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IJSTR Volume 2- Issue 9, September 2013 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Usai T., Mutonhodza B., Makamure C., Tshalibe R.S., Chinofunga D.

Abstract: The study determined the efficacy of protocols employed in replacement/artificial feeding using commercial infant formula. The study was carried out in the different suburban locations of Harare, Zimbabwe. A sample size of 20 mothers/caregivers giving commercial infant formula to their babies at between 0-6 months was targeted. Convenience and snowball sampling techniques were used to identify the participants. Interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted and complemented by direct observation of the participants as they prepared the infant formula. The results were tallied against a checklist of recommended practices and label instructions. The results established that there were short falls in the preparation procedures as employed by the caregivers, mainly the mixing order of powder and water, temperature of the water for reconstitution and handling of left over formula after feed; 50 percent of caregivers were not adhering to the label instructions as given by the manufacturers and to recommendations proposed by World Health Organisation. Poor hand washing was indicative in 80% of the cases. Bottle feeding was predominant (n=16) compared to cup feeding (n=4) and the population practicing artificial feeding were mostly the young (90%), married (80%), educated (100%) and working group (90%). The researcher recommends that health providers strengthen efforts to ensure that adequate information/counselling and consistent advice of optimal benefit to the infant-mother pair be given and that the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare Nutrition unit must strictly monitor the activities and the information given out by infant formula manufacturers as stipulated by the International Code of Marketing of Breast milk Substitutes and also giving them the responsibility of following up on the appropriate use of their products.

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Eric Broni-Bediako, Ohenewaa Kakra Dankwa

ABSTRACT: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is one of the most common and an alternative fuels used in the world today. In Ghana, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is increasingly gaining popularity as a preferred fuel for industrial, commercial and domestic purposes as a result of its efficiency, affordability and many more. This study aimed at assessing Liquefied Petroleum Gas utilisation in Ghana using Tarkwa as a test case. It adopted survey as its research design and complemented with literature review. The major instruments for data collection were questionnaires and personal interviews. The questionnaires were administered to 320 inhabitants of Tarkwa. Data collected were analysed using statistical methods. The study revealed the key players in the distribution of LPG in Ghana as Bulk Distributing Companies (BDCs), Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs), Liquefied Petroleum Gas Marketing Companies (LPGMCs), Bulk Oil Consumers (BOCs) and consumers. It also exposed the causes of sporadic shortages of LPG as mainly due to higher demand on the product and technical disruption such as pumping, berthing, storage and delivery constraints. Government should secure private sector participation to supplement the midstream refining sector to avoid further shortages which cause inconveniences to the consumers and others. Key players in the supply chain should be made aware of their responsibilities in order to take the needed initiatives that will result in positive impacts on the supply chain.

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Iliycho Petkov Iliev

Abstract: Based on multivariate methods of factor analysis and principal component regression, an approach is proposed for predicting the laser generation of a copper bromide vapor laser with a wavelength of 510.6 and 578.2 nm. The influence of 6 independent variables on the increase of laser output power has been considered. New values have been given to the geometric dimensions of the laser tube, the supplied electric power, and hydrogen pressure in order to improve laser generation by up to 17%. Two-dimensional nomograms with statistically valid areas in order to facilitate predictions are presented.

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Shibani S. Raikar

Abstract: Today in the twenty first century the Missile technology is rapidly developing with the advancement of the science. In today's world all types of missiles uses the principle of combustion for its movement. So, until the new technology initiates the tracking of the missile is possible. These missiles can be tracked with the help of Radar, microwave sensing, etc... These equipments are highly advanced and too costly for every developing country to purchase and implement it for there safety. In order to make its design simple, easy to install and to achieve its efficiency, keeping this in background the project has been designed in such a manner that the Missile is detected using an IR at cheaper cost. So this will make the proposed system to be an economical, portable and low maintenance solution for tracking a missile.

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Confidence Gbolo Sanka, Cecilia Addei

Abstract: Many a time, some readers and theatre-goers tend to have a misleading understanding of comedy. To such people, comedy is all about laughter and the riff-raff of society. They never associate humour with criticism and as such, the utilitarian aspect of comedy as an instrument for correcting the ills of society is often overlooked. In much the same way, they often tend to overlook the art and skill with which comic writers are able to present the unpleasant in a pleasurable manner and the offensive acceptable. This paper expatiates on the meaning, role, and some dramatic techniques used in comedy through a critique of Wole Soyinka's The Trials of Brother Jero and Harold Pinter's The Caretaker.

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H. K. Garg, Ashish Shrivastava

Abstract: The Yellow Wagtail, Motacilla flava Linnaeus, Motacillidae (Passeriformes : Aves) is a slender 15 - 16 cm long bird that inhabits open country near water such as wet meadows. Cytological investigation depicted the diploid chromosome count between 78 and 85 with 80 as modal value. No structural uncertainty was observed between macro- and micro- chromosomes. Z - W were fourth in order of size, both sub-metacentric. There were sixty four tiny telomeric elements (n=32), scattered all over the cell plates, amounted to 24.11% of the total genome.

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Agbarevo, M.N Benjamin, Age, Akoso I.

