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IJSTR Volume 3- Issue 6, June 2014 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Ankit Garg, Ashish Negi, Akshat Agrawal, Bhupendra Latwal

Abstract: In the field of computer graphics construction of complex objects is difficult process. Objects in nature are complex such as tree, plants, mountains and clouds. Traditional geometry is not adequate to describe these objects. Researchers are investigating different techniques to model such types of complex objects. Algorithms presented in this paper are deterministic algorithm and random iteration algorithm which comes under iterated function system. The fundamental property of any IFS is that image generated by it is also a fractal which is called attractor. Any set of affine transformation and associated set of probabilities determines an Iterated function system (IFS). This paper presents the role of iterated function system in geometric modeling of 2D and 3D fractal objects.

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1-8  



Sepideh Khalafi, Sadigh Raissi

Abstract: Nowadays, optimization of production processes is considered as one of the main concerns in industry of installations. It is a difficult task with respect to wideness of systems and complexity of behaviors, so it requires consuming a noticeable quantity of time and cost. prediction of system behavior and performance of processes after exertion of the given changes may be either a difficult task that is exposed to uncertainty and or requires taking time and waste of sources in order to characterize the results derived from employing the executed changes. The present essay is mainly intended to present an effective and reliable model by means of stimulation approach toward recognizing of bottleneck in manufacturing aerators (ventilation filters) and industrial valves in order to reduce time period for delivery of orders. The results of current investigation led to predict of reduced time for delivery of orders up to 49%.

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9-14  



Orina HezronNyamoko, Rimiru Richard, Abanti Cyrus Makori

Abstract: This study was to investigate how user activities influence Decision making on cost optimization of investment on cyber café business. This was primarily to support acquisition of cyber café system for use in an organization. This is by bringing objective and subjective costs and benefits into the same model and prescribing a unique approach to determining system utility, it demonstrates how the proposed model can be applied for objective evaluation of display interfaces for a decision support system. In order to come up with this evaluation this study was carried out using the following objectives. First was to determine the challenges facing investment on cyber café business in Kenya. Secondly to examine if user activities have cost implication on cyber café investment in Kenya. Thirdly to design user activity-based decision support model for cost optimization of cyber café investment in Kenya. Fourthly to evaluate the developed user activity-based decision support model for cost optimization of cyber café investment in Kenya. In achieving these objectives the researcher adopted questionnaires as Data collection instrument because of the target population for this study. In the conclusion of the research the researcher came up with a model that will enhance decision making when one wants to invest in cyber café business considering the user activities.

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15-17  



Bartholomew Dzudzor, Selikem Nuwormegbe, Richard H. Asmah, Naa A. Sodzi-Tettey, William Kudzi, Charles Brown

Abstract: Haptoglobin (HP), an acute phase glycoprotein with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory functions may be an excellent candidate gene to investigate human longevity. The gene is polymorphic and the proteins expressed have different functional capacities due to their distinct biochemical and biophysical properties. The study aimed at determining the possible role of haptoglobin genotypes as genetic markers for longevity. One hundred and thirty three healthy elderly people above 50 years were recruited for the study. The average age of 37 (28%) males was 70.9 years and 96 (72%) females was 75.7 years. Blood samples were collected from participants for hematological analysis, HP genotyping and determination of oxidative stress. A positive correlation between superoxide dismutase activity and age (p = 0.002) was observed in this study population. A negative correlation was observed between age and total white blood cells (p = 0.020), age and neutrophil (p = 0.028), age and platelet counts (p = 0.006). HP1 and HP2 allelic frequencies were found to be 49.5% and 50.5%. Genotypic frequencies for HP2-2, HP2-1, and HP1-1 were 38%, 25% and 37% respectively, showing a departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The HP1 and HP2 genotypic polymorphisms did not appear to influence longevity in the Ghanaian population and none of the genotypes conferred a survival advantage.

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18-22  



Bhashipaka. Ashok, M. A. Himayath Shamshi

Abstract: Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are widely used as f orward correction codes (FEC) in digital com munication and storage systems.correcting ran random errors of RS codes have been extensiv ely studied in both academia and industry. Ho wever, for burst-error correction, the research is still quite limited due to its ultra high compu tation complexity. In this brief, starting from a recent theoretical work, a low-complexity refo rmulated inversionless burst-error correcting (RiBC) algorithm is developed for practical ap plications.Then, based on the proposed algorit hm, a unified VLSI architecture that is capabl e of correcting burst errors, as well as random errors and erasures, is firstly presented for mu lti-mode decoding requirements. This new arc hitecture is denoted as unified hybrid decoding (UHD)architecture. It will be shown that,being the first RS decoder owning enhanced burst er ror correcting capability, it can achieve signifi cantly improved error correcting capability th an traditional hard-decision decoding (HDD) design. A design of (7, 3) Reed Solomon encod er and Decoder are implemented using VHDL hardware description language (HDL) code, sim ulated and synthesized by XILINX ISE simulator. General Terms : Burst errors, Reed-Solomon codes,RiBC algorith m and UHD architecture.

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23-29  



Rohit Shriyan, Saurabh Sande, Aniket Dolas, Siddhant Shinde, Madan Jagtap

Abstract : We all know that in India many of the village’s still do not have electricity. But many a times it becomes difficult to transfer energy from its source/ plant up to its destination and as the distance increases cost of electricity also goes on increasing. Now to tackle this problem there are many ideas. One of those is to generate own energy from the resources available. But electricity generation can be very costly. No construction of hydro dams is necessary for such an application. As well as in hydro power plants, compact helical turbines can be used in Wind Farms instead of conventional propeller-type machines of huge diameter. So to solve these problems we are making a Microhydro turbine with less initial cost and maintainace cost. So that electricity is available to everyone also in areas where it is not able to reach. Also it` does not required much large land for its setup. The utilization of energy is an indication of the growth of a nation. For example, the per capita energy consumption in USA is 9000 KWh (Kilo Watt hour) per year, whereas the consumption in India is 1200 KWh (Kilo Watt hour). One might conclude that to be materially rich and prosperous, a human being needs to consume more and more energy. A recent survey on the energy consumption in India had published a pathetic report that 85,000 villages in India do not still have electricity. Supply of power in most part of the country is poor. Hence more research and development and commercialization of technologies are needed in this field.

