6 - Issue 8, August 2017 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Jayaprakash, H.V, Chandrasekhar N, M.K.Veeraiah, P.V.Krupakara

The present investigation aims to evaluate the corrosion characteristics of red mud metal in sodium chloride solution. Metal matrix composites [MMC] are heterogeneous systems containing matrix and reinforcement. Matrix may be alloy or metal or polymer. Reinforcement may be particulate or fiber or whisker. Their physical and mechanical properties can be tailored according to requirement. They are used in automobile, aircraft and marine industries because of their increased corrosion resistance. In this study weight loss corrosion tests and Potestiodynamic polarization studies by using potestiostat are conducted on ZA-27/ Red Mud metal matrix composites in different concentrated sodium chloride solutions. Both matrix and reinforcements are commercially available. Composites are prepared by liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Composites containing 2, 4 and 6 percent of preheated but uncoated red mud are prepared. Cylindrical specimens and rectangular specimens are machined. Studies are carried out in 0.035%, 0.352% and 3.5% solutions of sodium chloride. In all the tests the composites were less prone to corrosion than the matrix. Hence the composites can be used in the marine environment.

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1-4  



Nggada Ibrahim Sikami, Nur Ahmed.

Geo-electrical data were adopted and utilized in determining the hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the study area. Hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity varied from 3 to 34m/day and 33 to 919m2/day respectively. Correlation coefficient between transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity give positive correlation which signifies a perfect correlation. In order to determine the groundwater quality of Biu, groundwater samples were collected from fourteen boreholes and ten hand dug well within the study area. The water sample were analyzed for physiochemical and bacteriological properties to assess its suitability for drinking, and irrigation purposes. Some areas have elevated concentration of conductivity, TDS, manganese, lead, magnesium and microbial which are consider unsafe for drinking based on World Health Organization guidelines concentration for drinking water. Only 29% of borehole and 10% of hand dug well are free from contamination. Sodium adsorption ratio and percentage sodium have been studied to evaluate the suitability of the groundwater for irrigation purpose. Groundwater within the study area is safe for irrigation with respect to its sodium adsorption ration and Sodium percent. Sample BH6 has high value of sodium adsorption ratio which is unsuitable for irrigation.

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5-14  



Ahmed Kadria

The present report shows the contribution of remote sensing to estimate the volume of water withdrawn from aquifers, for a semi-arid or arid climate, such as that in our study area: the Aquifer System of Spatientrional Sahara. The vegetation area was firstly estimated from a spatial distribution of vegetation indices from the MOD13Q1 product of the MODIS sensor for a period from 2001 to 2011, by an algorithm highlighting the pixels in the red and the infrared. It's, on average, almost constant at 500 km2 for all the years. Furthermore, evapotranspiration was defined spatially and statistically by the MOD16A2 product, on the whole basin for 2011. The statistics are derived from an algorithm ensuring the logic based on the Penman-Monteith equation. These statistics regarding the area of vegetation gave the annual total volume of withdrawn water because this volume is evaporated in the absence of rainfall in the water balance and the depth of the basin does not allow it to vary in the ground's level. There was extraction more than 2,5 billion meters-cube. This means that the enormity of the consumption that is, indeed, a few hundred m3/s. It presents a serious risk of salinity and flow reversal towards the sea. Such a calculation is developed depending on remote sensing elements such as the spatial and temporal resolutions.

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15-25  



Bambang Suparno

In 1960 when China was hit by the Cultural Revolution, Nobody could be said that China will become a big economic power in the world, even surpassing the United States. At the time Chinese fall into chaotic social. Son kills his father, even people who do not follow Mao Zedong would be slain in vile Operate. Even Marskal Peng Teh-Huai the heroman of China Against the USA in the Korean War also beat up severity. China got its renaissance after Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng Xiaoping which had been Already three times deported by Mao could bring China as a prayer in World Economics Top power. Because of that, we are sure that the Indonesian reformation seems currently is impossible would come true such as china, so that Pancasila Become Reality and we have democracy Appropriate with the Purposes of the Indonesian. If yesterday the President declared the beginning of the reform of the second hold, it should be done, because it is the Main tools towards the success of the reformation. Hopefully, the Indonesia Leaders Being aware towards the Essential problems of this nation, then increasingly lead the Real straight ON national achievement: A fair and prosperous society based on Pancasila and nation state Republic of Indonesia.

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26-30  



Raji, S.A., Oguntayo, D.O, Sherrif, U., Awolola, A.

This project deals with the Design of overhead-roadway located at CHALLENGE junction which is a T-junction. Analysis of the existing conditions was carried out to proffers solution to the cause of the problems occurring due to the vehicle competing for space at this intersection. Before carrying out the analysis, a traffic surveys at peak hours, for morning (07:30 to 08:30 am) and afternoon (03:00 to 04:00 pm) were conducted using 15 minutes interval. From the analysis, it was found out that the peak hour factor and flow rate was 0.88 and 1656pcphpl respectively, corresponding to LOS E. This implies that the capacity of the existing road is no longer able to accommodate the traffic flow; hence, overhead roadway was introduced to improve the efficiency of the intersection. The overhead-roadway is of 140 m length with 7 spans, 20 m per span. It consists of a deck slab, longitudinal girders, cross girders, deck beam, pier, foundation and retailing wall. All structural parts for this Flyover were designed using Staad professional software package and Manual method.

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31-33  



Temam Abrar Hamza

Microbes are living organisms that are too small to be seen by the unaided eye, however, they carry out extremely useful processes that cannot be achieved by other physical and chemical means. Alkaline proteases from those microbes are one of the most important hydrolytic group of enzymes that find varied application in various industrial sectors. The aim of this study was focused on isolation of alkaline protease producing bacteria from the study area which have potential application in dehairing of animal skin. Accordingly, 38 alkaliphilic proteolytic bacteria were isolated from the study area (Arba Minch University, Abay campus). Five isolates were screened which had relatively higher clear zone and further examined for dehairing efficiency of their crude enzymes. Hair removal test was undertaken by incubating skin with 15ml of respective crude enzyme at 40oC. Regarding this, one potential isolate was selected and designated as Bacillus sp.AMUa38. Maximum cell growth were observed from this strain at pH 8, 1% salt (NaCl) concentration and 2.5% of inoculum size. Lactose and peptone are potential carbon and nitrogen source for optimum growth of AMUa38. The optimum activity was reached at pH 9 and 500C. The enzyme was stable in the pH range of 7 to 10. The crude enzyme from Bacillus sp. AMUa38 removed hair from goat skin after 6hrs at pH 9 and 400C. These properties suggest that protease from Bacillus sp. AMUa38 could find potential application in leather processing industries which have an economic implication.

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34-39  



Kalume H, Chileshe P R K

Lubambe Copper Mine is located in Chililabombwe, Zambia, and is a joint copper mining venture with three partners that include African Rainbow Minerals (40%), Vale (40%) and the Government of Zambia (20%). The current mining method utilises Longitudinal Room and Pillar Mining (LRP) on 70m long panels strike length. However, these long panels have resulted in unprecedented levels of dilution mainly from the collapse of hanging wall laminated ore shale (OS2) leading to reduced recoveries. Observations made underground show high variability in geological and geotechnical conditions of the rock mass with factors such as weathering on joints, lamina spaced joints and stress changes induced by mining all contributing to weakening and early collapse of the hanging wall. Therefore a study was undertaken to establish the optimal stope strike length of steep ore bodies at Lubambe. The exercise involved the use of Faro Laser Scanner every four stope rings blasted, with time when the scan was performed noted. The spatial coherence of lasers makes them ideal measuring tools in situations where measurements need to be taken in inaccessible areas. Recent advances in laser scanning coupled with the exponential increase in processing power have greatly improved the methods used to estimate stope tonnages extracted from massive inaccessible stopes. The collected data was then used to construct digital three dimensional models of the stope contents. Sections were cut every metre with deformations taken and analysed with respect to time. Deformation rates from the hanging wall was reducing from 0.14t/hr to 0.07t/hr between rings 1 to 8. This reduction was as a result of slot blasting that involved drilling and blasting a number of holes at the same time. Between rings 8 to 25 deformation was constant averaging 0.28t/hr and between rings 26 and 28, a sharp increase in deformation rate was experienced from as low as 0.16t/hr to 6.33t/hr. This sharp increase defines the optimal stope length as 50 m beyond which there is excessive levels of dilution mainly from the hanging wall.