Abstract: Labour is one of the factors of production. And it is expected that with increase in adoption, the farmer's output would increase and, consequently, there would be increases in the quantities of production inputs, and labour is one of such inputs. This study was, therefore, conducted to find out the effect of adoption on labour used for yam production by resource-poor farmers in Cross River State of Nigeria. In conducting the study, 180 resource-poor farmers were randomly selected using stratified random sampling technique. The data collected were analyzed using linear correlation and regression analysis at 5% level. The result of the analysis showed that adoption has no significant effect on labour. The hypothesis that there is no significant effect of adoption on labour for yam production was accepted, while the alternative hypothesis was rejected. On the basis of the findings made, some recommendations were made.

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F.T. Zohura, M.E. Haque, M.A. Islam, M. Khalekuzzaman, B. Sikdar

Abstract: Ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula L. Roxb) is a popular and nutritious vegetable in Bangladesh. The present investigation was undertaken to establish an efficient in vitro regeneration system of ridge gourd from immature embryo and cotyledon explants. Immature embryos and cotyledons were collected from immature seeds and culture on MS medium supplemented with various concentration and combination of growth regulators for primary development and multiple shoot formation. The highest result of direct shoot multiplication was observed from immature embryo and cotyledon on MS with 1.0 mg/l BAP + 0.2 mg/l GA3 and 2.0 mg/l Kin + 0.3 mg/l GA3 respectively. The highly regenerative callus with light green compact structure was obtained from cotyledon explants using 1.5 mg/l BAP + 1.0 mg/l NAA and effective regeneration from callus was found on MS medium supplemented 3.5 mg/l BAP + 0.2 mg/l GA3. In vitro regenerated shoots were subcultured on strength MS medium containing different concentrations of IBA and NAA for successful root induction and the efficient result was found using 0.5 mg/l IBA.

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Felix A. Uba, YesuenyeagbeA. K. Fiagbeand Emmanuel A. Sarsah

Abstract: Undersized or oversized air conditioning equipment leads to high operational cost, frequent breakdown and accelerated wear of equipment. Wrong sizing of equipment is often the result of inaccurate procedures employed to estimate the cooling load of the air conditioned space. Today, computer programs are available on the market for more accurate estimation of cooling load. All the same, what appears to be the established practice among service providers in the air conditioning industry in Ghana is to size air conditioners for all applications by multiplying the net floor area by cooling load factor to estimate space cooling load. Availability of cooling load factors that take into account the space operating conditions will be a more accurate and user-friendly tool for such service providers. The Transfer Function Method (TFM), a well-known cooling or heating load estimation procedure that has been adopted by ASHRAE, was used in this research to predict the hourly and daily average cooling load due to different types of walls, roofs and fenestration that are typically found in building construction in Ghana. This has been used to develop cooling load factors that simplify load estimation with a worksheet. The outputs of the worksheet were compared with the result of cooling load estimated using a computer program and the results were found to be satisfactory. The present work will help minimize the problems of higher initial investment and larger energy consumption by auxiliaries, due to over-sizing A/C equipment and the general discomfort during the peak hot season in Ghana, due to under-sizing of A/C equipment.

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Fahim Bin AbdurRahman, Maimuna Akter, M. Zainal Abedin

Abstract: Use of various dyes in order to color the products is a common practice in composite knit industry. The presence of these dyes in water even at low concentration is highly visible and undesirable. This study was carried out for the utilization of orange peel as adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater and to establish it as a standard wastewater treatment process for composite knit industry. This experiment was performed in the laboratory scale. The materials were obtained and treated for the removal of dyes at different doses. These materials also evaluated for different pH and contact time. This batch adsorption experiment was carried out for finding the effects of adsorbent's amount, pH and retention time on the removal of dyes from the wastewater. The experiment showed that the removal percentage was 60-70% at pH=7 with a retention time of 120 minutes. The optimum dose amount of adsorbent was 1.5g/25mL. The equilibrium adsorption behavior was examined by applying Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The adsorption capacity of orange peel is low but comparable to the other available adsorbents.

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S. Ananth Kumar A. Sankar, S. Rameshkumar

Abstract: Electrochemical synthesis of poly ortho toludine (POTD) was achieved on Teflon coated cylindrical stainless steel electrodes with base diameter 2mm . Aniline in 2-propyl pentatonic acid solution was polymerized on the surface of stainless steel using cyclic voltametry technique. Adherent and red polymer films were obtained on the electrodes.. The corrosion inhibitive performance of POTD+2PPA , coated electrodes were investigated in 0.5 N H2SO4 solutions by potentiodynamic polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS

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S.Ananth Kumar, A.Sankar, S.Rameshkumar

Abstract: Oxystelma esculentum leaves inhibition effects on the corrosion of steel in 0.5M H2SO4 solution were investigated using polarization and electrochemical impendence techniques. The results revealed that Oxystelma esculentum leaves acts as a corrosion inhibitor in 0.5M H2SO4 solution. The inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in inhibitor concentration. The inhibition is attributed to adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface.

