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IJSTR Volume 4 - Issue 7, July 2015 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Theint Theint Htike, Zaw Myo lwin, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: All optical 3R regeneration is a key function of the future all optical network and ultra-long-haul transmission. In this paper, all-optical regenerator utilizes a Fabry-Perot (F-P) filter for clock recovery, four wavemixing based in a 500m-long highly nonlinear fiber and optical band pass filter for retiming and reshaping. A 10Gb/s RZ signal was transmitted through 1200 km with a power penalty of 1dB at a BER of 10-9 compared to the back-to-back case. All optical 3R is shown to improve the performance of input signals degraded by transmission impairments and timing jitter of 10ps is reduced.

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1-5  



Khaing Mar Htwe, Zaw Min Min Htun, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: The main goal of this system is to design a locker security system using RFID and Fingerprint. In this system, only authenticated person can open the door. A security system is implemented containing door locking system using passive type of RFID which can activate, authenticate, and validate the user and unlock the door in real time for secure access. The advantage of using passive RFID is that it functions without a battery and passive tags are lighter and are less expensive than the active tags. This system consists of fingerprint reader, microcontroller, RFID reader, and PC. The RFID reader reads the id number from passive. The fingerprint sensor will check incoming image with enrolled data and it will send confirming signal for C# program. If both RFID check and fingerprint image confirmation are matched, the microcontroller will drive door motor according to sensors at door edges. This system is more secure than other systems because two codes protection method used.

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6-10  



Iqra Ahmed, Fatima Ejaz, Safa Abdul Karim, Sehrish Khan, Memoona Khanam

Abstract: From decades, the work of symbolic computations cannot be ignored in real time calculations. During the discussion of various automated machines, for estimated calculations we came to know where there are inputs and the corresponding outputs the term error is obvious. But the error can be minimized by using different suitable algorithms. This study focusses on techniques used for error correction in numeric and symbolic computations. After reviewing on different techniques discussed before we generate analysis by taking some of the parameters. The Experimental results shows that these algorithm has better performance in terms of accuracy, performance, cost, validity, safety, security, reliability and power consumption.

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11-15  



Aeindra Myint Lwin, Zaw Min Min Htun, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: This research presents the microcontroller controlled smart living room system using Bluetooth wireless technology from mobile phone.An android apk is created in mobile for controlling the living room system. A 16F877A microcontroller is interfaced serially to a bluetooth module transceiver. It is used for controlling fan speed control, dim light control, lighting ON/OFF and window angle control. An arduino controller is used for keypad control door security. It is connected to DC motor control circuit and switching circuit for opening and closing of the door, keypad for entering password and serial LCD for displaying the update status of the door.User can control the home appliances by using bluetooth connection from mobile phone in its range. User can adjust the dim light, fan speed, window angle and light bulbs from android apk. An internal EEPROM is built in 16F877A microcontroller and it stores the last requested data of the appliances. If userwants to recover the former conditions of the appliances, he can recall them from android apk.

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16-22  



Mohammad-Reza Askari

Abstract: This paper introduces a new stochastic optimization framework based bat algorithm (BA) to solve the optimal distribution feeder reconfiguration (DFR) as well as the shunt capacitor placement and sizing in the distribution systems. The objective functions to be investigated are minimization of the active power losses and minimization of the total network costs an. In order to consider the uncertainties of the active and reactive loads in the problem, point estimate method (PEM) with 2m scheme is employed as the stochastic tool. The feasibility and good performance of the proposed method are examined on the IEEE 69-bus test system.

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23-29  



Moth Moth Myint Thein, Chaw Myat Nweand Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: Today students’ (class) attendance is become more important part for any organizations/institutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure, hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students’ attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So, the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students’ attendance using RFID and fingerprint reader. The system is designed to implement an attendance management system based on RFID and fingerprint reader which students need to use their student identification card ID and their finger ID to success the attendance where only authentic student can be recorded the attendance during the class. In this system, passive RFID tag and reader pairs are used to register the student ID cards individually, and fingerprint reader is used for attendance. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of the RFID and finger print device, and the records of the attendance are stored in a database. Students’ roll call percentages and their details are easily seenvia Graphical User Interface (GUI). This system will have the required databases for students’ attendance, teachers, subjects and students' details. This application is implemented by Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server as IDE. C# language is used to implement this system.

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30-38  



FranciscoMartínezFlores.