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40-44  



Paul Grafilon, Ian Benedict S. Aguilar, Emmanuel D. Lavarias, John Christian N. Apalin, Felnita V. Tan

The paper presented one of the application that can be done using smartphones’ camera. Nowadays, forgery is one of the most undetected crimes. With the forensic technology used today, it is still difficult for authorities to compare and define what a real signature is and what a forged signature is. A signature is a legal representation of a person. All transactions are based on a signature. Forgers may use a signature to sign illegal contracts, and withdraw from bank accounts undetected. A signature can also be forged during election periods for repeated voting. Addressing the issues, a signature should always be secure. Signature verification is a reduced problem that still poses a real challenge for researchers. The literature on signature verification is quite extensive and shows two main areas of research, off-line and on-line systems. Off-line systems deal with a static image of the signature, i.e. the result of the action of signing while on-line systems work on the dynamic process of generating the signature, i.e. the action of signing itself. The researchers have found a way to resolve the concerns. A mobile application that integrates the camera to take a picture of a signature, analyzes it, and compares it to other signatures for verification. It will exist to help citizens to be more cautious and aware with issues regarding the signatures. This might also be relevant to help organizations and institutions, such as banks and insurance companies, in verifying signatures that may avoid unwanted transactions and identity theft. Furthermore, this might help the authorities in the never ending battle against crime, especially against forgers and thieves. The project aimed to design and develop a mobile application that integrates the smartphone camera for verifying and comparing signatures for security using the best algorithm possible. As the result of the development, the said smartphone camera application is functional and reliable.

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45-50  



Vasant Rambhau Damal

Azadirachta Indica (Neem) has some sort of well-developed root system that may well extract nutrients with lower soil levels, which makes a crucial agent with erosion Control because it can be virtually drought-resistant. As these it can be effective as some sort of dune fixation tree. Indian farmers use Neem cake as a natural manure together with soil amendment; the idea expands the productivity of nitrogen fertilizers just by limiting the charge of nitrification together with hampering pests these as nematodes, fungi, together with insects. This paper provides the brief assessment of literature to know the biopesticide benefits together with functions of Neem.

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51-53  



Amit Nautiyal,Ramya Pandian

Image is made of up pixels that contain some information. The dossier load of an image is measured by entropy. Thus entropy is important for fetching the information from the image. This paper is focused on the studies based on detailed overview of different methods which are proposed so far for entropic evaluation. After brief description of each variety, some comparative discussions about various entropic techniques along with some special methods implemented in image processing are discussed. Further the limitations of entropy are highlighted. The investigation of entropy is contributive in advocating the pertinent operation of alive methods, bettering the feat and in systematically intriguing cutting edge entropy genre and methods. As there is wide usage of entropy in the field of image processing so, we have tried to focus on entropy and its related applications in image processing.

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54-64  



Mohamed Ali Maher, Dr. Osama Mounir Dawood, Dr. Nabil El Houseiny Awad, Mahmoud Mohamed Younes

In this study, the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 9×19 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28% carbon content and 9.125 kg/m2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 m/s muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet; complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface, and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement, 13 bullets of 9×19 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to (MIL-STD-662F). Three major outcomes were revealed; (1) the value V50 which found to be about 390 m/s, is higher than the one found in literature (360 m/s: German steel helmet model 1A1). (2) The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data, the most accurate the ballistic limit is. (3)Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets (t/D) near 1:1 or larger; It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having t/D ratio of about 1:9 (undermatching).

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Bernadus Rudy Sunindya

Medical Record is required to care for patients. One of the important parts of the service is the complete data which can provide information for diagnostic decision-making as well as other medical treatment. The background of the above derives a basic need for research on the relationship between officers of Inpatient Medical Records and their educational background in Primary Health Centre (PHC) in Malang City, Indonesia. This study identifies Officer at Inpatient Medical Records at the PHC which includes Kendalsari health centers, health centers at Kendalkerep, Dinoyo health centers, and health centersat Mulyorejo Kedungkandang. Researcher take data of 2 respondents at every PHC so there are 10 respondents. Officers at Inpatient Medical Records in PHC in Malang City have working period varies from less than 3 years up to more than 5 years. 150 medical records of inpatients in 5 Malang City PHC obtained showed the average results completeness reached 74% (Kendalsari PHC 72%, Kendalkerep 79%, Dinoyo 79%, Mulyorejo 78%, and Kedungkandang 68%.) There was no significant correlation between education and working period and the completeness of medical record document.

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73-75  



Mozna A. Ahmed, Ibrahim M.M.M, Suleiman, H. Nasser, Dafalla, M. S, Ibrahim S. Ibrahim

This study aimed at studying the effect of removal of CaCO3 on the texture of the soil profile and that of the control section in some Aridisols of the Sudan. Sixty soil profiles were sampled from Shendi area (latitude16º36' and longitude 33º 48'), River Nile State, Sudan. These soils were analyzed for CaCO3 and 20 of these profiles were found to be of relatively appreciable calcareousness and were, therefore, selected for this study. The following three weighted soil textures were determined: (1) before any removal of the CaCO3 (Texture1); (2) after the removal of CaCO3 (Texture2); (3) after amending the texture by adding the clay sized CaCO3 to the silt fraction (Texture 3). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences among soil separates in the three textures except between clay of T2 and clay of T3 and among sand fractions in the three textures. That was not unexpected because the first texture included both mineral separates plus their equivalent size of CaCO3, the second texture included only the mineral separates in complete absence of CaCO3 while texture 3 was an amended texture. The change in the textural class amounted to 72% of the profiles. Statistical analysis in the weighted texture of the control section revealed that this texture was not affected except in two profiles. That could be attributed to the fact that the clay content of the soils of the study area did not fall at or near the boundary between any two major textural classes used in the Soil Taxonomy. The size of the CaCO3 was found in the order of clay size> silt size >sand size.

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76-80  



Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan, Muhammad Zunnurain Hussain

Solid free fabrication (SFF) are produced to enhance the printing instrument utilizing distinctive strategies like Piezo spout control, multi-spout injet printers or STL arrange utilizing cutting information. The procedure is utilized to diminish the cost and enhance the speed of printing. A few techniques take long at last because of extra process like dry the printing. This study will concentrate on SFFS utilizing UV gum for 3D printing.

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81  



Endang Sri Dewi Hastuti, Gunawan

One of the factors that influence the accuracy level of the diagnosis of disease diagnosis and the code of action / procedure performed by the coding officer at the Primary Health Care (PHC/Puskesmas) is the ability of the officer in coding the diagnosis of the disease using ICD-10 codification standard. Based on research conducted by Dewi et.al in 5 PHC Outpatient Malang in August 2016 shows the accuracy of the diagnosis codification still below the score of 50, and one contributing factor is knowledge about coding clerk with a score under 60. The research was quasi experimental design with one group Pre and post test. Population of all officers of coding in 5 Outpatient PHC in Malang City amounted to 10 people. The sample uses the entire population. The research objective was to determine the effect of the increase in the accuracy of coding after training of disease codification at the health center. The test results using a paired t-test, obtained p <0.0 0, shows a significant difference between the accuracy of the coding results before and after training. This means that coding training can improve the accuracy of the codification of Puskesmas officers. As a suggestion the PHC need to have coding clerk sent periodically for coding training to improve capacity of and skills in coding.

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82-84  



Eugene Gitongori Mogaka

Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) constitutes a major signature pro-inflammatory cytokine in P.falciparum malaria. Low TNF levels are considered critical in controlling P. falciparum malaria parasitaemia; although high levels of TNF, that mediate a strong inflammatory response which if not well regulated, can lead to immunopathology and severe forms of malaria that may lead to fatalities. The biological activity of TNF can be regulated by soluble Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptors (sTNFRs), sTNFR1 and sTNFR2.Whereas sTNFR1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues sTNFR2 is tightly regulated during an inflammatory response. It was a case control study in age and sex-matched children under 5 years of age with P.falciparum malaria and healthy controls done at Bungoma County Hospital. A sample size of 48 children was derived based on a similar study, it was ultimately comprised of 23 P. falciparum malaria infected children and 24 non-malaria infected controls; they were selected by simple random sampling. Subjects were selected on the basis of parasitaemia, defined based on WHO criteria.The average age across all cohorts was 33 months. In cases on day 1: the average TNF levels were 295.7 pg/ml and sTNFR2 levels were 155.0 pg/ml and on day 3: TNF levels were 200 pg/ml while sTNFR2 levels were 52.1 pg/ml, compared to controls in which TNF levels were 68.2 pg/ml, while, sTNFR2 levels were 27 pg/ml. TNF and sTNFR2 levels were significantly elevated in this study which was indicative of TNF and sTNFR2 utility in distinguishing the various falciparum malaria disease states.

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K. Vijayalakshmi, Dr. Vinayakamurthy, Dr. V. Anuradha

Due to the database systems and networking technologies, web based medical information systems is available to store, retrieve and apply that information in medical practices. Data mining techniques is being used in healthcare information system to mine or identify the various behaviors of autistic children. Due to the differences in the level of severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), autistic clusters widely vary in its kind using segmentation. This study discusses on the behavioral issues of learning and feeding skills of autistic clusters. Also this paper insists on the importance of early identification and intervention of ASD characteristics. Finally it recommends the parents to identify the safe food that are free from preservatives, gluten and casein and sugar which can reduce the hyper behavioral attributes of autistic children.

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Monaheng Mahlatsi

African communities continue to experience social disharmony and disunity which result in their inability to independently address their political, economic and moral challenges for the communal well-being. This paper argues on the need for the mainstreaming of Botho philosophy in education provision in African schools in order to instill harmony and well-being among the African learners from a tender age. This philosophy is of paramount importance in facilitating political stability, economic security and good moral standards. It is also important for promoting personal and spiritual development.