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Shweta A. Raut, M.T. Kolte, Snehal P. Hon

Abstract : Neural control is a branch of the general field of intelligent control, which is based on the concept of artificial intelligence. Neural controller can operate at different conditions of load current at different orbital periods without any tuning such in case of PID controller. So an artificial neural network (ANN) based model has been developed for the optimum operation of power system. In this a boost converter is used. The controlled boost converter is used as an interface between photovoltaic (PV) panels and the loads connected to them. It converts any input voltage within its operating range into a constant output voltage that is suitable for load feeding. An ANN is trained using a back propagation with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Neural network controller architecture gives satisfactory result with small number of neuron, hence battery in terms of memory and time are required for neural network controller implementation. To implement the neural network into hardware design, it is required to translate generated mode into device structure. VHDL language is used to describe those networks into hardware. Hardware Descriptive Language code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) is a digital device which helped in reprogrammable properties and robust flexibility. With low precision artificial neural network design, FPGAs have higher speed and smaller size for real time application than the VLSI and DSP chips

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Tanima Ferdous

Abstract: Under the UN umbrella, the UNESCO and the World Bank are working for the education and development issues. They are working for the same targets but have unique working styles, with many similarities and differences. Through this paper, we tried to bring out all the hidden issues of multilateral organizations for the sake of development and educational improvement. This paper is fully based on secondary information from different books, articles, journals, reports and electrical sources and we consider in the context of Bangladesh as a case because both organizations have been working for a long time in Bangladesh and it is one of the rapidly-developing countries. It has a big primary education system due to its over population. Similarly, it tries to implement EFA program in the country. As we find that, to implement EFA in the country both the UNESCO and the World Bank are helping Bangladesh. More specifically, UNESCO is helping on the technical parts of education like- quality improvement, teacher training, policy making and other sections as per needs analysis. On the other hand, the World Bank is helping by donating money in some terms and conditions. Ultimately, due to financial strength, the World Bank is found to have a strong influence in development sector and therefore, in a way imposes policy to the developing nations. On the other hand, UNESCO seems to provide standard education system without any condition.

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NkosinathiMpofu, Ronald Chikati

Abstract: Research on digital divideand its impact reveals that there are several areas affected which require theattention of planners and programme implementers. Many countries have responded to the digital divide by providing the necessary infrastructural development to curb the divide existing between rural areas and urban areas and also between private and public schools a situation that was well managed in Botswana. Some countries have been assisted by the World Bank to unroll ICTs to communities. However the effects of digital divide remain far reaching. There are limited researches that show that digital divide affect academic performance in tertiary education. This paper makesa further contribution towards justifying that indeed digital divide is still noticeable among tertiary students. Students' performance variations at tertiary education level are attributable to the digital divide created at secondary school education.An analysis of first year results for Computer technology students at Botswana Accountancy College revealed that students who did their secondary education at private schools are overally 5.3% better performing in examinations than their counterparts from public schools. The probability that a student will pass the module is 0.76 and 0.51 for students from private and public schools respectively. In Botswana Private schools are known to be better in availing ICTs than public schools hence the divide created by where one did their secondary education[1].

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Fuyane B. F. Atlhopheng J. R. Mulale K

Abstract: Fired clay bricks are one of the materials used for the construction of buildings in Africa. The bricks are usually produced locally in industries and in small enterprises in villages and at a rural scale. Most raw materials that are used to produce bricks are found naturally in the environment. The extraction of these raw materials needs therefore to be environmentally sustainable so as to preserve these resources. If sustainable extraction is not observed then, the environment will be under threat. This study follows the different stages followed during informal clay brick production. The purpose is to identify the hot spots which are important to the total environmental impact. The analysis is performed using an EIA and EMP-REHAB methodology. These methods are used to identify and quantify the environmental impact of the process of brick production. The system investigated raw material extraction, industrial production and rehabilitation. The environmental burden that arise from the operation of brick production is mainly through raw material extraction without due care to rehabilitate the environment.

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Deepika chauhan, Sanjay Agarwal, Mahendra Kumar Suman

Abstract: Due to rapidly growing market demand for solar Thermal and photovoltaic Electricity generation, there are lot of ideas coming up with the aim for a wide range of application including agriculture, processing plant and buildings. In the building sector the size of building space is limited for the accommodation of solar devices but on the other hand cooling of solar device is also necessary otherwise it will burn out due to excessive increase in temperature. In order to overcome all these disadvantages, use of hybrid solar technology for multigenerational of active power and/or passive devices has been implemented. This Paper Present a review of the literature available during the last decade on the PV/Thermal collector. The paper is presented in a way so as to cover the comparison of different types of collector on the basis of their Electrical as well as Thermal parameters. The review cover the different types PV/Thermal collector system i.e. flat plate and concentrating type in which the working medium is either liquid or air, numerical models and Analysis, work done by using different tool i.e. simulation and qualitative performance on the basis of Thermal and Electrical output. From the Literature survey it can be concluded that PV/Thermal are very promising Devices and there is a wider scope to improve their performance on the basis of efficiency and cost, making them more competitive in the market.

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Confidence Gbolo Sanka, Felicia Annin, Cecilia Addei

Abstract: The paper focuses on the relationship that exists between literature and culture through a critical analysis of Ama Ata Aidoo's The Dilemma of a Ghost and Anowa. This exercise has become necessary due to the misconception that some people usually have about literature and the way it relates to our lives. Thus there is sometimes the misconceived idea that literature is only imaginative, fictional, and creative but does not address issues related to everyday life. The paper corrects this misunderstanding about literature by exploring the literary qualities and cultural issues that have been highlighted by Aidoo in her two plays as well as relating such issues of mores and ethos to the Akan living culture.