ABSTRACT: It is shown the inexistence of neutrinos to define precisely the concept of relativistic’s mass; under this scheme, to elementary’s particles as electron and interaction’s particles like photons correspond an electromagnetic and virtual mass. Nucleons (protons and neutrons) have real or inertial mass for being composite particles, since inertia needs structure: it is provided by an interactive network originated by strong and weak forces. This mass is building up atoms and all the material world under Classical Physics and Chemistry’s laws.These actual masses may be considered as electromagnetic and virtual one (thanks to its charge), in order to establish the high energies level needed to obtain all particles physics (elementary or not), which are governed by the laws of Quantum Physics. With all this, one may set up amore reasonable and understandable new Standard Model, which being projected into Cosmological Model can get rid of some inconsistencies and concepts difficult to be admitted.

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39-43  



Win Minn Thet, MyoMaung Maung, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: This paper proposes and implements a low cost Vehicle Data Logging System using GPS and GSM. This system allows a user to trace the present and past positions recorded in SD card. This system also reads the current position of the vehicle using GPS, the data is sent via GSM service from the GSM network. The vehicle’s position including the driving speed, the UTC time and data are stored in the SD card for live and past tracking. All of that GPS data is sent to PIC 18F4520 by the Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) and also store in SD card. GSM also uses UART to transmit. To know the position of the vehicle, the owner sends a request through a SMS. The SMS sends to the authorized person through the GSM network. The travel history of the vehicle are stored in a file on an SD card in FAT format.This system is very useful for car tracking, for adolescent driver being checked by parent (speed limit exceeding, leaving a specific area). V The developed system is easy to use, requires no additional hardware, and permits the selection of the amount of data and the time intervals between the data recordings. In addition, the collected data can easily be transferred to a computer via a connected serial port.

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44-49  



Kusuma Neela Bolla

Abstract: soy foods are rich source of dietary protein. soy based foods are rich in a class of compounds called isoflavones. Isoflavones have chemical structure that is similar to the hormone estrogen receptors commonly called phytoestrogens. the consumption of soy isoflavones appears to result in health benefits for cancer, heart disease, menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis. so as a result soy protein have become major components of food.

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50-53  



Alireza Sadremomtaz, Mohaddeseh Saber Zidehsaraei

Abstract: In liver scintigraphy, radioactive tracers, in addition to liver, are accumulated in other organs such as spleen. It leads to the presence of secondary source, which affects image quality. Therefore, knowing the influence of the noise arising from the secondary source and trying to reduce the additional data is necessary. In nuclear medicine imaging, using of energy window is a useful way to reduce the noise. In this paper, we try to find an optimum energy window to reduce the noise for two different low energy collimators. Liver scintigraphy images with and without activity in spleen were simulated by SIMIND software with different energy window percentages and with Low-Energy High-Resolution (LEHR) and Low-Energy General-Purpose (LEGP) collimators. We used with activity of 190 MBq. Spleen was outside of the camera field of view so that just its noise effects on the liver image is examined. Finally, the images of liver with activity in spleen were compared with that without activity in spleen by MATLAB code.

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54-57  



Kuqi Dhurata, Malkaj Partizan, Kuka Shkëlqim, Kuqali Margarita, Hoxha Adhurim, Mulaj Tatjana, Goga Marjola, Dokuzi Hazbi

Abstract: The massive use of mobile phone, as a communication tool nowadays, is accompanied the ever increasing interest of the public and researchers for the possibly impact on human health, as a result of exposure to the electromagnetic fields that accompany these devices. Therefore knowing the level of exposure electromagnetic fields of this electronic equipment has been and will be in the future interest object to the public, and the subject of study for the researchers. In this paper are presents the results of measurements of electromagnetic fields for the frequencies 900 MHz - 1800 MHz, used in mobile telephone in Tirana. These frequencies are included in the area radio frequency (RF) and Microwave (MW) (300 Hz - 300 GHz), in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves and belong to non-ionizing radiation. The measurements were performed in different areas of Tirana. The purpose is to assess the level of exposure electromagnetic fields, especially near areas where mobile antennas are mounted, construction of dynamic digital mapping and comparison with the permitted levels of the exposure defined by the International Commission of Non Ionizing Radiation Protection ICNIRP. Through this publication the aim of the authors is to provide real information and reliable for the population.

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58-62  



Shune Lei Aung, Kyaw Soe Lwin and Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: This paper describes the design and construction of 300W audio power amplifier for classroom. In the construction of this amplifier, microphone preamplifier, tone preamplifier, equalizer, line amplifier, output power amplifier and sound level indicator are included. The output power amplifier is designed as O.C.L system and constructed by using Class B among many types of amplifier classes. There are two types in O.C.L system _ quasi system and complementary system. Between them, the complementary system is used in the construction of 300W audio power amplifier. The Multisim software is utilized for the construction of audio power amplifier.