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T.T Amachree, E.O.P. Apkan, E.C. Ubani, K.A. Okorocha, A. C. Eberendu

This study examined and developed Inventory Management Strategies (IMS) which could be creatively employed for Productivity Improvement in Equipment Firms (PIEMF) Equipment manufacturing projects suffer from declining productivity and inability to effectively satisfy customized order batch quantity within schedules, budgeted cost and quality specifications due to lack of robust and well defined IMS as well as none code classification of vast number of inventory item. Survey and expost-facto research designs were adopted on the four identified IMS in three EMF. The method used for primary data collection and measurement on four IMS and inventory management parameters was questionnaire modelled into likert five point scale from the target respondents being experts in the subject matter. The secondary data was obtained from the computerised inventory status file of the three equipment manufacturing firms. The methods of primary data analysis and test of research used were Pearsons product moment correlation coefficient and oneway. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) computer software via Statistical Program for Social Science (SPSS) version 17 ABC analysis and classification of materials was used for code categorization of secondary data, also with the aid of Microsoft excel. The results of the analyses highlighted and isolated “A” class of inventory items which are 137 out of 543 for Siemens Nig. Ltd, 154 out of 551 for Dresser-Rand Nig. Ltd and 162 of 551 for Nigerian Engineering Works Ltd. The results of Pearson product moment correlation analysis and test of research hypotheses indicate that Materials Requirements Planning (MRP) followed by Supply Chain Management (SCM) are the most significant IMS as they correlate strongly with PIEMF. The study recommends IMS adoption by code classification of materials; in which MRP or SCM could be deployed for management of “A” class of inventories while classical IMS could be used for management “B” and “C” classes of inventory items.

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99-107  



Agung Zainal Muttakin Raden, Muhammad Iqbal Qeis

Batik was incorporated into the Indonesian culture since the Majapahit era. At that time, the royal families of Majapahit Kingdom wore batik clothes for activities such as religious event or kingdom event. Since then, batik was seen as a symbol of nobility. The growth of batik industry, especially in Yogyakarta and Surakarta region, has produced a diverse motive and fabric quality of batik clothes. To help differentiate between these batik clothes, the owner of batik industries created batik labels with intricate design. This study focused on analysing the intricate design and typography found within three batik labels each from Yogyakarta and Surakarta Region to better understand the role of local culture and values in creating the batik label design using vernacular typography and cultural approach. The result shows that the local culture and values symbolically enforced by each keraton (kingdom-like body) and social system in Yogyakarta and Surakarta influenced the batik label design. The high cultured values of Yogyakarta keraton resulted in a more formal and rigid typefaces used in the batik label, giving off a classical feeling. Meanwhile, the more grass rooted values of Surakarta urban culture resulted in a fluid and flowing typefaces, giving off a trendy casual feeling.

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108-111  



Temple Temple Amachree, M. T. Lilly, Adanma Cecilia Eberendu

Preventive and breakdown maintenance system for a gas compressor plant were analyzed and appraised using established maintenance tools. To determine this, comparative cost benefit analysis of preventive and breakdown maintenance activities on Agbada gas compressor plant of the Shell Petroleum Development Company was carried out. The cost of achieving 20,000 run hours overhaul preventive maintenance with some disused repaired parts was analyzed and compared with the cost of carrying out the same activity with all new parts. Comparative studies showed that carrying out preventive maintenance with repairable parts, which were recovered in the 'as new state', is more cost effective than using all new parts. A cost saving of 14.63% was achieved. The same trend was also observed when the cost benefit analysis was carried out in breakdown maintenance option. This again gave a cost savings of 7.51 % when repaired disused parts were used. The results showed that the rate of return on investment if breakdown maintenance is adopted is 24% as compared to the rate of return 01: 26% that was obtained when preventive maintenance system was used. An NPV of N6,703,491,725.00 and N5,371,346,424.00 were obtained for preventive maintenance and breakdown maintenance respectively. It is therefore observed that preventive maintenance system strategy presented a better NPV over breakdown maintenance.

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112-124  



Suvanthini Terensan, Uthayanathan Priyatharsan, Gunaratnam Thirukkumaran

Blister beetle is a highly movable Coleopteran insect. Adults mainly feed on floral parts while grub exhibits predacious habit which preys on honey bee and eggs of grasshoppers. Management of this beetle in the garden which predominantly contains flowering plants is a serious concern. Application of chemical pesticides is costly comparatively while it leads to environmental hazards. By considering these aspects, the experiment was conducted to evaluate the infestation severity and efficiency of handpicking in both laboratory and field. For damage estimation, two severely affected plants species were selected and assessed in terms of damaging parts in flower and count of beetle while in vitro study was conducted to analyze the feeding preference by introducing the beetles into four different plants species. Four replicates were maintained. Results were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA in SPSS. Handpicking was performed every day Morning up to seven days continuously. The results revealed most of the flower parts damaged by this beetle except sepal and ovary. In field level, beetle infestation high in shoe flower and the maximum damage percentage obtained as 54.6% per plant. In vitro study also confirmed that the shoe is highly preferred by this beetle while among the shoe flower species, shoe flower yellow and shoe flower big pink scored 100% damage but shoe flower yellow significantly damaged by this beetle. Handpicking reduced the number of beetles significantly since it was noted that the number beetles were high in some random plants up to three days. After the fourth day, the population was minimized to zero and no further entry observed. These results suggested handpicking is an efficient management practice for this large beetle in the garden level within 0.5 ha.

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125-127  



Amalia Ramadhina Ghaisani, Cauny Nur Al-Hayah, Ahmad Dany Fadhlullah, Ghaisani Nabilah Putri, M Nazif Anwary, E. D. Purbajanti

Farmland or soil pollution by petroleum wastes may contain long chains of Total Petroleum Hydracorbons (TPH) and heavy metals. Special treatment is needed to overcome contaminated soil. One solution offered is the use of mycorrhizal and hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria in phytoremediation with samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr plant on petroleum contaminated soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mycorrhizal and hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria on phytoremediation with samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr plant on Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contents on petroleum contaminated soil. From the results of the study it is known that with 200 g of mycorrhizal treatment on contaminated soil oil can decrease TPH levels from 14,623 mg / kg to 2.7 mg / kg.

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128-131  



Wambugu Mwangi, Nyandega Isaiah, Kıthiia Shadrack

In water-scarce developing countries, river basins are some of the most valued natural resources, but many are poorly gauged and have incomplete hydrological and climate records. In the recent years, tropical rivers are increasingly becoming erratic, with many hydrologists attributing this variability to combined effects of landscape-specific anthropogenic activities and climate change. Uncertainties about the impacts of climate change compound the challenges attributed to poor and often inconsistent river monitoring data. Under data-scarce conditions and with the increasing land use intensification and urbanization, modelling approaches become a useful tool in planning and management of water resources. In this paper, we review the application and usability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in conventional planning practice in the management of water resources is poorly-gauged tropical watersheds of Kenya. We assess the technical implications of the model in Intergrated Water Resources management (IWRM) and its applicability as a planning and management tool for water resources in the era of climate change.

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132-141  



Ar. Vinita Maheshwari, Abhijit Shirodkar

The perception of water in Indian philosophy is very different. Water and religion are inextricably woven into each other in the form of holy rivers like a composite fabric into Indian lifestyle. The rivers have a special significance in Indian culture and religious practices. With the changing times, there had been a drastic transformation in the very basic definitions of pilgrimage, religious tourism and recreational activities associated with them. The waterfronts; religious or otherwise are invariably associated with the urbanization and socio cultural dimensions. They have come up as multifunctional spaces with a major paradigm shift in their activity patterns and planning principles.

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142-147  



Dilhani Anuradha Akuratiya

All organizations strive for sustainable competitive advantage in order to attain profit and survive in the increasingly competitive marketplace. In such situation human resources have become crucial to achieve competitive advantage, especially in the service oriented industries. In order to achieve competitive advantage, it is necessary to retain talented employees within the organization. To attract and retain talented employees within organizations, employers are using employer branding to separate their organization from its competitors and build an image as a good place to work. Thus, the key intention of the study was to explore, “influence of perceived employer branding on perceived organizational culture and employee identity, and how in turn affect to increase employee commitment”. In the present study, employer branding model was based on culture, identity and commitment in licensed financial companies. Research population consisted executive level employees of top ten licensed financial companies. Sampling method was convenience sampling and data collection instrument was questionnaire. Correlation and regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Results from the analysis showed that perceived employer branding had significant influence on perceived organizational culture and employee identity and in turn they had a significant effect on employee commitment.