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30-33  



Hanapi, Kahar Mustari, Elkawakib Syam’un, Kaimuddin

Abstract: Cassava is an important crop plants as a source of carbohydrate, raw materials for industrial, cosmetic, feed and energy. The study aims to determine the 5 clones of cassava production is applied Hormax regulator growth + Organox microbial fertilizer + NPK and harvested at different age. The experiment was conducted in the form of three-factor factorial experiement based on rendomized complete block design. Study result shows that the interaction between the clone MLG 0311and Hormax 20 mL.L-1 water + Organox 40 mL.L-1 water + NPK 150 kg.ha-1 and the age of 9 month when the cassava crop is harvested produced the highest weight of tuber yield per tree (4.870 kg), the highest of total wet weight of sugar level (0.65 %), conversion of fresh peeled tuber with the highest ethanol (155.00 ml.kg-1). clone of ADIRA-4 with Hormax 20 mL.L-1 water + Organox 40 mL.L-1 + water + NPK 150 kg.ha-1 and harvest age of 9 month resulted in the highest harvest index (94.261 %). Klon MAL-6 with Hormax 20 mL.L-1 water + Organox 40 mL.L-1 water + NPK 150 kg.ha-1 and harvest age of 9 month produced the highest of dry weght yield starch content (70,24 %).

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34-37  



J. Donald Joe, D. B. Siva Kumar, P. Sivakumar

Abstract: This paper reports the performance of nickel oxide based electrode in alkaline anion exchange membrane water electrolysis. The membrane used is polystyrene based alkaline membrane and the electrode used is Nickel as cathode and Nickel oxide as anode. The electrochemical activity of the Nickel oxide is high compared to uncoated electrode. The AWE membrane electrode gave high current density at 300C with deionised water. The performance tends to increase by changing the temperature and alkaline solution. This results in increasing hydrogen production and be a promising technology in the future.

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38-42  



Harshada Navale, Prof. B.V.Pawar

Abstract: - In this paper, our aim is to monitor for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) leakage to avoid fire accidents and hazardous condition providing house safety feature where security has been an important issue today. This system detects and monitor the leakage of LPG using gas sensor and alerts the persons about the gas leakage using the buzzer and by sending the SMS. This system continuously monitors the level of the LPG present in the cylinder When the system detects the LPG concentration in the air exceeds the certain level it immediately alerts the persons by activating an alarm and sending message to the specified mobile phones. The Proposed system uses the GSM to alert the person about gas leakage via SMS .Simultaneously to take the necessary action it automatically switches on the exhaust fan and sprinkler to decrease the gas concentration in the air.

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43-45  



A. U G/Gabbas, I. A Mohammed, M. B. Ahmad

ABSTRACT: 1,3-benzoxazine derivatives were synthesized in high yield using three-step synthetic technique by the condensation of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with aromatic amines, reducing the condensation products and replacing the usual formaldehyde with methylene bromide to achieve ring closure. The structures of the benzoxazines were confirmed by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra and Mass spectroscopy.

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46-48  



MOHAMMAD SHAHID ARSHAD, DR. P.Y. PAWADE

ABSTRACT: Bricks are a widely used construction and building material around the world. Bricks are prepared from natural waste material which comprises of orange peels and coconut waste. Clay is used as a binding material for natural waste material and paper mill waste. The main objective of the present study is to reduce the quantity of clay with natural waste material. The orange peels and coconut waste which otherwise is land filled has been utilized to make construction bricks that serves a purpose of solid waste management. These wastes are used to reduce the quantity of clay as there is a greater shortage of clay in many parts of world. Initially, characterization of paper mill waste has been carried out by XRF, XRD and SEM. The SEM monographs shows that the waste has porous and fibrous structure. The bricks of prepared by orange peels and coconut waste with varying compositions of clay reduced the quantity of clay by (10% - 40% wt) and (10% - 60%) respectively and tested as per Bureau of Indian (BIS) 1077:1992 (fifth revision) and ASTM C 67-03a standards. From experimentation it is observed that waste create bricks (WCB) prepared is light weight, shock absorbing and meets compressive strength requirements of ASTM C 67-03a and BIS. The brick making procedure being simple can be undertaken as rural entrepreneurship by unskilled labours of developing countries.

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49-53  



Deepak Kumar, Sulochana Shekhar

ABSTRACT: Now days, Geospatial Technology have become an important segment for evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems, demanding close attention to issues of functionality, sustainability and usability. Whilst some research has begun to examine the functionality of Modelling & Assessment of systems but little attention has been paid. The work influences Solar Energy Modelling for Photovoltaic (PV) potential assessment for local energy management. An accurate assessment of projects requires a spatial analysis of resources, which can be most easily completed within a Geographic Information System (GIS). Methodology explains how the general Geospatial tools are used to identify and quantify these potential, constraints of these projects to enhance their efficiency. The methodology section of this paper offers insight to work the done and the ways in which other researchers can use GIS in the field of Solar Energy. When it comes to sound energy management, conservation is always top priority. At the Regional Peel, we recognize the reducing energy use helps to save money, decrease the need for additional power generation and best of all — it helps to protect our environment. This paper describes for solar energy assessment modelling using GIS and its application to the regional scale. It also explains the value of GIS for renewable energy resources problems and suggests the use of the tool for energy supply‐demand matching.

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54-60  



Prof Boominathan P, Kanchan Arora

ABSTRACT:- This paper presents a routing algorithm that uses fuzzy logic technique to find the shortest routing path. The basic idea behind path finding is searching a graph, starting at one point, and exploring adjacent nodes from there until the destination node is reached. Generally, the goal is of course to obtain the shortest route to the destination. The proposed Fuzzy Routing Algorithm (FRA) modifies the well-known Dijkstra’s Single-source shortest path algorithm by using fuzzy-logic membership functions in the path-cost update process. The main objective of FRA is to reduce path-request blocking and increase overall utilization. The fuzzy weighted graphs, along with generalizations of algorithms for finding optimal paths within them, have emerged as an adequate modeling tool for prohibitively complex and/or inherently imprecise systems. These algorithms are reviewed and formulized with uncertainty which comes from weights on edges according to actual situation on the road such as weather conditions, and road capacity at the specified time. The two key issues need to be addressed in SPP(Shortest Path Algorithm) with fuzzy parameters are to determine the addition of two edges and to compare the distance between two different paths with their edge lengths represented by fuzzy numbers.