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63-67  



Kemala Sari Lubis, Erwin Masrul Harahap, Abdul Rauf, Zainal Arifin Hasibuan

Abstract : Sediment transport has relationship with hydrologic input primarily river discharge and rainfall intensity. Fluctuation of river discharge and rainfall intensity have great effect on suspended sediment concentration. Bayesian Dynamic Linear Model (DLMs) is used to study relation of input hydrology and basin response variables. Response variables were taken from suspended sediment concentration and river discharge from a year July 2012 to June 2013 at two outlets at Padang sub-watershed (upstream) and Padang Hilir sub-watershed (downstream) of Padang watershed, North Sumatra. Datas were analyzed by regression analysis of Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) as a dependent variables, while river discharge and rainfall intensity as independent variables. The results showed that river discharge value are the highest on July 2012 and October 2012 at upstream and downstream of Padang watershed, respectively. The SSC value are the highest on July 2012 and April 2013 at upstream and downstream of Padang watershed, respectively. There is a weak correlation (r2= 0.002) between SSC and rainfall intensity at source points of outlet at upstream of Padang watershed. There is decreasing of forest, paddy and plantation areas but increasing of bush and farming areas from 2012 to 2015 at upstream of Padang watershed. Meanwhile at downstream of Padang watershed were increasing of plantation areas since 2012 to 2015

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Ni Ni Hlaing, Zaw Min Min Htun, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: In the present day scenario traffic rules are frequently violated by the drivers and over speeding occur due to bad driving behavior. So, a driver assistance system is provided to prevent over speeding, violation of road rules , also to display alert messages and gives alerts like “road works”, “steep slope”, “school zone” in the form of acoustical messages and also in LCD. The proposed system has a reporting, displaying and database systemfor over speed violation management. This designed system has the ability to detect the speed of the vehicle in the roads and the main highways and the places where the drivers can use of more speed while driving. The laser transmitter senses the load entered by the vehicle and then the receiver unit sends to the microcontroller. The receiver unit is used by Light Dependent Resistor (LDR). If the speed of vehicle exceeds the permissible speed for the highway, this information will sent to PC which starts the camera to capture the vehicle. And all the information of vehicle are sent to database system. Then also shows the speed information on LCD.

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74-77  



Prima Vandayani, Dwi Kartini, Hilmiana, Yudi Azis

Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to extend of my previously published paper in domestic journal at Banking and Management Review by School of Economics Ekuitas Bandung, Indonesia. Such paper concluded that Hersey Blanchard's situational leadership concept is not entirely appropriate when applied to Bank Nagari - Branch Bandung as analysis unit. Therefore this paper try to propose national culture as one of the factors that may be the cause of the discrepancy. This study was theoritical review, especially about the effect national culture on leadership effectiveness of Bank Nagari Branch Bandung. The result illustrated that national culture have a significant effect on leadership effectiveness of Bank Nagari Branch Bandung.

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Sultanova Dilshoda

Abstract: Article illuminates using of artistic importance epigrafical ornamenst on architecture ofUzbekistan. Calligraphic group formed embellishment in the manner of ornament in medicine to be taken externally and in internal parts of the public buildings. The Inscription taken from Koran were executed on arabic alphabet consists of themes - religious, inctructive. Using appeared In mosque from Koran and hadis, in hotel of the expression of the nature. Resemblance of the inscriptions, ed in interior of the hotels Buhara, Samarkand and Tashkent with inscription of the dishes, gives the cause to expect that probably, poetry IX-X ages were in the beginning used in product decorative-aplied arts ( tureen, plate) and gradually moved to wall. Besides, they were broadly used in interior of buildings (the mosques, mausoleum), in premiseses vein of the houses and on surfaces subject decorative-aplied arts. Amongst which there are real and fantastic images animal - a phoenix, dragon, deer. Meet in SHerdor and Nadir Devonbegi in Samarkand, in Abdulazizhan and Nadir Devonbegi. About using ornament, except mausoleum of Amir Temur and Temuridov and cathedral mosque of Amir Temur, appropriately was in detail describe the artistic facilities of Aksaray. Of the building process, was it is important to fill am empty the surface of the dome by new artistic method. In this period by new direction was - a technology "кундаль", which as raised decoration has alterred by sawing in architecture of the interior due to artistic embroidery.

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Sultanova Dilshoda

Abstract: In article are considered bases scientifically-creative reconstruction of pre-Islamic paintings hall of ambassadors of Afrasiab, executed in interior foyer of institute of Archaeology RUZ.As a result of benchmark analysis modern painting with original museum of Afrasiab possible to define, not before our days of a part and fragments in holistic type that is to say in beginning, what looked before destruction arabic conqueror. Afrasiab paintings, as specific facility more than 16 centuries is studied in our republic and has a questions, which wait their own decisions.The author presents for the first time in picturesque manner to your attention, its interpretation painting, coming from its scientifically-creative experience. Given exploratory work, possible consider, as significant contribution to science on archaeology architecture and art.