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148-153  



Fauji Koda

Muhammadiyah is one of the pioneers of religious renewal in Indonesia. As a religious reformist, Muhammadiyah has contributed greatly in the development of the majority of Indonesia's people are Muslims. This research is a study of the thought and movement of Muhammadiyah in Indonesia aims to conduct a study in order to understand the history and ideas of the Muhammadiyah movement focused on the personality of the founder (KH. Ahmad Dahlan) and the idea of social renewal Muhammadiyah movement. Study of this scientific work using qualitative paradigm with historical-phenomenological approach, which examines the history and phenomenon of Muhammadiyah from aspects of personality and thoughts and ideas of KH. Ahmad Dahlan revealed in external actions (words and deeds) in developing Muhammadiyah in Indonesia. The results of this study indicate that the birth of Muhammadiyah in Indonesia is strongly influenced by the Islamic reform movement in the world, the basic idea of thinking founder of Muhammadiyah is the unity of humanity which has implications for the doctrine to achieve welfare and peace of all mankind, the idea of social reform Muahmmadiyah refers to movement “Tajdid” which includes purification and renewal (modernization).

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154-159  



John Baptist Kirabira, Hillary Kasedde, Joseph D. Lwanyaga

In this study, the parameters affecting the crystallization of sodium chloride from brine were investigated. Taguchi experimental design method was applied to study the most influential controlling parameters such as feed concentration, mixer speed, heating load, and residence time on the crystallization yield of salt. An L9 (34) orthogonal array experimental design, consisting of four parameters, each with three levels, was employed to examine the effect of the simultaneous variation of these parameters as control factors on the mass yield. Statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was also used to determine the relationship between the experimental conditions and salt yield levels. The results from the signal-to-noise (S/N) analysis showed that the optimum conditions for maximum crystal yield were achieved when the feed concentration, mixer speed, residence time, and heating load are 0.248 g of NaCl/g of solution, 830 rpm, 50 minutes, and 1400 W, respectively. Moreover, the ANOVA results indicated that the residence time and heating load are the most significant parameters influencing the salt crystal yield with a contribution of 57.11% and 20.07%, respectively. The mixer speed and feed concentration had the smallest effect on the crystal yield with a contribution of 19.55% and 3.3%, respectively.

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160-165  



M.C. Tri Atmodjo

Modification of a tool is an early activity of the business development of a product that is needed by the community. In this case wants a tool or breaking machine to improve the production of fast, precise, and efficient. Because there are still many farmers who use single cylindrical coffee-breaking machine even most still use traditional or manual way. The purpose of this research is to modify the simple two-cylinder wet coffee breaking tool so that it can be easily applied in the community, especially to small and medium-sized coffee of farmers in rural areas, and to improve the production result in order to achieve the appropriate result both in the work and quality. . From the calculation of the machine obtained high dimension 1200 mm, width 450 mm and length 600 mm. With the material characteristics are: Sheet plate, Shaft, Iron frame, Cylindrical breaker, Bearing, Pulley, Belt and gasoline engine 6.5 HP. The results of this machine operation is a coffee fruit that has been broken with a capacity of 800 kg / hour.

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166-168  



K.A.Baffour, C.Osei-Bonsu, A.F. Adekoya

The Classical Apriori Algorithm (CAA), which is used for finding frequent item sets in Association Rule Mining, consists of two main steps; the join step for generating candidate item sets and the prune step for eliminating candidate item sets that are not frequent. The CAA despite its simplicity has some limitations; the generation of a large number of candidate item sets, the generation of many combinations that never occur in the database as well as the need to perform several full database scans when generating frequent item sets. In this research, a Modified Apriori Algorithm (MAA) is proposed to address the problem of generating many combinations that never occur in the database by using a row-wise combination generation technique. A comparison of the results of the proposed algorithm against the Classical Apriori Algorithm shows that the proposed algorithm is faster and more efficient. The MAA was implemented on transaction databases and the results were compared against results from four (4) other Improved Apriori Algorithms for efficiency. The results of the comparative analysis showed that the MAA was more efficient in terms of execution time than the other Improved Apriori Algorithm.

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169-173  



Ismail Ibrahim Marhoon

In this paper, experimental investigations were conducted to demonstrate the effect of natural particles used as a reinforcement material on polyurethane resin. The effect of sunflower husk particles, used as a reinforcement material, on tensile strength, elasticity modulus, and water absorption with different weight fractions (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) and particle grain sizes (<53, <75, and <106 µm) were investigated. The addition of up to 10% sunflower husk as reinforcement materials to polyurethane resin increased the tensile strength and elasticity modulus of the prepared composite material. However, the decrease in reinforcement material grain size led to the increase in tensile strength, elasticity modulus, and water absorption. Therefore results were considered superior in terms of composites containing reinforcement material with <53 µm. Finally, the best result for tensile strength, elasticity modulus, and water absorption was obtained by adding 10% sunflower husk as a reinforcement material to polyurethane resin.

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174-176  



Xuan Nam Chu, Xuan Phuong Nguyen, Van Huong Dong, Phuoc Quy Phong Nguyen

According to the Vietnam Maritime Administration, in 2015, the total volume of transport carried was about 118.7 million tons, an increase of 9.5% compared to 2014 - the biggest increase in recent years. However, the fleet of Vietnam has taken only 27.8% of total cargo through the port, more than 70% of the market share of foreign shipping. By the end of April 2017, the Seal of Memorandum of Understanding (PSC) of the Asia-Pacific Region (Tokyo-MOU), comprising 20 members: Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Fiji , Hong Kong (China), Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Singapore, Thailand, Vanuatu and Vietnam presented the results of this organization in 2016. Accordingly, in 2016, members of Tokyo-MOU conducted 31,678 PSC inspections of 17,503 flag-nautical vessels of 101 countries to regional ports. In 31,678 PSC inspections, 18,943 defect detection ships affected safety, security, maritime labor conditions, environmental pollution prevention and 1,090 of flagged vessels from 69 countries. Kept due to serious defects; the average retention of the entire region was 3.44%, down from 3.67% in 2015 and 3.96% in 2014.

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177-180  



Randy Joy Magno Ventayen

The Pangasinan State University information website (psu.edu.ph) was redesigned last August 2016. Since then, the website is the main online source of information from the institution. Last June 2016, the rank of PSU website in region 1 compared to other SUC is ranked 6th with a global rank of around 9 million. Thus, this study was conducted to know the satisfaction and performance rating of the institutional website of Pangasinan State University for the SY 2016-2017 after it was redesigned. For the first part of the study, it uses the survey as primary means to gather information from the online visitors, the researcher uses an online form to gather the data. It uses integrated sheets with pivot analysis for testing and data science analytical software RapidMiner to generate the graphical presentation. On the second part of the study, Web analytics tools were used to visualize the performance of the website. The researcher extracted sessions from August 2016 to April 2017 to identify demographics of visitors from the historical data. The researcher also compared other SUC website rankings gathered from historical data for the last 3 months. The result of this study is expected to be good, but there is no perfect website that could satisfy everything that a visitor needs. In this study, it identifies the needs for improvement and importance of maintenance such as continuous customer feedback for continuous improvement. This study is recommended to be continuous and includes social media performance in the future study. This research fall under as NHERA-2 priority research areas in Education and Education Management.

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181-184  



Randy Joy Magno Ventayen

An institutional website and social media pages are the main sources of information from the university. Official email addresses are trusted than emails sent using personal addresses. This is a developmental research that aims to rebuild the online presence of Pangasinan State University thru the renovation of the website, establishment of social media pages, setting up domain email management and initial content. This study sought to answer the following specific questions which are: What processes are involved in rebuilding the online presence of the university? What are the needed resources in maintaining the online presence of the university website and social media page? This developmental research aims to provide a quality re-established PSU website.

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185-187  



Ahmad Saleh, Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar

Setothosea asigna is most important pest of oil palm especially in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The caterpillar could reduce oil palm yield up to 90% and the infestation can spread in huge hectares in years. However there are a lot of natural enemies have recorded and most of them could controlled the outbreak of S. asigna effectively. Nectar, pollen and water are the main food of parasitoids and predators. These foods are produced by flowering plants such as Antigonon leptopus, Turnera subulata and Agreratum conizoides which are practiced in maintaining in oil palm plantations. Two families of predators Pentatomidae and Mantidae then 3 families of parasitoids are visit on these flowering plants in this study site. This study was to determine the impact of the natural enemies to S. asigna population. The results indicated that the Blocks are planted the flowering plants A. leptopus and T. subulata clearly could suppress the population of S. asigna under Economic threshold for 25 months. While the block which has the flowering plant A. conyzoides only, three times outbreak of S. asigna was happened in March, November and December 2015 and continued in February and March 2016. To keeping abundance of natural enemies in oil palm plantations should be encouraged of flowering plants which provided the source of foods of the natural enemies. It should be included for sustainable Integrated Pest Management.

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189-192  



Van Vang Le, Dao Nam Cao, Anh Tuan Hoang

Considered as a country with clean renewable energy resources abundant, but the application of renewable energy technology is still in its early stages and still limited in Vietnam. According to the Ministry of Industry and Trade, the growth rate of energy demand in Vietnam is now double the GDP growth rate. Meanwhile, in developed countries, the ratio is only lower than one. Vietnam's energy consumption is growing, almost five times between 1990 and 2004 (from 4.21 Million tons of oil converted to 19.55 million tons in order), with an annual average increase of 11.7% per year. According to "Vietnam's National Energy Development Strategy to 2020, Vision to 2050," approved by the Prime Minister since 2007, the target of new and renewable energy sources remains at a modest level (about 5% of total primary commercial energy by 2010 and 11% by 2050). Meanwhile, demand for energy is rising rapidly in Vietnam.