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61-66  



Bhandari Prachi, Dalvi Kasturi, Chopade Priyanka

Abstract: Road accidents and traffic congestion are the major problems in urban areas. Currently there is no technology for accident detection. Also due to the delay in reaching of the ambulance to the accident location and the traffic congestion in between accident location and hospital increases the chances of the death of victim. There is a need of introducing a system to reduce the loss of life due to accidents and the time taken by the ambulance to reach the hospital. To overcome the drawback of existing system we will implement the new system in which there is an automatic detection of accident through sensors provided in the vehicle. A main server unit houses the database of all hospitals in the city. A GPS and GSM module in the concerned vehicle will send the location of the accident to the main server which will rush an ambulance from a nearest hospital to the accident spot. Along with this there would be control of traffic light signals in the path of the ambulance using RF communication. This will minimize the time of ambulance to reach the hospital. A patient monitoring system in the ambulance will send the vital parameters of the patient to the concerned hospital. This system is fully automated, thus it finds the accident spot, controls the traffic lights, helping to reach the hospital in time

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67-70  



Ankit P Dabhi, Shobhit K Patel

Abstract: Now-a-days, there is a tremendous demand for the antennas having multiband operation and wideband characteristics for wireless communications. This paper expresses the design of 1.7 GHz multiband Planar Inverted F Antenna which can be much useful in areas like terrestrial wireless communication, low earth satellites and sometimes as intermediate frequency for satellite television. The design exemplifies much better return loss at 3.9 GHz and 5.15 GHz which are more favorable band in WLAN and WIMAX applications. In this paper, the radiating patch is given the meandered shape in order to achieve the multiband operation of the antenna. The result shows that the antenna gives gain of 5.8 dB and also offer good impedance bandwidth. The antenna is of 22mm x 22mm in area.

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71-74  



I Abba, W A W Z Abidin, T Masri, K H Ping, M S Muhammad, B V Pai

Abstract: Mobile Satellite (MS) Signal performance is affected by many factors such as ionospheric effect, multipath fading tree-shadowed and building-shadowed. These cause variations in the received signal quality. Although many studies have been carried out in order to improve the performance of MS signal, there are still many areas lacking data especially from the less-developed and developing countries. Furthermore, costly data acquisition method hinders more study to be carried out in these regions. This paper discusses the cost effective alternative method for MS data acquisition for satellite operating in the L-band by utilizing the GPS satellites data. Details methodology for doing the experimental works will be discussed. The measurements of the signal performance are performed for open space environment in Sarawak. The analysis of the signal performance under different MS environments is performed with respect to the information such as elevation and azimuth angles. The analysis produced forms an important part in the studies of the signal performance. From this research work, we characterized the MS received signal for Sarawak.

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75-84  



Mostafa Nemati, Hossein Momeni

Abstract: In this paper we improved efficiency of black holes algorithm with using of fuzzy Hawking radiation. A black hole is a region of space-time whose gravitational field is so strong that nothing which enters it, not even light, can escape. In the black holes algorithm there is a phase with name Hawking radiation. In this phase the position of the some black hole changes a little. This phase as equal mutation in genetic algorithm. We proposed a fuzzy Hawking radiation for these phase. The experimental results on different benchmarks show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is better than basic Black holes Algorithm (BLA) and firefly algorithm (FA).

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85-88  



Annin Felicia, Abrefa Amma Adoma

ABSTRACT: Culture identifies people in a society, and a society without culture lacks focus and direction in the upbringing and nurturing of its youth. This paper seeks to explore Ghanaian tradition in two drama texts: The Marriage of Anansewaa and The Fifth Landing Stage written by Efua Sutherland and Kwesi Fiawoo respectively. It will juxtapose Ghanaian perspective of African culture as presented in the plays. The playwrights couch their languages beautifully so as to present the tradition of Ghana to the admiration of the outside world. Aspects of culture to be discussed include: traditional marriage, patriarchal system, storytelling/songs, funerals, puberty rites, chieftaincy, etc and their relevance in modern Ghana. It will conclude by discussing the influence of foreign cultures on Ghanaians and the way forward.

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89-94  



Birinderjit Singh Kalyan

Abstract: With increased memory capacity usually comes increased bit line parasitice capacitance. This increased bit line capacitance in turn slows down voltage sensing and makes bit line voltage swing energy expensive resulting in slower more energy hungry memories. A full description of the various methods is beyond the scope of this article; instead, the focus is on providing primary developments that have taken place in the area of radiation effects on SRAM In this paper a comparision of different current mode sense amplifiers with flip flop structures using 0.35µm technology is presented with the effect of Radation effectv of 100 Krad exposures. Simulations results are given regarding sensing delay and power dissipation.

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95-98  



Aditya Mishra, Ashutosh Shrivastav, Neha Maurya, S. Vamshi Krishna

Abstract: This paper describes the walking pattern of our humanoid robot namely Adhvik. The robot possesses the characteristic of cheapest bipedal motion and is primarily used for object detection and path finding. For this purpose we are using four servo motors operating on the principle of servomechanism which are controlled by an Arduino development board comprising of Atemga8 microcontroller of Atmel series. The supplementary MATLAB software is used for image processing of the red coloured object dividing it into frames using a camera mounted on its head. The humanoid is controlled by a computer through wireless module CC2500. The software controls the real time walking of the robot.

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99-102  



M. S. Sharmiwati, R. M. Mizan, A. B. Noorhelinahani

Abstract: This paper studies the effect of various polymeric sponge and solid loadings on the properties of ceramic sponge. The study was based on four different polymeric sponge pore size ppi (pore per inch) with pore sizes ranging from 30 until 100 ppi. The polymeric sponge was impregnated in ceramic slurry with solid loading ranging from 20 to 60 wt.%. Effects of polymeric sponge and solid loading quantity were evaluated based on porosity, density and mechanical properties of resulted ceramic sponge. The ideal temperature for sintering is 1250°C where the highest density and porosity are 0.83499 g/m³ and 69.965%. The maximum compressive strength that produces from ceramic sponge is 0.276324 MPa at 60 wt% solid loading.