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88-90  



ThetKoKo, ZawMyoTun, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: This research paper describes the design and simulation of the automatic wiper speed and headlight modes controllers using fuzzy logic. This proposed system consists of a fuzzy logic controller to control a car’s wiper speed and headlight modes. The automatic wiper system detects the rain and its intensity. And, according to the rain intensity, the wiper speed is automatically controlled. Headlight modes automatically changes either from low beam mode to high beam mode or form high beam mode to low beam mode depending on the light intensity from the other vehicle coming from the opposite direction. The system comprises of PIC, impedance sensor, piezoelectric vibration sensor, LDR, headlamps and a DC motor to accurate the windshield wiper. Piezoelectric sensor is used to detect the rain intensity which is based on the piezoelectric effect. MATLAB software is used to achieve the designed goal.

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91-96  



Nway Nway Kyaw Win, Theingi Zin, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: Power quality disturbances (PQDs) result serious problems in the reliability, safety and economy of power system network. In order to improve electric power quality events, the detection and classification of PQDs must be made type of transient fault. Software analysis of wavelet transform with multiresolution analysis (MRA) algorithm and feed forward neural network (probabilistic and multilayer feed forward neural network )based methodology for automatic classification of eight types of PQ signals (flicker, harmonics, sag, swell, impulse, fluctuation, notch and oscillatory) will be presented. The wavelet family, Db4 is chosen in this system to calculate the values of detailed energy distributions as input features for classification because it can perform well in detecting and localizing various types of PQ disturbances. This technique classifies the types of PQDs problem sevents.The classifiers classify and identify the disturbance type according to the energy distribution. The results show that the PNN can analyze different power disturbance types efficiently. Therefore, it can be seen that PNN has better classification accuracy than MLFF.

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Hay Mar Htun, Theingi Zin, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: Text to speech (TTS) synthesis is the automatic conversion of text into speech. Generally, TTS system consists of two phases. The first is text analysis, where the input text is transcribed into a phonetic or some other linguistic representation. The second one is the generation of speech waveforms. In this TTS system, text to phoneme conversion depends on dictionary based approach to get the exact phonetic transcription. Speech synthesis such as domain specific, phoneme based synthesis and unit selection synthesis are used for concatenating speech. For numerical text to speech system, domain specific synthesis is applied. In phoneme based synthesis, the input text is considered as word to produce sound. For input sentence , unit selection speech synthesis is applied. This TTS system is mainly used for visual impairments and handicapped people.

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104-108  



Khawn Nue, Dr. KyawSoe Lwin, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: This thesis describes the design and construction of digital multi-meter using PIC microcontroller. In this system, a typical multi-meter may include features such as the ability to measure AC/DC voltage, DC current, resistance, temperature, diodes, frequency and connectivity. This design uses of the PIC microcontroller, voltage rectifiers, voltage divide, potentiometer, LCD and other instruments to complete the measure. When we used what we have learned of microprocessors and adjust the program to calculate and show the measures in the LCD, keypad selected the modes. The software programming has been incorporated using MPLAB and PROTEUS. In this system, the analogue input is taken directly to the analogue input pin of the microcontroller without any other processing. So the input range is from 0V to 5V the maximum source impedance is 2k5 (for testing use a 1k pot). To improve the circuit adds an op-amp in front to present greater impedance to the circuit under test. The output impedance of the op-amp will be low which a requirement of the PIC analogue input is.

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109-114  



Ankit Kumar Agrawal, Prof. Sivagami M.

Abstract: The amount of images and videos being shared by the user is exponentially increasing but applications that perform video analytics is severely lacking or work on limited set of data. It is also challenging to perform analytics with less time complexity. Object recognition is the primary step in video analytics. We implement a robust method to extract objects from the data which is in unstructured format and cannot be processed directly by relational databases. In this study, we present our report with results after performance evaluation and compare them with results of MATLAB.

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115-118  



Khasanov A.O.

Abstract: The article deals with the formation of the ancient transcontinental road in Uzbekistan, and the problem of the modern restoration.