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193-197  



Agbo David O., Madukwe Chinaza, Odinya Jotham O.

The Android Operating System finds wide use in smart phones and tablets and is thus suitable for home controllers. This project presents a smart home controller that uses the Bluetooth in an Android device to control the operation of an automated security door system. The software was designed using an Android app that generates a password that is recognized by the Bluetooth to control the opening and closing of the door located at some distance from the user. The Bluetooth module that is installed on the door receives the commands from the android phone, and passes these commands to the microcontroller that controls the opening and closing of the door. The design was simulated in Proteus integrated development environment after which the hardware was built on experimental boards. The performance of the system agrees excellently with its conception. The system can be used in various situations where access to an enclosure need to be secured

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198-203  



Van Vang Le, Danh Chan Nguyen, Van Huong Dong

Up to 2014, the development of renewable energy in Vietnam has undergone a process of nearly three decades with many ups, and downs. This change depends on the concern of the state, Ministries in research, development, project implementation, and financial support for renewable energy development. It is easy to see that only when the development of renewable energy has the attention and direction of the state through a policy system, a unified program, the proper funding of the budget and International assistance in technology - technology and finance can then achieve certain results. With the attention not yet thorough, synchronous, spontaneous implementation, the results achieved only modest.

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204-207  



Adebanji B., Adepoju G.A., Oni J.O, Olulope P.K.

This paper presented an optimal sizing technique for an off-grid hybrid system consisting of Small Hydro (SHP) system, Photovoltaic (PV) modules, Battery (BATT) banks and Diesel Generator (DG). The objective cost function (Annualized Cost System) and the Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) were minimized with application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to reduce the Cost of Energy (COE) generation. GA compared to other convectional optimization methods has the ability to attain global optimum easily. The decision variables are the number of small hydro turbines, NSHP, number of solar panels, NPV, number of battery banks, NBATT and the capacity of DG, PDG. The proposed method was applied to a typical rural village, Itapaji-Ekiti in Nigeria. The monthly average solar irradiance data were converted into hourly solar irradiance data for uniformity. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to identify the most important parameter influencing the optimized hybrid system. The optimal sizing result of the HPS is 954 kW of SHP, 290 kW of PV panels, 9500 sets of (600Ah) battery strings and 350 kW of DG. The optimal Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) is 0.0054 and the Renewable Fraction (RF) is 0.62, which is indeed a significant improvement on the environment and comparatively better than any other combinations in the system.

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208-213  



Reni Oktavia

The objectives of this research are first, to measure an efficiency of local governance financial performance before and after an implementation of performance based budgeting, and the second, to empirically examine of an implementation of performance based budgeting on an increasing efficiency of all local governance in Indonesia. The measurement of efficiency of local governance in Indonesia will be hand on an Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. Some result of this research showed that after implementation performance based budgeting have increased an efficiency of financial performance on local governance as a whole, and on kabupaten governance, but have a negative effect toward an increased efficiency of financial performance on state and city governance. The last result of this research indicate that the differences of mean of financial performance efficiency was influenced by differences of local government types.

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214-220  



Van Vang Le, Dao Nam Cao, Xuan Phuong Nguyen

Water is a precious resource, but not everyone is aware of it. More than 1 billion people are missing about 20 to 50 liters of clean water each day to cater for basic needs such as eating and bathing. The phenomenon of oil exploration, ocean shipping and petroleum-contaminated wastes is one of the causes of water pollution. It is estimated that about 1 billion tons of oil are transported by sea each year. Part of this volume, about 0.1 to 0.3%, is thrown into the sea in a relatively legal way: the washing of oil tankers with seawater. The shipwreck is relatively regular, disposal of lubricant, or accidental dropping gasoline. The permeation rate of petroleum is seven times that of water, which will cause the groundwater to become contaminated. About 1.6 million tons of hydrocarbons are discharged by rivers of industrialized nations. From the above causes we see that human consciousness is the main cause of pollution of water environment. Resources are not endless, with the exploitation of an indiscriminate wing, rampant, run for market economy benefits without the appropriate treatment, the water pollution is a certain matter. The importance is inevitable if people are unaware of the importance of water for life, in the near future the resources will be exhausted.

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221-224  



Ismail Ibrahim Marhoon

The effects of carbon black N990 on polyurethane properties with different weight fraction (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wt%) of the former were investigated in terms of tensile strength, hardness, impact strength, flexural strength, and density. The tensile strength increased when 4 wt% carbon black was added. The Impact strength also improved by 33% at the same percentage of carbon black. Flexural strength improved by 12% at 6% wt., in comparison with the neat samples. Moreover, the hardness and density increased with increasing carbon black fraction for all samples. Thus, carbon black N990 acts as a particulate reinforcement that improves the mechanical properties of polyurethane.

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225-228  



Warusawithana T.M, Samarasinghe W.L.G, Dassanayake P.N, Ubeysekara N.M, Jayarathna K.G.C.N

Assessing the genetic diversity for miniaturization of crop collections to form mini core collection will lead to greater utilization of germplasm to develop improved crop cultivars along with effective maintenance of it. It has become vital to perform this for traditional Rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties when considering the arising demand for their qualities. This study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of twenty ‘Pachchaperumal’ traditional Rice accessions with two control varieties Bg360 and ‘Suwandal’ Rice, conserved at the Seed Genebank of Plant Genetic Resources Center, Gannoruwa, Sri Lanka. Morphological analysis was done using seven standard seed morphological descriptors of Rice and, Molecular analysis was done using 16 SSR primers. Statistical analysis was done for morphological and molecular data using MINITAB 15 and POPGENE 1.31 softwares respectively. Strategy of bulking accessions was tested in this study relying on seed morphological clustering and those bulks were used in the molecular analysis. Results revealed a significant degree of genetic diversity among tested accessions both morphologically and molecularly, and molecular results were more contributive. Two distinct accessions were identified as potential off types of ‘Pachchaperumal’, accession numbers 3752 and 5547. Cluster analysis based on morphological traits generated seven major clusters at 1.62 relative distance. Depending on the pattern of clustering, ten bulks were formed. The molecular analysis based on bulks, generated five clusters in a relative genetic distance of 9.0. Eleven accessions were distinguished as representative set out of all 20 accessions and according to passport data 3 of them were Bg accessions, 5550, 5549 and 5546.

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229-237  



Mohammed Mosab Asad, Ibrahim Marouf, Qasem Abu Al-Haija

This paper presents a review with numerical example and complexity analysis of the fast multiplication algorithms to help embedded system designers to improve the hardware performance for many applications such as cryptosystems design. The paper presented two practical multiplication algorithms: Karatsuba multiplication algorithm with time complexity O(n^〖log〗_2⁡3 ) and Schönhage–Strassen multiplication algorithm with the run-time bit complexity defined as O(n log⁡(n) log⁡(log⁡〖(n〗)). In addition, interleaved multiplication algorithm can be used efficiently to compute the modular multiplication with logarithmic time complexity which enhances the linear time complexity of Montgomery modular multiplication.

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238-242  



Omur Can Ozguney, Recep Burkan

The robot industry has developed along with the increasing the use of robots in industry. This has led to increase the studies on robots. The most important part of these studies is that the robots must be work with minimum tracking trajectory error. But it is not easy for robots to track the desired trajectory because of the external disturbances and parametric uncertainty. Therefore, adaptive and robust controllers are used to decrease tracking error. The aim of this study is to increase the tracking performance of the robot and minimize the trajectory tracking error. For this purpose, adaptive control law for robot manipulator is identified and fuzzy logic controller is applied to find the accurate values for adaptive control parameter. Based on the Lyapunov theory, stability of the uncertain system is guaranteed. In this study, robot parameters are assumed to be unknown. This controller is applied to a robot model and the results of simulations are given. Controller with fuzzy logic and without fuzzy logic are compared with each other. Simulation results show that the fuzzy logic controller has improved the results.

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243-247  



Resky Amalia Rajab, Najamuddin, Andi Assir Marimba

Based on some research that has been done about the influence of technical aspects on productivity of purse seine only examine some variables from the technical aspects. This research is done by combining several variables based on previous research which influences the productivity of purse seine in the coverage of technical aspects as well as adding the variables which are considered to influence the productivity of the purse seine. This study aims to analyze the effect of technical aspects on productivity of purse seine in Jeneponto Regency. This research was conducted in Jeneponto District which is a area which operated the gear fishing gear which is in Pabbiringa village, Binamu district and Pao village, Tarowang district. Survey methods carried out by taking 100% of the total population of purse seine in Jeneponto and following fishing operations with purse seine during 30 trips. The result of this research shows that the technical aspect that gives a real effect to the catch of fish on the net is the net length (X1), sinking power (X3), vessel length (X5), pursing speed (X9).