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Elijah Maronga, PhD, Charles W. Weda, David O. Kengere

Abstract: This study assessed the effect of Government Financial Regulations on financial management practices in public secondary schools in Sameta Division of Gucha District, Kenya. The study investigated how principals managed the school cash, inventories, account receivables and account payables. The study also aimed at assessing problems principals encountered when applying these financial management practices. The principal and the bursar of each of the thirty secondary schools were interviewed. Questionnaires with open ended and closed ended questions were used to collect primary data. Secondary data were collected from the District Schools Auditor's financial records and from the financial records of the sampled schools. Descriptive statistics, especially, the use of frequency tables, percentages and means was used to analyze the data. Scaling method was used, particularly the use of Likert scale, to analyze the views gathered from the respondents. The findings indicated that most schools follow the recommended and acceptable financial management practices as per the Government Financial Regulations. The findings also indicated that the major problems arising from the government financial regulations include lack of monitoring and evaluation unit on financial usage, long procurement procedures, lack of financial management training, late disbursement of funds and lack of audit personnel in secondary schools. These problems hinder good Financial Management Practices in public secondary schools.

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Nithya N.R.

Abstract: The paper seeks to examine the land question of tribals in Kerala, India. In the context of developing countries such as India, the state of Kerala has often been cited as a model. Notable among its achievements is the good health indicator in terms of mortality and fertility rates and high levels of utilization of formal health services and cent percent literacy. Later, it was observed that this model has several outlier communities in which tribal communities were the most victimized ones. The tribals are children of nature and their lifestyle is conditioned by the Ecosystem. After the sixty years of formation of the state tribals continues as one of the most marginalized community within the state, the post globalised developmental projects and developmental dreams of the state has again made the deprivation of the tribals of Kerala and the developmental divide has increased between the tribal and non-tribal in the state. The paper argues that deprivation of land and forests are the worst forms of oppression that these people experience.

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Meigy Nelce Mailoa, Meta Mahendradatta, Amran Laga, Natsir Djide

Abstract: Research has been conducted to determine the levels of tannins in leaves of guava (Psidium guajava L) using a variation of the concentration of organic solvent. The method used for qualitative analysis with the tannins are formed by the intensity of the color is blackish green FeCl3 compounds. While the principle of quantitative determination of tannins is tanat acid standard curve at a wavelength of 724,5 nm. In the quantitative analysis of tannins used variations of organic solvent (ethanol and acetone with a concentration of 30%, 50%, 70%). Levels of tannins in the sample solution was calculated with Tannates Acid Equivalent (EAT). The results showed levels of tannins in leaves of guava with 30% ethanol, which is 3.228 mg/g, 50% is 2.970 mg/g, 70% is 2,333 mg/g. While the levels of tannins in guava leaves with 30% acetone solvent which is 2,781 mg/g, 50%: 2,738 mg/g, 70%: 2,405 mg/g.

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Joseph Gogodze

Abstract: This paper presents a brief analysis of the current innovative capabilities of Georgia based on the Europe-Central Asia Innovative Capability Indicator (ECAICI). This composite indicator is constructed using factor analysis tools. Research reveals that innovative processes in the Europe-Central Asia (ECA) region (by the World Bank classification) are mainly affected by four unobservable factors: knowledge creation, economic sophistication, knowlege absorption-diffusion, and human capital production. We show that the ECAICI is closely related to other well-known innovation indicators and to GDP per capita. The ECAICI was used to analyze the innovative capability dynamics during 1996-2010. This study serves as an illustration for the use of the ECAICI as an instrument for innovative capability assessment and analysis in Georgia and other post-USSR countries

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P.Y. Andoh, F. Davis, Y.A.K. Fiagbe, T. Alhassan

Abstract: In the world today, due to the high cost of running a vehicle, there has been many researches to find ways of minimizing running cost. Components of the running cost come from the tyre, fuel, spare parts of vehicles and also ensuring safety of the vehicle. This paper presents the effect the tyre pressures of vehicles on fuel consumption and ways to optimize running cost due to tyre pressure. In this study, the tyre pressures were measured for different types of vehicles at two public institution campuses (Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and Kumasi Polytechnic) and three public transport stations (Asafo, Roman Hill and Kejetia) in Kumasi Metropolis to ascertain how tyre pressures of these vehicles have deviated from the recommended tyre pressures stated by the manufacturers. Also the fuel consumption was measured to develop a model between the fuel consumption and the tyre pressure which was used to predict the amount of fuel consumption by a vehicle on Ghana roads. It is concluded that, 73% of the data collected for the different vehicles fall within the predicted results obtained from the developed model and 13% fall within the experimental error; hence the developed model can be used to predict the amount of fuel consumed by vehicles. It was found out thatabout 97% of vehicles surveyed in Kumasi Metropolis had their tyre pressures deviated from the recommended tyre pressuresthereby,increasing the fuel consumption of the vehicle.

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S.O. Jimoh. C.B. Pyhteeva, S.A. Zagaynov

Abstract: It is known that the minimum flow of coke rate is reached when CO use is at a maximum in the blast furnace. This is achieved when the peripheral zone carries the furnace's maximum permissible load and is operating with an open center. An overloaded in the circumference leads to an increase in the FeO content of the primary residue, which is not conducive for the creation of steady-state soot in the furnace waist and shoulders. This leads not only to an increase in heat loss, but also accelerates the wearing of the lining. The purpose of this research was to study the characteristics of heat emissions and recovery work in the peripheral zone of the blast furnace. Modern feeders allow you to distribute charge so as to achieve maximum degree of reduction potential of the gas stream. However, there were risks associated sustainability in the skull and shoulders thrust. Therefore the development of measures to ensure the operation of peripheral zone of the blast furnace, is an urgent task. The developed model to calculate the gas temperature and its recovery in the peripheral zone of the blast furnace can be used to optimize the thermal state of the shaft furnace in the peripheral zone.