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103-106  



Nguyen Phu Loc, Tran Cong Thai Hoc

Abstract: Calculus in high schools is a discipline of advanced mathematics. Its intrinsic complexity is very high. Many researchers around the world have pointed out difficulties and obstacles that students have encountered when studying it. To understand a concept and a theorem of calculus is not easy; therefore, when solving calculus problems students cannot avoid errors. Find out the errors of students in mathematics learning have been a problem that several of mathematics educators around the world interested in. In this paper, we report the answers to the following two research questions: (1) In solving calculus problems, what errors have 12th grade - students committed? (2) What are the teachers' opinions about how often the errors of the students have occurred? The data collection was performed in high schools in Tan Chau town, An Giang province, Vietnam

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107-108  



A. Ishak, M. Rusop

Abstract: The complex and nano-structured amorphous carbon as p-type films prepared from natural palm oil precursor for heterojunction solar cell were presented. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed the nano structured films had particle size in the range of 28 to 34 nm. The energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the existing of carbon in complex-structured amorphous carbon film and carbon together with boron in nano-structured amorphous carbon film. Solar simulator analysis results showed an open circuit voltage (VOC), current density (JSC), fill-factor(FF) and conversion efficiency (η) of Au/a-C/n-Si/Au were 264.62 mV, 1.50434 mA/cm2, 0.32632, and 0.130154 %, respectively. Meanwhile, the VOC, JSC, FF and η of Au/a-C:B/n-Si/Au solar cell were 271.25 mV, 14.91723 mA/cm2, 0.33582, and 1.542622 %, respectively. The conversion efficiency was increased as the p-type a-C:B film in the nanostructured form.

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109-113  



Ali Shawesh, Hesham Nashnoush

Abstract: Background and Purpose: Shoulder stiffness is one of the common clinical conditions which affect both diabetic and non diabetic of both genders as a primary or secondary problem. However the improvement varies between diabetic and non diabetic following physiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness physiotherapy (mobilization techniques and interferential therapy) in diabetic and non diabetic subjects with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. Subjects and Methods: Thirty patients (15 with diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose ≥127mg/dl, and 2hr blood glucose is ≥l80 mg/dl, and 15 with non-diabetes). They had unilateral adhesive capsulitis, lasting more than three months and ≥ 30% loss of passive movement of the shoulder joint compared to the non-affected side. Pain with motion with a minimum visual analogue scale (VAS) score of 5. Subjects assigned to the diabetic and non diabetic groups were treated with interferential therapy, mobilization techniques and home exercise programme. The duration of treatment was 10 days in both groups. Assessment of patients was at first and at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days by visual analogue scale (VAS), for pain intensity and goniometer for shoulder range of motion (abduction and external rotation). Results: The mean age, duration of symptoms, ratios of sex were similar in the two groups. Comparison of the initial pain scores and ROM values between the two groups revealed no statistical significance (P >0. 05). The mean changes in pain scores values and shoulder range of motion abduction and external rotation revealed highly statistical significant (P<0. 01), reduction. Improvement in pain, shoulder range of motion abduction and external rotation were, however; significantly better in the non diabetic group. Discussion and Conclusion: In subjects with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, physiotherapy appear to be more effective in improving shoulder joint mobility and pain in non-diabetic than diabetic during short period follow up.

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114-118  



Yogita chauhan, Vaibhav Chaurasia, Chetan Agarwal

Abstract: In this paper we present application of hybrid clustering algorithm that combines partitioning clustering algorithm and heuristic search algorithm. Our method uses portioning method with Genetic algorithm . First we cluster the data using K-Means clustering algorithm with the value of K no. of clusters then we calculate the centroid of K cluster obtain from the previous step. Than we apply Genetic algorithm for centroids for the given value K clusters (GAKM). After applying the GAKM we compare the result of simple K-Means and GAKM algorithm .our experimental results shows that the cluster obtained from GAKM are provides more optimal result in comparison of simple K-Means algorithm cluster result.

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119-122  



Yaya Hasanah, Tengku Chairun Nisa, Hapsoh, Hamidah Hanum

Abstract: Soybean is annual major crops in the world and important legumes in food security. Increased soybean production can achieve through increased in the intensity of soybean cultivation and expansion of soybean cultivation to marginal lands such as dry land. Nitrogen is a limited nutrient at dry land. The objective of this research was to determine the growth analysis of three soybean varieties on dry land with application of Nitrogen sources. Research using randomized block design with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor is soybean varieties (Anjasmoro, Wilis and Sinabung). The second factor is the sources of N consists of without application of N, Urea 50 kg/ha, Bradyrhizobium sp., manure 10 tons/ha and combinations of Bradyrhizobium sp. + manure 5 tons/ha. The research result shown that Anjasmoro variety significantly increased the relative growth rate and net assimilation rate 5-6 WAP compared with Sinabung and Wilis. Application of Bradyrhizobium sp. significantly increased the plant growth rate and relative growth rate 5-6 WAP compared with other N treatments. Combination of Bradyrhizobium sp. and manure 5 tons/ha on Anjasmoro variety tent to increase the net assimilation rate 5-6 WAP.

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123-126  



Olaniyi Olayemi M, Arulogun Oladiran T, Omidiora Elijah O, Okediran Oladotun O

Abstract: In this paper, we present the performance assessment of an imperceptible and robust secured stegano-cryptographic model of electronic voting. The Performance analysis was achieved based on the degree to which the model meets the generic and functional requirements of secured e-voting system: authentication, integrity, confidentiality and verifiability as well as other functional security requirements of a secured voting using five-point psychometric analysis. The result of the quantitative evaluation of the model assert that the model possessed capacity to guarantee and validate voter’s for who they said they are, guarantees the integrity of elections, ensures privacy of the voters, guarantees the confidentiality of the vote and provide mechanism for fraud detection after the electioneering process in developing country where digital divide is significant.

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127-132  



K.Mariya Priyadarshini, N.V.N. Ravi Kiran, N. Tejasri, T.C. Venkat Anish

Abstract: Area and speed are the most important design objectives in integrated circuits. As addition is the basic operation of all computer arithmetic, adders are one of the widely used components in digital integrated circuit design. Since propagation of carry is of major concern in designing efficient adders, this paper presents different fast adders and their performance analysis. Among all the adders discussed Square root Carry Select Adder (SQCSA) provides a good compromise between cost and performance. As, Conventional SQCSA is still area consuming due to dual Ripple Carry Adder(RCA)structures, modifications are done at gate level to reduce area. Modified SQCSA is designed using fast adders like Carry Skip Adder (CSA) and Carry Look-Ahead Adder (CLA) to increase the speed of operation.