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248-252  



John K. Njue, Simon G. Maina, Ronald Waweru Mwangi, Michael Kimwele

Accurate gaze region estimation on the web is important for the purpose of placing marketing advertisements in web pages and monitoring authenticity of user’s response in web forms. To identify gaze region on the web, we need cheap, less technical and non-laboratory setup that minimize user interruptions. This study uses the mouse and keyboard as input devices to collect web usage data. The data collected is categorized into mouse activities, keyboard activities and scroll activities. A regression model is then used to estimate gaze region from the categorized data. The results indicate that although mouse cursor data is generated throughout the user session, the use of data from keyboard presses and scroll from both keyboard and mouse improves the accuracy of identified gaze regions in web usage data.

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253-262  



Ikenna Stephen Ezennia; Patrick Chukwuemeke Uwajeh; Vitalis Madua Irouke

Public spaces especially public parks provide an important avenue for social interaction and points of contact amongst residents and visitors in a neighbourhood. The manner in which people view their park experiences in public space has a lot to tell about the spatial organization and planning of park facilities. Certainly, taking an in-depth study on how these spaces and park facilities are used has shown a substantial variance between the objectives of park planners and user experience. Merely the rate of patronage and usage of these public parks accounts to their success ratings. The inadequate usage of park spaces and park facilities by its intended users, by not optimizing its functions due to the negligence in the adoption of universal design principles in park designs, has led to the continued decline of residents’ interaction and opportunities for contact. Based on mixed methods research approach conducted in the residential area of Karakol and its environs, this research studies the spatial arrangements of the facilities within parks’ in Karakol and the subsequent social vacuum; with the intent of enhancing social interaction and communication amongst residents and visitors of that neighborhood. Quantitative data analysis SPSS was used and results presented in form of tables and charts. Research findings shows that, factors that activate a sense of accomplishment withn the parks are well‑maintained greenery and facilities that can be accessed by all age group; and also the opportunity to make use of these areas for relaxation and sports, and open spaces for social gathering or function.

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263-269  



Siti Nur Rochimiwati, Hj. Hikmawati Mas'ud, Hj. Fatmawaty Suaib

Snack are ready-made foods that are self-produced or purchased from sellers or merchants. Snack sellers can be found along the roadside, in stalls, cake shops around the crowded places like schools, offices, colleges and so on. The Ministry of Health (2014) states that snack is a given or consumed between two time of meals with an energy value of about 200 Kilocalories and 5 grams of protein. Whereas PMT-US standard (Supplementary Feeding of School Children) requires 200-300 kilocalories and 5-7 grams of protein. Snacks are sold around the school by unsettled and non-resident sellers in the school stalls or canteens. Various snacks are sold as rice noodles, sweet corn, fried tempe tofu, fried foods, meatballs, bread, cracker, potatos, jelly, cooked rice, noodles, cimol, cilok, cireng, biscuits, milk, iced tea, iced juices, etc, (Alfid TA, Retno I, Setho and Yohanes K, Bastianus DR, Anasari M 2013) The BPOM (Food and Drug Supervisory Agency) research in Alfid in 2003) stated that from 9465 samples 80% contain harmful ingredients. Snack also has a contribution in the fulfillment of daily nutrition that is energy amounted to 233.11 ± 28.41 Kcal and protein at 6.21 ± 1.39 gram (Rachmawati HN 2013). This type of research is experimental with cireng manufacture from cassava and fish, cassava cireng , Fish and tapioca and cireng original made from tapioca flour. The study aims to determine the taste, nutritional value and large of serving portions. The results were obtained for all three products The weighing 50 gram serving portion nutritional value has not reached the standard of the nutritional value of snacks. From the aspect of approaching cireng original flavor is cireng tapioca plus cassava and fish while cireng cassava and fish not like cireng original. It is advisable to develop or further modify in order to achieve nutritional standards of snack and as a healthy and safe snacks and the characteristics of cireng are not lost.

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270-272  



Ashraf Abdalkader, Omer Elzaroug, Farhat Abubaker

Steel fibers are added to concrete due to its ability to improve the tensile strength and control propagation of cracks in reinforced concrete members. Steel fiber reinforced concrete is made of cement, fine, water and coarse aggregate in addition to steel fibers. In this experimental work, flexural cracking behavior of reinforced concrete beams contains different percentage of hooked-end steel fibers with length of 50 mm and equivalent diameter of 0.5 mm was studied. The beams were tested under third-point loading test at 28 days. First cracking load, maximum crack width, cracks number, and load-deflection relations were investigated to evaluate the flexural cracking behavior of concrete beams with 34 MPa target mean strength. Workability, wet density, compressive and splitting tensile strength were also investigated. The results showed that the flexural crack width is significantly reduced with the addition of steel fibers. Fiber contents of 1.0% resulted in 81% reduction in maximum crack width compared to control concrete (without fiber). The results also showed that the first cracking load and maximum load are increased with the addition of steel fibers.

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273-277  



Maman Suryaman, Adam Saepudin, Dedi Natawijaya, Darul Zumani

Soybean seeds rapidly deteriorate or loss of viability and vigor, especially in stress conditions including by saline. This study was aimed to obtain the best seed viability and vigor of soybean treated by seed priming under salt stress. This study used a randomized completely block design with factorial pattern. First factor was the saline stress of NaCl concentration (C) which consisted of three levels (c0 = 0%, 0.5% = c1, c2 = 1%).Second factor was the treatment of seed priming (P) that consisted of 4 levels (p0 = hydropriming, p1 = osmopriming, p2 = matripriming, p3 = vitamin priming). The experiment was repeated three times. Data collected consisted of: germination capacity, germination rate, hypocotyl and epicotyl length, the weight of seedling, and the electrical conductivity. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by Duncan's multiple range test at 5 percent. The results showed that osmopriming, matripriming, and vitamin priming improved total germination and germination rate of soybean seeds under salinity stress, while seed priming with hydropriming caused significantly the reduction of germination total and germination rate in salinity stress of 1 percent. Increased salinity stress from 0 to 1 percent caused a reduction in hypocotyl and epicotyl length, different with osmopriming, matripriming, and vitamin priming that produced hypocotyl and epicotyl longer than hydropriming. In all seed primings, increased salinity stress from 0 to 1 percent lowered the weight of seedlings, and most drastic reduction of seedling weight occurred in seeds treated with hydropriming. Among seed priming treatments, osmopriming, matripriming, and vitamin priming were more able to reduce membrane leakage compared to hydropriming as indicated by lower electrical conductivity rates contributing the increase in tolerance to salt stress and high in seed viability and vigor.

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278-283  



Neha Yadav

Natural Language Processing is one of the most developing fields in research area. In most of the applications related to the Natural Language Processing, findings of the Morphological Analysis and Morphological Generation can be considered very important. As morphological study is the technique to recognise a word and its output can be used on later on stages .Keeping in view this importance, this paper describes how Morphological Analysis and Morphological Generation can be proved as an important part of various Natural Language Processing fields such as Spell checker, Machine Translation etc.

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284-286  



Harshini G, Sreeha M R

The Internet of Things (IoT) helps to encompass many aspects of life from connecting homes and cities to connecting cars and roads, roads to devices that helps in examining individual’s behavior and then the data collected is used.IoT is to make lives better, secure and enjoyable. IoT solutions will promote cleaner environment, improve people’s health with preventative care mechanisms and the constant supervision of elderly family members. It provides a platform for communication between objects where objects can organize and manage themselves. In this paper an attempt is made to understand how analytics can be applied to IoT data. Various statistical and data mining techniques will help to derive knowledge out of huge data collected by the IoT devices.

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287-289  



Maram Teimeh Atallah Haddad

Bilingualism has emerged in our world today and became one of the most important and debatable contemporary linguistic issues in education. Thus this paper shed light on bilingualism. It described illustrated, evaluated and attempted to discuss bilingualism from different perspectives: its definition, its status quo in education in Jordan and its two major types , its advantages and disadvantages and finally some factors that affect being bilingual.

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290-292  



Nayab Bashir

Customer relationship management is good for banking sector to increase in any economic condition and for customers to receive quality services This research check the impact of customer relationship management activities on bank’s customer retention in Sialkot Punjab. For the purpose of study, a sampling analysis was conducted among (330) customers of selected private banks that is (Habib Bank limited, United Bank limited, Faysal Bank limited) with the help of a structured questionnaire. (316) questionnaires were usable. Statistical answers give support on the high positive relationship between customer relationship management (CRM) and customer satisfaction. This study exposed that there is a important positive relationship among the variables. This study exposes that the suitable execution of CRM will increases the number of customer satisfaction or make long term healthy relations with the current or potential customers through managing information or improve the performance of services that assist customer retention. Acronyms: CRM: Customer relationship management CS: Customer satisfaction CR: Customer retention Abbreviations: Customer relationship management

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293-305  



Anjay Kumar Mishra, Bijaya Rana Magar

The overall objective of this study is to assess the implementability of Municipal Transport Master Plan with the assessment of Bandipur Inner Ring Road. Various literatures were reviewed to assess the planning, adopted approaches and implementability related with the transportation master plan. Data were collected through Questionnaire survey, Interviews and Focus Group Discussions. Technical Survey was also conducted for assessing compliance level of technical parameters of ring road. Traffic Count Survey and Household Survey were carried out to analyze the traffic situation of ring road. Possible budget allocation and possible budget requirement for ring road were calculated for five years (FY 2016/17 to FY 2020/21) and determined the possible financial gap. Results were assessed with the indicators of implementability (rational, legitimate, feasible, politically viable and socially acceptable). The result showed that still 2.64km section of ring road is earthen where total length of road is 3.9km. Just 500m lined and 460m dry side drain is constructed throughout the ring road. It complies 70.59% technical parameters of Village Road Standards and only 6.25% of Urban Road Standards but 510 vehicles including motorcycle (567 PCU) run on this road per day from two sides. The road is found overloaded. MTMP report has just prepared in municipality and 93% of total respondents has accepted that MTMP is prepared adopting Participatory and Bottom Up planning Approach. MTMP is implementable by generating internal revenue.