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Dr.Mohammad Farouq Shbool, Dr.Anas Ali Al-Qudah, Dr.Nawwaf Hamid Alfawaerah

Abstract: The banking industry the power of economic life because of their role and influence effectively in the development and management of the helm of the economic process on the global and local levels and in various fields of development and investment, given the position enjoyed by the industry, especially at the local level, the financial community calls for deployment of more detailed data for various economic activities, so it was of interest by management in banks, and the financial community to reconsider as it is published in the financial statements, as it has been demanding external auditor of the financial statements include in its report all documents and data necessary to disclose it, and the growing importance of disclosure keen professional institutions in the world to include all the standards issued by the special rules setting out the terms of the disclosure of information that should be available in the published financial statements, in order to provide a kind of international acceptance (International Acceptance) to those statements. And to prove the Materiality of this study, the searchers take two samples, the 1st one from the banks population & the 2nd one from the Auditing Firms which working in Jordan, for each sample was distributed a separate questionnaire as primary method to collect data, and we used the LIKART scale to test these data. This study shows that the bank's managers Believe in the main branches of the need for a direct application of the principles of corporate governance, controls and rules to reduce the misinformation contained in the accounting numbers & the bank's employees in low-level management are not familiar enough. The searchers leave some recommendations which will worth the next studies in this area and will be more beneficiary if it taken in the practice implementing.

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Prof. K. Vijayalakshmi M.C.A., M.Phil.,

Abstract: This paper surveys the use of data mining in educational systems by improving the learning and assessment tasks more effectively inorder to lower the rate of percentage in unemployment. Learning process has to be focused much inorder to attain a better assessment. The optimisation of system to support learning can be predicted easily through the model obtained from Learning Analytics(LA). Applying data mining (DM) in education is an emerging interdisciplinary research field also known as educational data mining (EDM). It is concerned with developing methods for exploring the unique types of data that come from educational environments. Currently there is an increasing interest in data mining and educational systems, making educational data mining as a new growing research community.

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Kamoga Omar Lwako M., Kirabira John Baptist, Byaruhanga Joseph K

Abstract: All types of plants and their differentparts contain similar chemical constituents although in dissimilar quantities. Cellulose in form of fibres is among the most abundant constituents in all parts and types of plants, grasses and tree leaves inclusive. Cellulose fibresfrom plant materials can be isolated as pulp. Due to deforestation resulting from land pressure there is a growing insufficient supply of wood for pulp and paper industry. The land pressure emanatesfrom population explosion which relies on agriculture and wood as source of energy. There is a needof widening the alternative sources for pulp byembracing a number of non-wood materials. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of using some selected grasses and leaves from selected trees that grow in Uganda. The selected grasses were cymbopogon nardus, saccharum officinarum, digitaria scalarum and pasperumsspwhile the selected trees were Pinusspp, mangifera indica, ficus branchypoda and artocarpus heterophyllus. Mature grasses and shed tree leaves for study were collected, prepared and their chemical composition determined using standard Tappi's methods as well as the standard Norman and Jenkins Methods. The Hollocellulose from the selected grasses varied from 60.97%-68.51% wt./wt. on oven dry basis while those of tree leaves from the selected tree plant varied from 32.08% to 45.59%. The α-Cellulose among the selected grasses and tree leaves varied from 26.19% - 35.00% and12.25% - 27.13% respectively.The lignin content of the selected grasses varied from 20.20% - 27.38%while for tree leaves it ranged from 36.62% - 49.09%. The hollocellulose, α-cellulose and lignin contents among the four selected grasses were equal or close to those of other non-wood materials and some typical softwood materials used in production of pulp. The hollocellulose and α-cellulose of the four tree leave were very low and lignin content was higher than those of most non-wood proved to be promising sources of pulp.Cymbopogon nardus is the most promising raw materials, followed by saccharum officinarum tops, then pasperum and finally digitaria scalarum. Tree leaves constituents makes the leaves to have low for priority pulp extraction.

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Hafez Rousta Sekehravani, Homayun Motamani, Babak Shirazi

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks can be used to supervise sensitive data or to monitor moving objects in a military environment. Anonymity in wireless sensor networks has become one of the major problems in the network since node localization data sender is crucial in these environments. However, lack of resources in wireless sensor networks present new challenges and create a network of anonymous. This paper attempts to provide a lightweight and efficient method to create anonymity for a wireless network and their nodes and compare and analyze the characteristics and advantages of the proposed method.

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Israa M. Al Saadi

Abstract: The reliability, safety and deadlines guarantee of data transmission are key features of advanced real time communication systems. Recently, many studies demonstrated the efficiency of Controller Area Network(CAN) protocol, one of the most common Real Time Communication (RTC) protocols which has received wide attention from network architecture developers. This paper illustrates the mechanism of CAN protocol in the term of real-time message transmission scheduling in order to guarantee that the transmitted messages will not exceed their deadlines. The analyzed method of dynamic message transmission scheduling is based on message priority which was recently proposed by many authors to support the idea of in time message transmission.

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Cecilia Addei, Cynthia Osei, Felicia Annin

Abstract: Life in post - colonial Africa is characterised by a great deal of political disillusionment and social corruption. The post-independence era of Africa is bedevilled with social corruption, autocracy, foreign-dominated economy, as well as the betrayal of human ideals among others. For the masses in many African countries, the post colonial era did not offer them anything too different from the colonial era itself. The only difference, however, is that their white colonial masters have simply metamorphosed into their own natives, the elite few, who have assumed control. In other words it is a period of change of batons where white colonial masters have given way, after independence, to black masters lording it over their fellow black men. To these black masses therefore, the dream of freedom after independence is simply a mirage. African writers can simply not ignore what they see around them and since works of literature are often inspired by contemporary issues, they began to write and the novel therefore, became a vehicle of strong social and political satire. Ngugi Wa Thiong'o is among such writers whose works are characterised by an unmistakable note of criticism against perceived unacceptable social practices. In his two novels that have been used for this study, Ngugi has tried to chronicle the events that took place in his country, Kenya after independence.