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133-138  



Vitus M. Tabie, Adams Yunus

Abstract: The low enrolment in engineering programs in Wa Polytechnic in the upper west region of Ghana is obviously traceable to people’s perception about technical and vocational education and training (TVET). As a result of this, the study identified some perceptual variables affecting the enrolment in engineering programs. It also explored the influence of Engineering Lecturers/personnel and graduates on the student’s perception over engineering. Random sampling method was used for the study. A sample size of 80 respondents was used. The study was limited to the respondents in Wa Polytechnic. The statistical tools employed for analysis were SPSS and basic excel tools. The study reveals that Wa Polytechnic students believe technical and vocational education is important for national development and they are highly motivated to pursue study in engineering. However, they think Wa Polytechnic need to improve on hands-on or practical training. In line with the findings of the study, the summary, conclusion and recommendations were put forward by the researcher for the Polytechnic and interested stakeholders in the area of resource mobilization.

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139-144  



Amirhamzeh Razavinegad

Abstract: To solve the robot task allocation problem especially in unknown complex environment, a DPSO algorithm which decrease communication cost in wireless sensor network (WSN).Our simulation experiments show that at a small cost in assignment quality, DPSO algorithm sign ificantly extends the lifetime of the static sensor network , rathar than PSO ,centeralized algorithm, and an auction-based algorithm.

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145-148  



Khin Nway Oo, Zaw Min Naing, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: In recent years, process automation has being used in various industrial plants. Especially, Distributed Control System (DCS) is more popular than any other control systems in the modern industrial processes. DCS is a computer control, a software application and also designed to work on the computer for the process by providing with all the devices. The advantages of the system are reducing process time, reducing labor costs, controlling, and monitoring real time condition. This research aims to develop the “Real Time Graphical User Interface Monitoring and Network System” for Industrial Automation. The current research project is based on the construction of DCS based bottle filling process system. The Industrial Local Area Network (LAN) is built between the server for the operator and the clients for the two robots control and only one CNC milling machine. In this research, the simulation of the overall process is conducted in real-time condition by using MATLAB software.

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149-154  



May Zin Tun, Zaw Min Naing, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: A complete flight control scheme with detailed design methodology is proposed for an indoor miniature coaxial helicopter with fixed collective pitch. To avoid system complexity and the problem of minimum phase control, the helicopter dynamic model is decomposed into two cascaded subsystems: an inner one for attitude and heading control and the outer one for trajectory control. H-infinity control technique and robust and perfect tracking method are used to respectively design the inner- and outer-loop controllers. By using the so-called asymptotic time-scale and eigenstructure assignment approach, the design process becomes very systematic and effective. The rotor simulation are also mentioned to improve the stability of UAH. The performance of the autonomous flight control system has been successfully validated in simulation flight tests.

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155-161  



Su Mon Aye, Zaw Min Naing, Chaw Myat New, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: This paper describes the performance improvement of C-band VSAT receiving antenna. In this work, the gain and efficiency of C-band VSAT have been evaluated and then the reflector design is developed with the help of ICARA and MATLAB environment. The proposed design meets the good result of antenna gain and efficiency. The typical gain of prime focus parabolic reflector antenna is 30 dB to 40dB. And the efficiency is 60% to 80% with the good antenna design. By comparing with the typical values, the proposed C-band VSAT antenna design is well optimized with gain of 38dB and efficiency of 78%. In this paper, the better design with compromise gain performance of VSAT receiving parabolic antenna using ICARA software tool and the calculation of C-band downlink path loss is also described. The particular prime focus parabolic reflector antenna is applied for this application and gain of antenna, radiation pattern with far field, near field and the optimized antenna efficiency is also developed. The objective of this paper is to design the downlink receiving antenna of VSAT satellite ground segment with excellent gain and overall antenna efficiency. The filter design analysis is base on Kaiser window method and the simulation results are also presented in this paper.

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162-167  



Mohammed Asseban, Adil Mazdar, Hamade Moutih, Hachem El Sayegh, Ali Iken, Lounis Benslimane, Yassine Nouini

Abstract: The aim of this work is to record the acquired or congenital uropathy diagnosed during kidney injury and to evaluate their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects. We report a retrospective study of 13 cases (14%) of renal trauma on pathological kidney from a total of 93 observations of renal trauma collected at Department of Urology A in the University Hospital Ibn Sina Rabat , between January 2002 and January 2014. It is often a road accident in 8 cases (61,5%). The underlying uropathy is dominated by urolithiasis in 6 cases (46,1%); pelvi-ureteric junction in 3 cases (23,1%), followed by kidney tumors in 2 cases (15,4%), and cystic kidney disease in 2 cases (15,4%). Therapeutically, 2 patients (15,3%) were investigated in emergency for hemodynamic instability involving life-threatening. The other 11 cases received conservative attitude based on clinical and radiological monitoring by computed tomography (CT). The selective embolization of arterial lesions or drainage of the urinary tract were performed according to indication. Etiological treatment was performed after an average of 113 days. The therapeutic approach should be conservative. The current trend is to drain the urinary tract in the acute phase and then propose a late etiological treatment.

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168-172  



Thuseethan, S.

Abstract: This paper proposes a new method of data handling as well as implementation of management system for an academic department. Management system is a proven framework for managing and continually improving the organization’s policies, procedures and processes. Department of Sri Lankan Universities is a division within a faculty comprising one subject area or a number of related subject areas. The time consumption and error rate of producing information is extremely high. This paper describes how to do the data handling in a department of Sri Lankan Universities using the management system. The efficiency of the management system measured with the amount of data handled by the department. Experiment results shows that this method of data handling increase the efficiency of the department in terms of processing information and the reduction of risks involved with the department activities.