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119-120  



Sibanda Mavellas, Musungwini Samuel

ABSTRACT: Mobile computing has become an invaluable and inevitable part of teaching and learning in educational institutions globally. Zimbabwean polytechnics are not spared and those institutions that have chosen to integrate mobile computing with existing teaching and learning applications stand to benefit more than their slow and stagnant counterparts. This paper is investigated whether mobile computing is being used in Zimbabwe Polytechnics. It is based mainly on primary research since no particular research has targeted Polytechnics in Zimbabwe and specifically the Polytechnic understudy in this area, thus a survey was conducted and the survey results were used as the main data source. However, secondary research was incorporated to see what other researchers have found in similar topics the world over. This paper identifies the mobile computing hardware technology, software and communication technologies used at the Polytechnic. It then outlines the achievements made in this area and the associated benefits of such achievements. Finally highlights the challenges currently being faced by the polytechnic in implementing mobile computing and the opportunities the institution can exploit by fully utilizing the technology. The main findings of this research were that Zimbabwe polytechnics in general and the polytechnic in particular have adopted usage of mobile computing to enhance their teaching and learning and administrative activities. There are visible and tangible achievements and benefits that have been realized. Opportunities have been identified which the polytechnic can exploit if it fully embraces mobile computing. However there are some challenges hindering the progress in this regard.

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121-125  



Ankita Goswami

Abstarct: Tethering is a concept of sharing of internet of a device with other devices. It’s a low-cost, short-distance, wireless technology which employs the frequency hopping practice in the globally available ISM band to keep away from interference. In the tethering, to form a network, there is a concept of piconet containing master and slaves. These piconets are connected together to establish a big network called scatternet. There are several aspects on which scatternet working depends, like the piconets numbers and bridges, the bridge role, etc. Already established routes consume much more energy for the maintenance hence instead of this, routes can be created on-demand. Thus, consumption can be altered and routes flexibility will inclined. Failover is an another concept that I have included. It’s about transferring one’s control to the other device whenever first device is failed. In this thesis, I have proposed a QoS failover routing that will proficiently form the routes with the QoS desires and will prevent the stoppage of transmission if the transmitting node fails. It will pass its control to another node and allow it to transmit instead of it.

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126-128  



OLANIRAN, H.F

Abstract: Communication is one of the greatest tools necessary for project success in nigerian construction industry. For example, information in the form of drawings, specifications and construction methods must be communicated from one expect to another throughout all the stages of construction. Therefore, all construction project execution required effective communication between construction professionals in all project delivery. This paper examines the role of communication in construction projects. In addition, effects of communication on project construction such as site meetings, annual report, performnce evaluation scheme and work breakdown structure are identified and discussed. It is hoped that these findings will help to eradicate or minimize the problems of communication in the Nigeria’s construction industry.

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129-131  



Bashar Ahmed, M.L. Ben Maȃti, Badreddine Al Mohajir

Abstract—E-CRM (electronic customer relationship management) is a derivation from CRM techniques which influenced direct marketing technology and call Centre to promote massively created products and services to small sub-segments of market. When CRM techniques are incorporated in e-commerce environment it becomes E-CRM which involves building a strong and sustainable customer relationship by using Internet. It is a strategy which is purely based on Internet and software development, it requires to create essential integrated software suite to deal with all kinds of customer related issues like customer services, sales and marketing field support. The essential parts of E-CRM are to focus on building new customer base, segmentation of high valued customers, enhancing the profitability of existing customer and maximize the value and life of profitable customers.

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132-134  



Monika Trivedi, ChetnaAmeta, Meenakshi S. Solanki, RakshitAmetaand Surbhi Benjamin

Abstract: A novel and simple strategy has been used for the preparation of TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with carbon (non-metal) and copper (transition metal) by sol-gel method. The dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated with Cu-C-TiO2 nanocrystalline layer on FTO conductive glass, sensitized with rhodamine B dye. I− / I3 − redox couple was used as liquid electrolyte and carbon (graphite) as counter electrode. The experimental results of rhodamine B sensitized Cu-C-doped TiO2 showed Voc= 101.2 mV, isc= 0.0545 mA, Vpp= 55.9 mV andipp= 0.0496 mA and FF = 0.50. The photo-to-electric power conversion efficiency was 0.004% under 66.0 mWcm-2 light intensity. The undoped andCu-C-TiO2 nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques.

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135-140  



Mohamed M Abuzaid, Rasha Saad, W. Elshami, S. Alyafei

ABSTRACT: The use of digital imaging for the diagnostic purpose has been increased during last few years. This technique has brought advancement in the field of radiography. The effect of digital imaging on workflow has a direct relation with the performance of technologists. Aim: The predestined aim of this study was to analyze the use and influence of digital imaging on the workflow of the radiologists and also to demonstrate the effects on the overall performance of healthcare delivery. Method: A quantitative method of analysis is used in this study and the study instrument consisted of a questionnaire. The questions relates to the effect of digital imaging on workflow and image quality. Total of100 questionnaires were distributed, and 82 of them were retrieved back. The inclusion criteria include healthcare providers who are radiographers, radiologist and radiology nurses. The healthcare providers of all ages, gender, and ethnicity, were included in this study. Results: according to 70.2% of the study participants, digital imaging has reduced the workflow and processes of radiography, whereas, 96.3% of the participants reported that digital imaging technique has improved their clinical performance. Conclusion: It is therefore concluded that digital imaging is a valuable in improving the quality of diagnosis in the field of radiography. Further, it is highly cost-effective, time-saving, digital imaging shows a positive and promising effect on the work practice of radiologists and also provides improved diagnostic results.