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Pallavi Rahinj, S. M. Sabale

Abstract: Grid computing is a recently developed technology. Although the developmental tools and techniques for the grid have been extensively studied, yet some important issues, e.g., grid service reliability and task scheduling in the grid, have not been sufficiently studied. For some grid services which have large subtasks requiring time-consuming computation, the reliability of grid service could be rather low. To resolve this problem, this paper introduces Local Node Fault Recovery (LNFR) mechanism into grid systems, and presents an in-depth study on grid service reliability modeling and analysis with this kind of fault recovery. To make LNFR mechanism practical, some constraints, i.e. the life times of subtasks, and the numbers of recoveries performed in grid nodes, are introduced; and grid service reliability models under these practical constraints are developed. Also uses new algorithm which is based on min-min algorithm for task scheduling.

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Odoziobodo Severus Ifeanyi, PhD

Abstract: Today, governments of most African states have recognized the importance of the Diaspora to homeland development through its gained experience and know-how, valuable networks and access to significant technology and capital. Most African governments are therefore, poised to create the enabling environment for harnessing these human resources outside the continent by organizing the Diaspora into an effective community. Using Nigeria as a case study, this paper notes that the Federal government of Nigeria as well as many state governments in the country has established the Office of Special Advisers on Diaspora Matters with a view to organizing its citizenry abroad for purposes of homeland development. The Nigerian government has equally included the Diaspora in the nation's development agenda. This paper aims at studying the proactive roles which African Diasporas especially Nigerians have played in the socio-economic development of the continent through remittances, etc. The paper discusses the different steps taken by the Nigerian government to achieve its objectives.

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Fredrick RomanusIshengoma

Abstract: A simple replication-based mechanism has been used to achieve high data reliability of Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). However, replication based mechanisms have high degree of disk storage requirement since it makes copies of full block without consideration of storage size. Studies have shown that erasure-coding mechanism can provide more storage space when used as an alternative to replication. Also, it can increase write throughput compared to replication mechanism. To improve both space efficiency and I/O performance of the HDFS while preserving the same data reliability level, we propose HDFS+, an erasure coding based Hadoop Distributed File System. The proposed scheme writes a full block on the primary DataNode and then performs erasure coding with Vandermonde-based Reed-Solomon algorithm that divides data into m data fragments and encode them into ndata fragments (n>m), which are saved in N distinct DataNodes such that the original object can be reconstructed from any m fragments. The experimental results show that our scheme can save up to 33% of storage space while outperforming the original scheme in write performance by 1.4 times. Our scheme provides the same read performance as the original scheme as long as data can be read from the primary DataNode even under single-node or double-node failure. Otherwise, the read performance of the HDFS+ decreases to some extent. However, as the number of fragments increases, we show that the performance degradation becomes negligible.

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Ramhari G. Somkuwar, Jagdev Sharma, Jogaiah Satisha, Ishrat Khan, Prerna Itroutwar

Abstract: Grape (Vitisvinifera L.) is one of the important fruit crop. Zinc is a micronutrient which plays important role in various metabolic processes in plants. Zinc works as auxin precursor in plants. The effect of zinc application to mothervine of Dog Ridge rootstock was studied in the present experiment. Zinc was applied in concentration of 0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 g/ mothervine and its effects were studied on rooting success and establishment. It was found that application of zinc resulted in early bud sprout as well as increase in rooting success in cuttings. It also resulted in better plant growth as well as increased leaf area.

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Emilio Antonio, Delson Alexandre Alberto Z. Mugabe

Resumo: Com este trabalho pretendia-se analisar os erros e as dificuldades apresentados pelos Estudantes do Curso de Estatistica e Gestao de Informacao (EGI) da Universidade Pedagogica Delegacao de Nampula no calculo da mediana, olhando pelas suas respostas e reflectir sobre a natureza dos processos mentais que estao na base dos seus pensamentos. O estudo e de natureza qualitativa e foi desenvolvido com 25 estudantes do 1 Ano do curso. A analise foi baseada nas respostas dos alunos a um questionario e as estrategias foram comparadas com as encontradas em pesquisas previas sobre a mesma tematica. Apresentamos estrategias de solucao originais do aluno, e em funcao disso, fizemos uma analise qualitativa para caracterizar os erros, preconcepcoes concernentes a mediana.