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173-175  



Yuyun Yuningsih, Ummu Salamah

Abstract: This research discusses about the Perceptions of Productive Age Couples on the Population and Family Planning Programs that covers participans from Cipamokolan Village of Rancasari District Bandung. The purpose of this study is firstly to find out the perception of productive age couples on population and family planning programs and to identify their participation in population and family planning programs in Rancasari village. The method used in this research is descriptive analysis method with the number of respondents 40 productive age couples in Cipamokolan Village of Rancasari District. Testing hypotheses used in this study is a statistical test of non parametric using Spearman rank test (rs). The results of this study showed a relationship correlation between the perception of productive age couples on population and family planning Programs and their participation in Cipamokolan Village of Rancasari District Bandung

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176-180  



Modi. A., Prajapat R.

Abstract: The competition and quality aspect limited the profitability of the milk dairy plant. The milk dairy processes are fast growing business but high energy cost is a serious problem. In the current scenario to understand the problems related to high energy consumption of the milk processing and to suggest methods for their active reduction with the help of different approaches needed proper management of the all processes used in the plant. Major emphasis of the paper is to utilize the waste heat of the process which otherwise goes to the atmosphere and to control the pollution depending upon regulatory context. The major considerations are the product type and resource cost. By help of energy audit technique a most economical method is suggested for preservation of milk, with the lowest possible investment and energy expenditure and minimum performance variation.

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181-188  



Rena J. Kasumova, Sh.A. Shamilova

Abstract: In the present work, parametric interaction is considered when the phase change of interacting pump, signal and idler waves is studied in the materials of mid-infrared range of spectrum for GaSxSe1-x crystals. The values of refractive indices, angle of phase matching and angular dispersion coefficient of the first order have been calculated for GaS0.4Se0.6 crystal. It was shown that GaS0.4Se0.6 compound could be used for nanosecond/picoseconds pumping of optical parametric converters at 1.064 mcm (Nd:YAG laser systems) without considering two-photon absorption

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189-192  



A. Benabdeslam, A. Rouhi, M.O. Lamrani, M. Mahfoud, M.S. Berrada, M. Elyaacoubi

Abstract: Osteochondritis of the femoral condyles can be defined as a localized alteration of the trophism of the epiphyseal bone and articular cartilage opposite which may, without scarring, and necrosis to the release of an osteochondral fragment. This lesion is relatively rare, with around 20 per 100,000 boys and girls, and occurs in 70% of cases between 10 and 20 years. The pathophysiology of this condition remains mysterious. If the radiography usually allows diagnosis, however, it cannot identify the anatomical characteristics of the lesion. We studied five patients with Osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyles. Data were collected from records of clinical and radiological information, and the results were analyzed according to clinical and radiological criteria.

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193-196  



A. Benabdeslam, M.A. Berrady, M. Khermaz, M. Mahfoud, M.S. Berrada, M. Elyaacoubi

Abstract: Pseudarthrosis of the femoral neck is a fairly common complication of fracture of the femoral neck. It is defined by the absence or cessation of consolidation of a true cervical fracture. The period of consolidation is quite subjective, and three or four months after we accept evolution without consolidation, there is pseudarthrosis. Through 14 cases collected in our service, we will discuss the clinical and radiological arguments posed an indication of the total hip prosthesis in the femoral neck and we will evaluate the success rate of the latter compared to conservative treatment. The functional results were evaluated according to the Merle d'Aubigne.

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196-200  



A. Benabdeslam, M. Khermaz, A. Lahlou, M. Mahfoud, M.S. Berrada, M. Elyaacoubi

Abstract: The number of patients eligible for knee replacement has increased significantly in recent years and to the lengthening of life expectancy, patient expectations in terms of longevity of the prosthesis and improve surgical outcomes are strong. Conventional instruments have been for years (and still now) a great help to position the best prostheses, but studies show the pitfalls and shortcomings of these instruments; default axis in the frontal, sagittal or horizontal and failing to keep a ligament balance inflexion and extension. Surgical navigation can help control these parameters. There are navigation systems with preoperative imaging (CT), with other intraoperative imaging (fluoronavigation) and systems without preoperative or intraoperative imaging that are currently the most commonly used systems, these are passive systems, corresponding to akinematic model and palpation where the surgeon is master of his actions and decisions. The results of the series found in the literature are quite remarkable because it demonstrates an accuracy rate of implantation (HKA180 plus or minus 3 °) between 92% and 100% with good management the ligament balance, with the navigation system film. Unfortunately the high cost of these systems represents a brake on growth without government assistance or decreases their purchase price.

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201-206  



S.Kavya, K.Pavithra, Sujitha Rajaram, M.Vahini, N Harini

Abstract: An encryption system for NFC enabled applications using a combination of AES cryptography algorithm and Diffie-Hellman key negotiation scheme which when implemented prevents data modification, man in the middle attack and eavesdropping has been proposed in the paper. A timestamp based Protocol where the size of the file and time at which it is sent is retrieved to calculate the estimated time of reception which will be compared with actual reception time is also proposed to prevent relay attacks. A complete study of authentication methodologies in NFC technology and a critical analysis of our proposed system with the existing systems showing how it can resist all the possible attacks on the data exchanged between mobile phones through NFC technology.

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207-210  



Rishabh Gupta, Utkarsh Rastogi

Abstract: In principle, spatial correlation is depicted using Semivariogram technique. Cumulative Semivariogramtechnique is the alternative for conventional Semivariogram technique, has various advantages but not widely used in gravity modelling. Our objective is to test the Cumulative Semivariogram technique in gravity modelling by estimating Bouguer Anomaly in Krishna Godavari (KG) basin area by fitting the experimental Cumulative Semivariogram against the theoretical Cumulative Semivariogram and fitting the experimental Semivariogram against theoretical Semivariogram. Hence, calculate the value obtained at the random point using appropriate kriging technique after Cumulative Semivariogram model fitting and Semivariogram model fitting. Finally calculate the percentage variation between the predicted values obtained from both the techniques with the observed Bouguer Anomaly. Percentage variation will give an insight whether Cumulative Semivariogram technique is the better alternative than Semivariogram technique for geostatistical modelling or not.