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306-313  



Yusufu Luka, Hassan Ahmed Saddiq,Timothy Musa Chiroma, Usaku Hassan

The pollution reduction of Lake Gerio was investigated using mixed Culture of Bacillus Subtilis and Pseudomonas Alcaligenes and Model expressions were developed to describe the behavior of micro organisms in bioremediation which were compared to some models proposed by some individuals in bioremediation applications. Pazouki proposed model was used to validate the experimental data, to demonstrate the usability of the model in predicting the behavior of micro organisms in an aquatic environment. The model was simulated using MATLAB; the results showed that the concentration of the substrate reduces linearly with time. The experimental data also showed concentration reduction with time but did not effectively fit the model. It was therefore concluded that the model can be used to approximately predict the behavior of the system. Therefore the model needs to be modified for accurate prediction of the behavior of micro organisms in an aquatic system.

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314-317  



Chiranjibi Chaudhary, Sudheer K Singh

The study was initiated to develop a recombinant strain, for expression and production of large scale protein and to develop its purification protocol. The MRA_ORF-X was amplified from the genomic DNA of M. tuberculosis H37Ra. The amplicon was successfully cloned in a cloning vector pGEM-T Easy and transformed in cloning host DH5α. Recombinant clones were identified by blue-white screening and insert presence was confirmed by restriction digestion of plasmid isolated from white colonies. Expression vector pET32a was used for protein expression. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into expression host BL21 and protein expression was checked by SDS-PAGE. The desired protein was approximately 60 kDa in size, including tags. The purification protocol was established for purification from inclusion bodies. The purity of purified protein was assessed by SDS-PAGE gel run and presence of a single band at ~60 kDa suggested that the inclusion bodies were a good source of purified protein.

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318-331  



Gerald U. Pana, Gladys S. Escarlos

The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of contemporary teaching strategies in developing students’ attitude, academic performance and level of acquisition of the 21st century learning skills among Grade 7 students of New Nongnongan National High School. The study is a mixture of descriptive and quasi experimental research design where Mean, Mean Percentage Scores, and Analysis of Covariance were used. Two intact classes were chosen as the sample and categorized using toss coin method. The contemporary teaching strategies (CTS) group was exposed to problem based learning, roundtable discussion and debate while the non-contemporary teaching strategies (NCTS) group was exposed to lecture, reporting, discussion and demonstration. A self-assessment behavioral checklist, teacher made pre-test and post-test exam and observational checklist were used. Results revealed that developments on the level of attitude towards learning Araling Panlipunan, academic performance and acquisition of 21st century skills were more evident on the CTS group compared to NCTS group. Furthermore, there was a significant difference on the level of attitude towards learning, level of academic performance, and level of acquisition of the 21st century skills between groups.

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332-337  



John Baptist Kirabira, Martin Ssembatya, Andrew Ayor

The food processing industry is one of the fast-growing sub-sectors in Uganda. The industry, which is majorly composed of medium and small scale firms, depends on the locally developed food processing equipment. Due to lack of effective materials selection practices employed by the equipment manufacturers, the materials normally selected for most designs are not the most appropriate ones hence compromising the quality of the equipment produced. This has not only led to poor quality food products due to contamination but could also turn out health hazardous to the consumers of the food products. This study involved the assessment of the current materials selection and fabrication procedures used by the food processing equipment manufacturers with a view of devising best practices that can be used to improve the quality of the food products processed by the locally fabricated equipment. Results of the study show that, designers’ experience biasness and desire to minimize cost compromise the materials selection procedure. In addition to failing to choose the best material for a given application, most equipment manufacturers are commonly fabricating equipment with inadequate surface finish and improper weldments. This hinders the equipment’s ability to meet food hygiene standards.

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338-346  



Chafaa Hamrouni, Rached Hamza, Naceur, Naceur Abdelkarim

Use of advanced design system and micro processed technology enhance the performance of transmission sub- system quality and control electromagnetic waves propagation in space, but at the same time resulting into transmitted waves quality problems for utility. One of the major issues of transmission quality is harmonics in transmission subsystem. Through mandatory regulations, harmonics in the transmission subsystem must be prevented to ensure good propagation quality. In this work, we present the design and characteristics of three types of tested Microstrip Antenna (MA). In the first place, longitudinally magnetized ferrite patch antenna is presented. We can control outside the resonance frequency by changing the tensor permeability which is a function of the magnetization of the ferrite substrate. The wavelength in the ferrite is short as the magnetization becomes stronger. This antenna becomes multi-band, used in transmission subsystems as well as IEEE standard transmission quality. A microstrip antenna ultra-wideband double circular slit fed with a coplanar line CPW is designed, and successful results are demonstrated. The proposed antenna is characterized by simplicity of design and food, a very low cost and a relatively stable radiation pattern in this part of the bandwidth. In the last part, we present simulations under HFSS antenna guide wave empty or filled with metamaterials to periodic square openings. This paper presents a new approach to design Microstrip Antenna for wireless transmission subsystems radiation quality monitoring and analysis considering harmonics. Successful results allow us develop a wide ultra antenna band. This is an innovative approach in telecommunication field in terms of radiated elements which thereby improves waves propagation quality. A case study of microstrip antenna performance is presented which encompasses the effects of harmonics on Antenna waveguide to metamaterial ultra broad- band and double slit ULB patch antenna to find out the solution to be implemented.

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347-350  



Archana Nandibewoor, Shweta Muddebihal, Ravindra Hegadi

These Chlorophyll is an essential element in plants. Variation in chlorophyll concentration has a direct impact on crops or plant productivity. Remote sensing is a technique for getting information about object without direct contact with it. Multi spectral image is a satellite image which includes limited spectral bands, each with different wavelengths. In this paper the proposed work is used to find chlorophyll content in crop using multispectral image. Multispectral satellite data was taken from study area, and this image is processed using image processing technique. In this Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is used. The Protein and Nitrogen values were calculated using satellite data and these values were correlated with experimental analysis using DMSO method.

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351-354  



T.T Amachree, E.O.P Apkan, E.C. Ubani, K.A Okorocha

Developed MRP as the Most Significant Inventory management Strategy that will correlate strongly with PIEMF. The result of the test case of MRP-based integrated flow system model as shown in table 6 Indicate that the model is effective and valid for PIEMF at 95% confidence interval with F-value = 3.121 and P-value (sig.) = 0.034. The model provides abstract representation and timely understanding of the subject matter and as a true indication of a situation of IMS for PIEMF. The flow system model will serve as a veritable decision support system of inventory management for PIEMF

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355-361  



Amanat Dhillon, Shreya Tuli

Restaurant Management System over Private Network is an automated business environment which allows restaurants to reduce operational costs, increase efficiency of business, improve customer satisfaction, cut down labour costs, decrease order processing time and provide better Quality-of-Service(Q-S). This system manages a digital menu allowing the customers to place orders easily. Authentication fields for employees enable better administration of the restaurant. The whole restaurant is integrated into one private network thereby improving security and eliminating the need for a constant internet connection.

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362-366  



Medha Kisto

Over the last two decades Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) claimed an impressive economic record, as it enables economy to transit from an agrarian to knowledge based economy. This paper focuses on the determinants and impact of FDI in Mauritius using annual time series data from 1975 through 2015. The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) analysis reveals that macroeconomic variables namely inflation rates and exchange rate are among the major and important factor that affect FDI in Mauritius over this period of time. Exchange rate exhibited negative significant influence on FDI while interest rate affects FDI positively. The study therefore recommends that government should continue to diversify the export and tourism markets, ensure stable macroeconomic policies, implement reforms on doing business, increase its expenditure in the area of infrastructural development and redirect FDI in productive sector of the economy as ways to accelerate the growth of Mauritian economy.