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Samaila James, Titus Ugochukwu Nwabueze

Abstract: Effects of extrusion condition and defatted soybean inclusion on the physico-chemical, invitro starch and protein digestibility and sensory acceptability of African breadfruit blends were studied. The experiment had two levels of treatments: blends I and II. Blend I was composed of African breadfruit-undefatted soybean-corn flours; while blend II had African breadfruit-defatted soybean-corn flours. The two flour blends were brought to 21% moisture content by water addition through material balance and separately extruded at 1400C barrel temperature, 140rpm screw speed in a Brabender laboratory single screw extruder fitted with 2mm die nozzle diameter. Extrusion cooking condition and defatted soybean inclusion did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the iron and zinc contents of the extrudates. The molybdenum content was significantly (p<0.05) reduced; while the manganese content was significantly (p<0.05) increased on extrusion. Extrusion cooking condition significantly (p<0.05) increased the protein digestibility by 3.12% and 22.77% in extruded blends I and II respectively; while there was a reduction in invitro starch digestibility from 68.23 to 70.43% and from 56.27 to 72.86% in extruded blends I and II respectively. Extrusion cooking condition and defatted soybean inclusion did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the physical properties (extrudate temperature, flow rate, plug flow, extrudate diameter, deformation strength and expansion ratio) of the extrudates. Extrusion cooking condition and defatted soybean inclusion did not significantly (p>0.005) differentiate the acceptability of the two extrudates. Their general acceptability was rated the same.

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Samaila James, Titus Ugochukwu Nwabueze

Abstract: Quality evaluation of extrudates/snacks made from full fat blend of African breadfruit-soybean-corn was studied. The raw flour blend was extruded in a single screw extruder at 21% moisture content, 140oC barrel temperature, 140rpm screw speed fitted with 2mm die nozzle diameter. Food extrusion significantly (p<0.05) reduced the moisture and crude protein from 21.00 to 9.70% and from 30.80 to 24.50% respectively. Extrusion cooking did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the fat, crude fibre and energy values of the extrudates. While ash and carbohydrate contents were significantly (p<0.05) increased from 2.85 to 5.15% and from 48.00 to 54.10% respectively upon extrusion. Extrusion cooking did not significantly (p>0.05) affect vitamins B1, C and E of the extrudates; however, vitamin A was significantly (p<0.05) reduced. Extrusion cooking had no significant (p>0.05) effect on histidine, lysine, threonine and phenylalanine contents of the extrudates; while valine, metheonine, leucine, tryptophan, arginine and isoleucine contents of the extrudate was negatively affected. Food extrusion significantly (p>0.05) reduced the antinutrient contents of the extrudates with trypsin inhibitor having the highest reduction (69.77%) and tannin having the lowest reduction (34.78%).

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Snehal P. Hon, M.T. Kolte, Raut Shweta A.

Abstract: Sun tracker is the device that follows the position of the sun throughout the day to harness the output power. Sun tracking increases the output power production by keeping the panel parallel to the sun so that sun radiation makes 90 angle with panel. This paper presents sun tracking system implemented in real time. Sun tracking system composed of fuzzy logic controller implemented on FPGA, sensors, PV panel, stepper motor, input-output interface.

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Manjusha Joshi, Dr. K. D. Desai, Dr. M. S. Menon

Abstract: The clinical symptoms of myocardial ischemia and infarction are not observable at an earlier stage. Early diagnosis of the same is very crucial to avoid sudden cardiac deaths. Left ventricular dysfunction is a common pathway to various cardiac disorders. Left ventricular dysfunction resulting into inefficient pumping of the oxygenated blood further causes structural and functional changes in the heart. The paper proposes an early, safe, easily deployable, cost effective and non-invasive technique that can be used as confirmative diagnostic tool obtained from 2-lead ECG sample collected for 3-5 minutes duration that diagnoses left ventricular dysfunction. The proposed index derived from Poincare plot of RR interval provides a guideline to the echo-cardiologist and saves his time and also controls inter operator diagnostic variation. Also the test can be performed by paramedical personnel saving the echo-cardiologist's time. The proposed paper lists the results of index of control group, iabetic subjects with and without myocardial ischemia. The index value is found to match the Left ventricular dysfunction diagnosed from echocardiogram findings.

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Anthony K. Adebayo, Anthony C. O. Iweka

Abstract: In Nigeria, the responsiveness of government-built apartments to marital arrangements is yet to be adequately examined. This study evaluates household density among seven marital status categories in multifamily apartments developed by Lagos State Development and Property Corporation (LSDPC). Occupants' marital statuses were collected using a sample of 582 (7.5%) from 7,764 population. The result reveals that "married", "just-single", "widow(er)" and "divorced" categories were dominant. Furthermore, a chi-square test shows that at 95% confidence level, marital status has no significant effect on dwelling density among all the apartments investigated. Therefore LSDPC should be interested in the policy implications of these outcomes.

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Md. Anwar Hossain, Md. Chanmiya Sheikh, SK AL Zaheri Mahmud, Md. Ashraful Alam

Abstract: New mixed ligand complexes of Zn(II) with 1,10- Phenanthroline and some amino acids were prepared in the solid form and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity, magnetic moment measurement, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and FAB+ mass studies. To examine anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of its complexes, some Swiss albino mice of 05-07 weeks old were taken. One dose of the test compounds of 10 mg/kg was selected throughout the research work. The anti-inflammatory activity of the test compounds were determined by 'carragenan induced mice paw edema inhibition' method, and however, the analgesic activity was determined by 'acetic acid induced writhing' methods. These four compounds showed positive effects as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the test compounds at 50 mg/kg were quite comparable to those of standard drugs at 10 mg/kg.