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141-144  



Samsul Alam

Abstract: The focus of this study is to seek the relevance for implementing in Information Technology by students in Dhaka University. The research takes into account 50 students studying at different disciplines. The respondents were visited randomly to get the relevant data. The paper applies statistical tools e.g. SPSS on the information received and analyzes the results towards the solution. The result of the study suggests that students’ academic quality and knowledge enhancement have significantly strong relationship with investment in IT. However, the findings of this exploratory study offer insights that the money invested in IT for academic purpose is more advantageous than otherwise be invested especially for those whose academic curriculum mainly decorated in accordance with the modern up-to-date era of Information Technology. On the basis of intellectual interaction between premises and experiences gathered during study, investment on IT will help concerned students understanding how important IT is for their study.

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145-159  



Wallace Agyei, Christian Asare-Darko, Frank Odilon

Abstract: Queues are common sight of many banks in Ghana. The obvious implication of customers waiting in long and winding queues could result to prolonged discomfort and economic cost to them; however increasing the service rate will require additional number of tellers which implies extra cost to management. This study therefore attempts to find the trade-off between minimizing the total economic cost (waiting cost and service cost) and the provision of a satisfactory and reasonably shortest possible time of service to customers, in order to assist management of the bank in deciding the optimal number of tellers needed. Data for this study was collected at the Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd, Kumasi Main Branch for one month through observations, interviews and by administering of questionnaire and was formulated as multi-server single line queuing model. The data was analyzed using TORA optimization Software as well as using descriptive method of analysis. The performance measures of different queuing systems were evaluated and analyzed. The results of the analysis showed using a five teller system was better than a four or a six-teller system in terms of average waiting time and thetotal economic cost, hence the study recommends that, the management should adopt a five teller model to reduce total economic costs and increase customer satisfaction.

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160-163  



Emiri, Ogochukwu T.

Abstract: The present study investigated the influence of some demographic factors which include gender, age, and level of study on the use of online public access catalogue (OPAC) by undergraduate students of two selected universities in Southern Nigeria. These schools include university of Benin, Benin, and Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma both of Edo State, South-South, Nigeria. The descriptive survey method was adopted for this study and the purposive sampling technique was used to select two hundred and eighty three (283) from both institutions. Results revealed that gender, age and level of study had influence on the use of OPAC. Relevant recommendations concerning the influence of these demographic factors were made

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164-169  



Lahmer Mokhtaria

Abstract: After the advent of the assessment reform in North America around the 1980’s, learning became considered as evidence for assessment. This latter came to support learning, adjust learning behavior and improve performance. Portfolio as a learner-centered assessment strategy is based on the philosophy which views assessment as an integral part of instruction. It is a purposeful, multidimensional process of collecting evidence that illustrates a student’s accomplishments, efforts and progress over time. This paper defines portfolio as a self-assessment and self-reflection tool with its various types. It explains its various uses and its main components, along with the main steps of its implementation. At the end, it gives a short description of portfolio’s main points of strength and weaknesses.

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170-172  



Alan jalal Abdulqader

ABSTRACT: In this paper, the basic principle and definitions for nonlinear integral equation of a crisp function over a fuzzy interval have been discussed. a numerical technique method and some algorithm for solving non-linear of crisp valued function over fuzzy interval using the domain and range partitions of the membership functions of the fuzzy interval . the numerical solution of the crisp function over the fuzzy interval using the LR-type representation of fuzzy interval. Some numerical examples are prepared to show the efficiency and accuracy of the methods