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367-377  



Shadeya Akundabweni Juniour, Buseinei John, Richard Onwonga

Studies have shown that there is a challenge in protecting both natural resources and livelihoods simultaneously. However, little is known when considering the number of livelihoods strategies affected by the effect of conservation methods. This paper seeks to investigate the outcome of sustainable livelihood diversification by considering the number of strategies affected by eviction on households neighboring the boundaries of the Mau forest in Kenya. It is well understood that double sustainability is achieved when environmental protection of biodiversity is attained and the livelihood of households affected focuses on a pro-poor strategy at the same time. The study employs the Negative Binomial Regression and ANOVA to estimate the effect of being a victim of eviction on the number of alternative livelihood strategies. The results indicate a significant difference in diversification between households that were victims of eviction from non victims. Significantly evicted households dominantly engage in low income earning agricultural activities. The findings suggest that evicted households diversify but depend on forests and agricultural activities as a coping mechanism towards eviction. This information is important to policy makers in assisting to achieve double sustainability by looking at forest eviction conversation and household livelihood adoption needs.

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378-383  



Dr. Irwan Ch

This study aims to analyze the effect of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Non-Performing Financing (NPF), Operating Costs to Operating Income Ratio and Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR) toward Return on Assets (ROA), either jointly or partially and also looking for the most dominant influencing factor. As for the object of the research are 47 Islamic Rural Banks in Indonesia with total assets of IDR 3,908 billion or 50,5% of total assets of Islamic Rural Banks in Indonesia that is IDR.7,739 billion. The analysis was done by regression with the result of independent variable of Non Performing Financing (NPF) and Operating Cost to Operating Income Ratio, partially, have a significant and negative effect toward Return On Assets. However, Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) and Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR ) are slightly influential and have insignificant effect toward Return on Assets (ROA) of Islamic Rural Banks in Indonesia partially, while jointly, have positive and significant influence toward Return On Assets. The most dominant Independent Variables which affect Return on Assets (ROA) partially is Operating Costs to Operating Income Ratio, and then followed by Non-Performing Financing (NPF).

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384-390  



Adeleke, S.A., Olukunle, O. J., Olaniran, J. A., Famuyiwa, B. S.

The method of primary processing of coffee is a vital determinant of quality and price. Wet processing method produces higher quality beans but is very labourious. This work outlines the design of a small scale, cost-effective, ergonomic, and easily maintained and operated coffee hulling machine that can improve quality and productivity of green coffee beans. The machine can be constructed from locally available materials at a relatively low cost of about NGN 140,000.00 with cheap running cost. The beaters are made from rubber strip which can deflect when in contact with any obstruction causing little or no stresses on drum members and reducing the risk of damage to both the beans and machine. The machine is portable and detachable which make it fit to be owned by a group of farmers who can move it from one farm to the other, making affordability and running cost easier. The easily affordable and relatively low running cost may be further reduced by the fact that the machine is powered by 3.0 Hp petrol engine, which is suitable for other purposes among the rural dwellers. The eventual construction of the machine will encourage more farmers to go into wet processing of coffee and reduce the foreign exchange hitherto lost to this purpose.

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391-397  



Temam Abrar Hamza, Alemayehu Letebo Alebjo

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L) is commercial cash and sweet industrial crop. Considering its importance in the agro-processing industry and its economic contribution to the country’s , the Ethiopian government has planned an ambitious plan to expand the sugarcane cultivation farmland and sugar processing factories in the country. Despite the significant commercial value of this crop, the main production constrain is the availability of healthy quality quantity and safe planting material within short time. The planting materials obtained through conventional methods do not meet the increasing demand for planting and they are poor quality and yielding. Nowadays, unlike the conventional propagation method, micropropagation is the only realistic means of achieving rapid and large scale production of healthy quality planting materials in sugarcane and it is an alternative approach for fast multiplication of a variety in its original form even if its procurement is costly. The use of best alternative in terms of cost, is the key to make developing countries like Ethiopia beneficiary from micropropagation technology. In Ethiopia, a lot of sugarcane tissue culture protocols were developed which help to minimize the current challenges of sugarcane production in the country. Currently sugarcane production in Ethiopia has given due attention, it is also allied with its important potential for an environment-friendly bio-fuel production and generating huge electric power. This review highlights the techniques of plant tissue culture and achievement of sugarcane tissue culture in Ethiopia. The production of sugarcane using conventional propagation and micropropagation technology is delineated. Opportunities for Ethiopia’s Sugar Industry are also highlighted.

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398-406  



Irianto, Didik S.S. Mabuy

Project risk is an event or an uncertain condition, which if it appears will have a threat on the project object. Many contractors still do not understand the threats that occur in the project, they still assume that risks are always harmful. Based on data from the Papua Public Works procurement service that the implementation of road improvement projects always faces problems. This research is an explorative and descriptive study, which explores the risks / threats that occur in the project from the contractor's perspective in Jayapura, Papua Province Indonesia. The object of this research is the company (contractor) involved in the implementation of road improvement project in Jayapura, whereas the respondent is the project manager and the field supervisor involved in the implementation of road improvement project, The analysis result shows that the overall level of risk is in very low category, and the biggest risks affecting contractors in sequence are; (1) material delays from suppliers, (2) material inventories, (3) design difficulties, (4) incorrectly shipped material volumes, (5) changes to specifications by the owner, (6) difficulty in obtaining materials and equipment, (7) material price increases, (8) over quality, (9) damage to machine tools, (10) weakening the bearing capacity of subgrade soil. While the response to risks / threats that occur in road improvement projects is to reduce and avoid.

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407-410  



Dr. Mohamed Bin Haj Ibrahim, Dr. Ayad N. Abdullah, Hamad Salim Al Shekaili

The reinforcement plays a crucial role in helping to achieve the occupational satisfaction of the employees.

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411-414  



A. Imrana, Dr.I.V Haruna

Geochemical investigation of koton karfe Oolitic iron ore was carried out in order to provide comprehensive data on the geochemical and mineralogical composition. The investigation involved mineral phase analysis, major elements and grade determination. Result the XRF analysis shows high Iron (Fe2O3) content ranging from 63.46% to 74.38%. Aluminum (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2) contents are also fairly high ranging from 7.60% - 16.85% and 7.81% -18.55% respectively. Phosphorous content ranges from 0.89% - 1.20% and sulfur content between 0.07% - 0.26%. In addition, the ores contain other impurities such as CaO, MgO, TiO2 and MnO which exist in considerable negligible amounts. Petrographic studies revealed that most samples contain Goethite as the major Iron ore mineral with some minor amount of Hematite and Quartz as the gangue mineral. The quality of this ore was compared to generalized world standards and ores from other parts of Nigeria and other nations. This comparison shows that Koton Karfe Oolitic iron ore is of low grade with average grade of 47.43% and contain high percentages of gangue (silicates and Aluminum), impurities and deleterious elements, phosphorous and sulphur which are all above the permissible limit.

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415-426  



Ahmed Chaabouni, Chaker Chtara, Hedi Ben Abdallah, Samir Taktak, Ange Nzihou, Hafed El Feki

We propose in this work to study thermally the decomposition of two Tunisian natural phosphates or carbonated fluorapatite in a range of temperature between ambient and 1000°C. Several techniques were used such as thermo gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and Infra-Red Spectroscopy for this mineralogical study. The results showed that after dehydration, decarbonation occurs in two steps. In the first one the maximum decomposition rate appears near 660°C for the sample of phosphate 1 and 770°C for the sample of phosphate 2. In the second one the maximum is about 780°C for phosphate 1 and 810°C for phosphate 2. In addition, it was reported that the first decarbonation translated the kinetics of decomposition of the carbonate ions of the type B associated with a vaccum, while the second decarbonation is related to the thermal decomposition of the entity of CO3F, generated by the decomposition of carbonate ions of type B and A.

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427-431  



Kureve, D.T., Igwue, G.A, Goshwe, N.Y

This paper analyzes the plug-in electric tricycle (Auto rickshaw) battery charging system using a non-isolated DC-DC SEPIC converter which operates as a switched mode power supply (SMPS). The control of dc voltage output is by varying the gating pulses duty cycle of the switch in the dc-dc converter using PID controller based PWM technique. The 60 V, 30 A DC-DC SEPIC converter is designed to provide non-inverting voltage buck from the rectified AC mains for charging deep cycle battery bank in an electric auto rickshaw. The charger system is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink.

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432-435  



Yunusa Alhassan, Yunus Ballim

This paper presents a laboratory investigation on the early age properties and carbonation of concrete containing Ground Granulated Blast Furnace (GGBS) in an inland environment. Properties of concrete made with GGBS blended cement was characterized in terms of physical and chemical composition at early-age. In addition, the effects of inland exposure condition on the durability performance of companion concrete were also investigated in the medium term. Concrete cubes were made using various concrete mixtures of water-binder ratios (w/b) = 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.75 and binder contents = 300, 350, 400, 450 kg/m3. Concrete cube of 100 mm size were cast and cured in water for 3, 7, or 28 days, then characterized at early-ages in terms of its physical and chemical properties. Companion concrete samples were exposed indoor or outdoors to undergo carbonation under natural environment. At the end of the varying exposure period (6, 12, 18 and 24 months), the concrete cube samples were characterized in terms of carbonation depths. The results of the concrete early-age properties and medium-term durability characterisation were analyzed. The results show that, increased knowledge of concrete materials, concrete early-age properties and its exposure conditions are vital in durability considerations for RC structures.

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436-443  



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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - November 2017 - Volume 6 Issue 11