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Y L V Santosh Kumar, U Pradeep Kumar, K H K Raghu Vamsi

Abstract: Micro-electronic devices are playing a very prominent role in electronic equipments which are used in daily life. For electronic equipment battery life is important. So, in order to reduce the power consumption we implement a Sleepy technique to the electronic circuits. Sleepy technique is also called as power gating technique. In the power gating structure, a circuit operates in two different modes. In the sleep mode, the sleep transistors are turned OFF to reduce the leakage power. In the active mode, the sleep transistors are turned ON and can be treated as the functional redundant resistances, as circuit is in operation mode the power leakage should not be more than the basic full adder. When a sleepy transistor is placed at VDD, it is called as the "Header switch" and while it is placed near the ground, it is called as "Footer switch". Now in our project we implement this technique to the Full-adder and then it is used in 4-Bit Adder and 4-bit BCD Adder using 90nm scale technology. Without losing the CMOS logic a new full adder is designed by reducing the number of transistors which also leads to the reduction of chip size. In almost all electronic equipment full adder is used. So this project has been done with the aim of reducing the power consumption in the full adder circuit and implementing it in 4-Bit Adder and 4-Bit BCD Adder.

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Chandan chakraborty, Md Mazaharul Huq, Sobur Ahmed, Taslima Tabassum, Md. Rubel Miah

Abstract: When water becomes contaminated by unexpected substances, it is considered as harmful for human and aquatic lives. This water is termed as polluted water. Various causes are responsible for polluting water. Some natural causes are mixture of biodegraded portion of animal and plants to pure water, siltation by erosion of river banks etc. Domestic wastes, industrial wastes, fertilizers etc. are man-made pollutants of water. The state of surface and ground water pollution in Bangladesh is alarming. Especially the Buriganga is largely polluted by Dhaka city. Necessity of water for each and every living beings needs no description. They intake water directly or indirectly for physiological activities. If this in taking water is polluted, it will do harm that is for sure. The worst part is, this bad impact transports to others through food chain. Therefore, we must be aware of the adverse influence polluted water may have on us. At present, we cannot prevent water being polluted cent percent, but minimization is very much needed. It is time we took some steps to start working on it.

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Sarah Jane Aseniero, Arlene Buena, Danny Carreon, Joanna De Luna, Ma. Erlinda Simangan, Engr. Mary Regina B. Apsay

Abstract: The main goal of this study is to be able to create E-learning software that can be a great help to IT or CS Students as well as to those people who are interested in programming by using their mobile phones, specifically, Android phones. It aims to answer if there is any significant difference between the existing webpage e-learning system and the proposed e-learning for Android devices in terms of speed, accuracy, user-friendliness, and reliability. The researchers conducted a survey in order to find out which is better between the existing webpage e-learning system and the proposed e-learning for Android devices. The researchers provided a close-ended questionnaire that would be answered by the respondents in order to evaluate the existing and proposed system presented to them. The proposed e-learning for Android devices is better than webpage e-learning system because it has additional features and more functional. It is user-friendly and easier to access. It was concluded that there is a significant difference between the existing and proposed system in terms of speed, accuracy, user-friendliness and reliability.

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Celso T. Agos Jr., Mark Lester C. Bal-Ut, Lorraine G. Calam, Relly N. Cantuba, Marlon Heindric M. Vallo. Engr. Mary Regina Apsay

Abstract: Computer games are becoming a main entertainment. But this research tackles about Visual Novel a kind of game that has extremely minimal game-play, story-driven, usually have multiple or branching storyline and is commonly developed and released in Japan. The proponents made a game based on a story tackled in high school, after they developed it; the high school students compared it with a Visual Novel that is made and popular in Japan. The results are; the Ibong Adarna Visual Novel has the advantage with a difference of .08 in the over-all weighted mean but after the statistical treatment, this score is not significant with the score of .017.

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Odin, E.M, Onoja, P.K., Ochala, A.U.

Abstract: This paper studied the extraction of oil from Quassia undulata plant using n-hexane as solvent. The biodiesel produced was characterized using spectroscopic methods. Important parameters of biodiesel such as methyl ester content, viscosity, specific gravity, acid value, flash point and cetane number were determined. The influence of reactions variables such as methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperatures and reaction times on conversion of Quassia oil was also measured. The results showed that the maximum conversion of 98.6% was recorded at 60 oC when the methanol to oil molar ratio was 9:1 at time 2 hours, 30 minutes, using fixed catalyst amount of 2.5 wt% ( based on the wt. of the oil).

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Binita Kumari Paudel, Kanchan Karki, Leena Dangol, Arjun Mani Guragain

Abstract: An academic institution based cross- sectional survey was done to identify the incidence density of needle stick injury among PCL level nursing students. Multi stage sampling method was used to select 407 samples from nursing students studying inside Kathmandu valley. Self administered questionnaire and review the records guideline were used as research tool. Incidence density was calculated by using R software. Out of total participated students, 46.9 % had have needle stick injuries in the past and 44.7% experienced it more than one time. The overall incidence density was found 5.82/person 1000 days exposure. The incidence density in night shift (6.86) and in second year practicum period (6.91) was found higher than day shift (5.41) and first year (4.21) respectively. Out of total 298 injuries, 67.8 % were happened during medication, 41% while drawing medicine, 20% while recapping the needle and 45.1 % at medical ward. Only 46.6% injuries were reported and prophylaxis was used only in five injuries. However, almost all the students (98.3%) stated that they follow universal precaution but only 28% practicing no-recapping. Although the curriculum focuses on no recapping, there is a common practice of reusing syringes for the same patient in Nepal. Therefore, students must have to recap the needle. So, it is recommended that content in the curriculum and universal precaution training should be revised in the context of Nepal. Thirty one percent students also stated that needle should recap properly by using one hand technique for the prevention of needle stick injury. It is also recommended to develop standard operating procedure for proper post exposure management of needle stick injury.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - October 2016 - Volume 5 Issue 10