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211-217  



Mohamed Jama Madar

Abstract: The world is moving towards digitalization of knowledge which makes E-learning an important issue and prime concern that can be enhanced by combining it with another separate world of knowledge called knowledge management. This research paper introduces the complementary structure of E-learning and knowledge management and their relationship. E-learning is used by education providers only and it is the application of Internet technology in teaching and learning process while knowledge Management is the process of capturing, disseminating, applying and managing organizational knowledge. E-learning value chain focuses on knowledge delivery as knowledge management is aimed at knowledge capturing but they are two complementary processes if they are properly integrated. Knowledge management and E-learning have some basic functions or features in common which indicate the compatibility of the two structures. This research paper proposes a hybrid model which accommodates the services of E-learning and the knowledge management simultaneously. This model can be used by all types of educational providers including consulting firms and other learning organizations. The proposed model has functions of capturing both tacit and explicit knowledge as well as knowledge sharing and delivery mechanisms. As a result, the hybrid model puts the life of components of E-learning and major features of KM together which make this model very useful for both academic and non-academic institutions including business service providers.

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218-221  



Wilson Juma Fwamba, Dr. Shem Juma, Dr. Douglas Musiega.

ABSTRACT: Governments across the globe appear to acknowledge that Pubic Procurement is a way of transforming the lives of its constituents. Public procurement is at the forefront of most reform efforts given that it plays a significant role in promoting accountability and transparency. This study relies on survey data of procurement professionals to delineate the current status of procurement procedure in Kenya. Findings suggest that procurement procedures as enshrined in the public procurement and disposal act has not yet led to significant transformative changes. Unethical practices, weak legislations and penalty and failure to educate the general public on the dangers of corruption were identified as the primary obstacles of effectively implementing procurement procedure. These findings suggest that in order to enhance quality service delivery, top leadership of the country, policymakers, procurement professionals and general public must take an active role in adoption of the processes across political, institutional and behavioral domains.

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222-227  



Akshit Goyal, Milap Singh, Sanjay Sharma

Abstract: The main objective of this research work is to find the mode shapeand corresponding natural frequency of a roll cage for an ATV. Finite element analysis is used to determine the mode shapes and frequencies. We have designed a roll cage which consists of both structural base and 3-D shell which protects the user in case of impact and roll over incidents. CATIA V5 has been used for modeling the roll cage and ANSYS 14.5 for FEA analysis. The body shape of the roll cage is fixed from the front end. The frame of the roll cage consists of three main parts known as boot space, driver cabin and engine chamber. The results shows that the range of frequencies varies from(0-4.883e-004)Hz.

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228-231  



Akshit Goyal, Sanjay Sharma, Milap Singh

Abstract: The use of an artificial roughness on a surface of absorber plate is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the duct of a solar air heater. This paper presents a comparison of parameters that enhance the heat transfer coefficient thus efficiency ofa solar air heater for different artificially roughened geometries for the Reynolds number from 2500 -18000. The V-rib gives better results in whole range of Reynolds number than wedge shaped rib. While the arc shaped rib gives better performance in whole range of Reynolds number. However, smooth duct found suitable than the wedge and V shaped ribs for the lower range of Reynolds number.

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232-237  



Lokesh B, Shailaja K, Nanda S

Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system with automatic contouring and texture analysis to aid in the classification of breast lesions using ultrasound. First, the goal is to remove the speckle noise while preserving important information from the lesion boundaries, anisotropic diffusion filtering is applied to the ultrasonic image. A morphological watershed transform is used for BUS image segmentation, automatically extracts the precise contour of breast lesions. 32 GLCM features are extracted from the segmented lesion. Support vector machine (SVM) classifier utilizes the selected feature vectors to identify the breast lesion as benign or malignant. Database consists of 50 images (38 Benign and 12 Malignant) and the computer-delineated margins were compared against manual outlines drawn by radiologist. The area under receive operating Characteristic (ROC) curve for proposed CAD systems using all textural features is 0.89. The classifier performance is evaluated by 4 parameters, Accuracy = 92.00, Sensitivity = 94.73, Specificity = 83.34, Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) = 0.78.

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238-242  



Alsadig Gassoum, Mohamed A.Arbab, Sawsan A. H. Aldeaf, Lamya A. Elhassan, Elshibli Elshibli, Ahmed M. Elhassan,

Abstract: The Meningiomas are one of the commonest intracranial tumors and account for 20% of all primary intracranial neoplasms. However, the true incidence is likely to be much higher, since many benign meningiomas do not produce symptoms. In autopsy studies, 2.3% of individuals harbored undiagnosed asymptomatic meningiomas, suggesting that such tumors are up to 1000 times more common than their clinically detected counterparts. Material and Method: This is a cross-sectional study that had been performed at the National Center for Neurological Sciences during February 2011 to December 2013. Result: Molecular screening of the 180 meningioma specimens, showed that the most common allele of p53 gene codon 72, in meningioma , was the arginine variant (Arg/arg), in 157 (87.2%) of the cases.

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243-248  



Athanasios Podaras

Abstract: Communication failure between IT experts and end users who are not computer – oriented leads to unsuccessful and chaotic requirement analysis. The Use Case approach, even if it is a tested and useful UML method, is not enough for the completion of requirement analysis, since the workflow is not present at Use Case Diagrams. BORM methodology which is also tested in real – life projects for requirement analysis on a business level, comes to cover the weaknesses of the Use Case approach, but fails in terms of standard definition of the business process workflow steps. The proposed new and modern method to business process requirement analysis, is based on the transition from Use Case methodology to BORM approach and is entitled as Use Case To BORM Transformation Algorithm (UCBTA). The construction of the algorithm is based on the nondeterministic finite automaton theory. The method aims to cover the gaps of the two aforementioned approaches by ensuring timely IT project termination since no task repetition caused by requirement analysis miscommunication will be required after its implementation.

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249-253  



P. Sreevani, R.V. Rao

Abstract: The basic density, and some of the anatomical properties of five clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis developed by ITC Bhadrachalam were reported. The five clones represented by four trees each of four and half years old, were from Sarapaka, Andhra Pradesh. Significant variation have been found among the clones except fibre length/vessel element length. Basic density was found no effect on any of the fibre characteristics reported in this paper. The results obtained in this study have shown the suitability of raw material for paper and pulp where the required basic density is met with. Mainly these clones are primarily tried to meet the requirements of paper and pulp industry.