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173-182  



Oseweuba Valentine Okoro,

Abstract: Recent concerns over global warming as well as other well documented environmental impacts which arise from the utilisation of fossil fuels has led to intensified investigations to identify possible energy alternatives. These investigations sought to establish the feasibility of alternative energy sources to meet not only the increasing demand requirement but ultimately facilitate the realisation of the hypothetical ‘Zero net Carbon’ pollution target. However, while energy and environment enthusiasts consistently insist on the viability of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) as a conduit for meeting energy demand without compromising the need for sustainability, deciding which RET or indeed combination of RETs will be most appropriate based on the existing economic, legal as well as environmental framework remains a realistic challenge. This investigation therefore attempted to present a decision making process that will consider the four criteria inputs widely recognised as requirements for sustainable development. The RETs where subsequently evaluated via the consideration of these criteria as the only requirement for RET selection assuming the region under consideration was independent of the grid or a fossil fuel generator. The approach employed therefore presented a valid method for an initial and basic appraisal of RETs in the development of sustainable energy systems, with the defining assumption being that the technical indicator incorporated the ability of the RET to meet the primary load. A preferential ranking was finally achieved via the utilisation of simple matrix models thus facilitating the development of a theoretical basis for the practical implementation of the most appropriate RET.

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183-190  



Aarja Kaur, Jyoteesh Malhotra

Abstract: Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is a new communication paradigm creating a network on wheels. Communication between the vehicles provides for various safety and comfort applications. VANET is characterized by features like number of nodes, varying topology, constrained and high speed movement of nodes. All these features make routing in VANETs a crucial issue. This paper compares popular proactive, reactive and hybrid protocols in infrastructure less environments as availability of an infrastructure is not ubiquitous. Intensive simulations are carried out using IEEE 802.11p standard in the presence of realistic propagation model. Behaviour of protocols is studied in different situations by measuring performance in terms of QoS metrics like throughput , Packet delivery ratio (PDR), routing load and end to end delay.

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191-196  



A.D Premarathna, R.P.V.J Rajapakse, E Pathirana, V.P Senaratne, S.C Karunarathna , A.P Jayasooriya

Abstract: The meat of male P.pelagicus(n=3) was analyzed for protein, fat, moisture and ash contents by proximate analysis. The flesh of shark (Caracharhinus spp.)(n= 3),thalapath (Istiophorus spp.)(n= 3) were also analyzed for water-soluble protein content. Peptide-mapping was also carried out for the water-soluble protein fraction of all three types of samples. Moreover,the sub-samples (n=3) of the crab meat samples and commercial fish oil samples (n=3) were also analyzed for fatty acid profile and content, using gas chromatography. The results of proximate analysis revealed a composition of, 89.4±0.072 %( mean ±SE) moisture, 75.7±0.069% protein, 13.0±0.002% ash and 02.2±0.047% fat, in crab meat. The analysis water-soluble fraction revealed species-specific patterns on SDS-PAGE demonstrating greater amounts of myosin heavy chain and fimbrin compared to that of shark and thalapath flesh. As it was expected, a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in crab oil, representing 40.68 % of the total fatty acid content. The fatty acid profile exhibited greater percentages of oleic acid (28.03%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (12.12%) when compared to existing data related to that of commercial fish oil. In conclusion, the study revealed high protein content and a low fat content in the meat of P. pelagicus. The water-soluble protein profile, meat of P. pelagicus could possibly be differentiated by peptide mapping which shows thick bands for the myosin heavy chain (MHC) and fimbrin. Oil of P. pelagicus carries relatively greater amounts of EPA and oleic acid. Thus, the consumption of crabs would help to prevent nutritional deficiencies in the future.

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197-201  



Amritha Thekkumbadan Veetil

Abstract: Encryption is a tool for protecting and securing data. Security provides safety and reliability. As the need for communication is increasing day by day, there comes necessity of encrypting data in-order to ensure a secure communication. This paper presents application of genetic operators in the field of cryptography. As mostly tampering of data occurs in the network, the messages should be protected when it is transmitted through any network. This paper introduces a new encryption technique where the genetic operators ‘crossover’ and ‘mutation’ are used to encrypt messages, so as to protect the data during transmission. The goal is to provide a better encryption technique which is difficult for cryptanalysis.

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202-203  



Elhag A.M.H, Ibrahim M.M.M, Ibrahim S.I, Dafalla M.S

Abstract: Clay mineralogy was studied in the soils of Arid Almanaqil Ridge. The soils are classified according to the American System (Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 2010) in the fallowing families: Fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic, TypicHaplustepts (unit1, sample A1 and A2), Fine, mont, superactive, Isohyperthermic, VerticHaplocambids (unit2, sample A3) and Fine, mont, superactive, isohyperthermic, TypicHaploustert (unit3, sample A4). Representative soil samples were collected from these units. These samples were samples A1 and A2 for unit1, sample A3 for unit 2 and sample A4 for uint3 respectively. Those samples were compared with samples from outside the study area from north of the study area (sample A5 and A6) and from the alluvium of the Blue Nile (sample A7), according to their lithology, topographic position, soil types and soil mapping units. Clay mineralogy of the samples was studied using X-ray diffractograms (XRD) techniques. The XRD diffractograms indicated the presence of smectite, chlorite, illite, and kaolinite as the major clay minerals in the soil of the study area and outside of the study area. The major clay minerals in these soils, Chlorite, illite and kaolinite could have originated from parent material. Smectite, showed an increasing trend in samples A7 (outside of study area) and sample A4 (unit 3). The CEC of clay minerals in unit 1 and 2 were less than 50 Cmol+/kg , which indicated that minerals with low CEC were dominant this result conformed with the XRD results that showed dominance of Chlorite, illite, and Kaolinite. Higher CEC values (more than 50 Cmol+/kg) of the clay were encountered in soils samples from unit3 (A4) and those from outside study area (Sample A7), XRD results showed that the samples were dominated by smectite. Moreover, the CEC values of clay minerals were consistent with results of XRD. The X-ray mineralogy indicated that the Vertisols and Aridisols of the study area had the same origin as that of the Gezira soils.

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204-208  



Defrizal, Sucherly, Yuyun Wirasasmita, Sulaeman Rahman Nidar

Abstract: this study aims to explain determinant factors of sectoral stock return in bullish and bearish condition at Indonesian capital market. This study used a multi-factor asset pricing model with sectoral stock return as the dependent variable and stock market return, interest rates, and exchange rate as independent variables. The Identification of stock market condition by using a Markov Switching Models, which are also used as the basis for segmenting the data into bullish and bearish conditions. Estimates of the model used the robust least square method. This study used data from Indonesian Stock Exchange to the observation period from January 1996 to December 2013. The results of this study were (1) simultaneously, stock market return, interest rates, and exchange rate affected the sectoral stock return in bullish and bearish condition. (2) Partially, the stock market return positively effect and is as a main factor in determining the sectoral stock return in all industries in either bullish condition or bearish condition, while the effect of the interest rates and exchange rate do not consistently affect the sectoral stock return in different industries and market conditions.

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209-214  



Abdullah Al Fahad, Abdur Rahman Al Mahmud, Robel Miah, Ummay Hani Islam

Abstract-The growing complexity of the current market environment needs a more systematic evaluation process that how organizational marketing performance deals with the dynamic market. This paper point out the benefit of marketing audit to deals with systematic evaluation of plans, objectives, strategies, activities and organizational structure as well as marketing staff. Recent study has portrayed a broader conceptualization of effectiveness of using marketing audit. Through this paper we want to bring into focus the broad and different aspects of marketing audit that can help the organization its strength and weakness. The paper suggests that marketing audit should use as a mechanism to evaluate the entire marketing system.

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215-221  



Muhammad Fitriadi, Suriyaman M Pidde, Hj. Nurhayati Abbas, H. Mustafa Bola

Abstract: Purpose of the study is to locate and describe Social Conflict can hinder / delay the execution process. Research conducted Southeast Sulawesi Province. in Kendari and Konawe, the location Chosen for s good, as Provincial growing so much the presence of the resistance of the losers and do not voluntarily accept the decision on the implementation of the Court's decision in executing the decision based on the results that have been legally binding , Social conflicts can postpone the execution is a process conducted by the losing party which does not implement the decision voluntarily so that efforts by the Court in the form of forced execution of the disputed objects involving a group of group / community or the mass to deter obstruct the process of execution in order to delay its implementation. The essence of forceful measures that should be implemented as it relates to the fairness of the search for justice through litigation, resulting from forceful measures sparked a riot / mass resistance / conflict that often occurs in practice. A source of conflict / clash is due; Lack of legal knowledge and legal awareness is low, where in fact there are some members of the public who do not voluntarily hand over the object in the case that has been broken off and has had permanent legal force, dissatisfaction with the loser of the final decision of the judge who then anger, realized through process execution. And the potential for conflict in execution, namely; The potential for conflict in a person or group of people, the potential for conflict due to the sense of injustice of execution carried District Court, The existence of potential conflicts due to expropriation of property rights violations in execution by the District Court.

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222-233  



Getahun Degu, Fitsum Alemayehu, Shiferaw Mekonen, Daniel Abachew

Abstract: This survey provides primary information on the current status of bean seed systems with the objective of assessing haricot bean varieties adopted in the study area and the informal seed systems maintaining seed quality for participating and non-participating farmers and their adoption rate of improved bean varieties is more than 90% with the approach of using partner NGOs and this has significantly increase their production and productivity to improve their livelihood.

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234-237  



Dr. Mahmoud Mohammed, Dr. Asma Abdul Rahman, Ali Rashid Salim Al-Yaaqoubi

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238-240  



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CURRENT PUBLICATIONS
ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2017 - Volume 6 Issue 1