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254-258  



Christian Larbi Ayisi, Jin-Liang Zhao

SUMMARY: The continuous and rapid growth of aquaculture in terms of size and annual total production has resulted in the need to seek for pragmatic measures to reduce the cost of production which feeding covers approximately 60%. This present work reviews the advances made in the use of palm oil as an alternative lipid source in aquafeeds. In this review it is documented that with respect to price, availability and cost effective wise palm oil is the best choice as compared to other vegetable oils as well as fish oil. Also it is made clear that the use of palm oil in aquafeeds partially or exclusively does not compromise the growth, feed utilization as well as body composition of fish. It is also made clear based on existing information that palm oil impacts on the quality of aquafeeds positively. We therefore suggest that the use of palm oil in aquafeeds should be well embraced and much work should be done concerning its effects on non-specific immunity as well as effects on the expression of genes responsible for growth promoting and lipid metabolism.

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259-264  



May Phyo Maung, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: The paper presents the time reversal signal processing for source localization based on finite difference time domain (FDTD) method with the help of MATLAB GUI. There are two simulation approaches to analyze for source location in a perfectly matched layer boundary. We have shown the energy spectrum for propagation of acoustics wave in a room to focus by using array of transducers and source. In these plots we first transmit the signals from the array of transducers to the source and then the signals can be retransmitted back from the source to the array of transducers by using time reverse algorithm. The reverse signals can be focused the location of source based on the proposed method and the localization pointer. The simulation results are evaluated to localize the source by using FDTD method in this work. The application areas of this work are mentioned in this work.

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265-269  



D.S.Burud, R .S. Vhatkar, M. B. Mohite

Abstract: Coronal mass ejection (CMEs) propagate in to the interplanetary medium are called as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME). A set of signatures in plasma and magnetic field is used to identify the ICMEs. Magnetic Cloud (MC) is a special kind of ICMEs in which internal magnetic field configuration is similar like flux rope. We have used the data obtained from ACE Advance Composition Explorer (ACE) based in-situ measurements of Magnetic Field Experiment (MAG) and Solar Wind Electron, Proton and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) experiment for the data of magnetic field and plasma parameters respectively. The magnetic field data and plasma parameters of ICMEs used to distinguish them as magnetic cloud, non magnetic cloud. We analyzed eighteen ICMEs observed during January 2005 to December 2005, which is the beginning of declining phase of solar cycle 23. The analysis of magnetic field in the frames of the flux ropes like structure using a Minimum Variance Analysis (MVA) method, and have identified 30% ICMEs in the year 2005, which shows magnetic field rotation in a plane and confirmed as ICMEs with MCs.

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270-275  



Naveen A M, V A Girish

Abstract: This paper deals with the design of the welding fixture for the head end sub-assembly of a rocket motor case. The head end sub-assembly consists of four parts namely Y-Ring, Dome, Igniter Boss and the Fore skirt ring that have to be welded to each other with a specified tolerance and weld quality. The material used in the manufacture of different parts of head end sub-assembly is Maraging steel which is one of the most commonly used material in the field of aerospace. All the welding processes are carried out in the presence of the Copper Arsenic back-up support bar to ensure the quality of weld is as per the requirement. The optimum thickness of the back-up support bar is determined and with in-process purging facility in the copper-arsenic bar ensure sound weld. Modeling of all the parts of head end sub-assembly and the welding fixture is carried out using UNIGRAPHICS NX8.0.

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276-284  



Lee Kui Soon, Samuel Lihan, Famila Farvin Ghulam Dasthagir, Kathleen Michelle Mikal, Felecia Collick, Ng Kok Hua

Abstract: The fish Tor tambroides locally known as empurau or kelah, is one of the most valuable and high commercial value fish species in the Cyprinidae (carps) family. The fish can grow up to the size of human in its natural habitats like cool, clean, fast moving waters and availability of riverine fruits from trees growing by the bank of upstream river. In aquaculture ponds where they are bred for the market, the fish have yet to get the right feed and appropriate water environment condition for their optimized growth, resulting in the slow production of the fish. The optimal parameter value related physicochemical and microbiological quality of water is important for the optimal growth of the fish. The Enterobacteriaceae group of bacteria has been commonly used as the main indicator for the microbiological water quality. This study aims to determine the water quality of empurau farm with regards to the physicochemical parameter value and microbiological indicator. The occurrence of Enterobacteriaceae as indicator organism and the physicochemical parameter value of the water used for the empurau farming were determined. Water samples from inlet and outlet were collected from seven empurau ponds at Indigenous Fish Research & Production Centre (IFRPC) in Tarat, Serian, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) of water samples were determined. As for the microbiological analysis, water samples from the ponds were subjected to standard serial dilution followed by plating the samples on eosin methylene blue agar (EMBA) for isolation of Enterobacteriaceae. Gram staining was then performed on the isolates to determine their Gram’s characteristics. Twenty five Gram-negative isolates were further analyzed with (GTG)5-PCR to screen for clonal isolates to be used for the identification by API 20E identification system. Dendrogram constructed from the (GTG)5-PCR analysis revealed that the 25 isolates were genetically diverged resulting in 4 major clusters (G1, G2, G3, G4) and 11 sub-clusters. Based on the dendrogram, 11 representative isolates of the Enterobactericeae were selected from different clusters and these isolates were identification by API 20E kit. The result of the API 20E identification revealed that the 11 presumptive Enterobacteriaceae isolates were belonged to ten different species within nine genera of Enterobacteriaceae. The Enterobacteriaceae species confirmed were Brucella spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter braakii, Erwinia spp., Vibrio fluvialis, Serratia odorifera, Citrobacter freundii, Butiaxella agrestis, Proteus vulgaris group and Cedecea davisae. The Enterobactericeae isolated in this study were mostly human pathogens with few fish pathogens, suggesting human activities may be affecting the water quality. Physicochemical parameters may affect the microbial population in ecology, thus indirectly affecting the development of the fish.

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285-292  



Liya Jose, S .Nirmal Raj

Abstract: Multilevel inverters are very essential in the modern days because of many uses and also due to the advantage of producing many levels of voltages enabling a variety of applications such as power conditioning,active filters and motor drives.The proposed multilevel inverter enable us to produce five levels without any phase shift.The proposed technique uses pwm technique along with a feedback signal so whole circuit is implemented in closed loop.The simulation is done using matlab.The results are included to show the performance of five level inverter implemented in closed loop system

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293-298  




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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - October 2016 - Volume 5 Issue 10