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IJSTR Volume 5 - Issue 6, June 2016 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Khater Aldoshan

This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles, and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper, many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also, this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce, and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry, creativity is an essential component of the job description, and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.

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1-4  



Nguyen K. Q. Trung

Accounting faculty of universities in Vietnam takes an important role in the training of human resources for the society in the field of accounting, auditing and taxation. All professors and lecturers who teaching in those faculties have participated in editing and changing the accounting curricular in order to meet the needs of the market labor and requirements of new internationally professional standards. The integration of professional ethics into the curriculum has raised the concern of many universities not only in Vietnam but also in the world. This paper presents the study on teaching and learning of professional ethics at Faculty of Accounting and Auditing of Banking University of HCMC. The results of the study do highlight some recommendations for improving the contents of courses used for the teaching and learning accounting effectively. The research is presented in this paper as follows: a short literature review and then the methodology of interviewing the professors in accounting fields who have the best experiences in education of accounting. Also, students who are studying accounting course will be interviewed. In addition to, content Analysis research methods and a case study approach are used to investigate the whether it is necessary for teaching and learning of Professional Ethics in accounting at Banking University of HCMC. The paper aims to answer the following questions: (i) Should ethics be taught in accounting classes at universities? (ii) How professional ethics has been taught and learned: as a separate course or integration into different accounting and auditing courses?

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5-10  



Alfian

This study aimed to examine the theoretical impact leadership styles on the quality of management information systems. Several approaches of leadership styles theory is used to explain of how the impact on the quality of management information systems. In order to measure the impact of leadership styles on the quality of management information systems can be seen from the way or behavior or styles of leadership in influencing subordinates with several approaches including: (1) Trait theory of leadership; (2) Contingency theory of leadership; (3) Path-goal theory of leadership; (4) Transformational and transactional theories of leadership. The results achieved in the context of the management information system of leadership is leadership can influence subordinates (users) systems achieve effective performance, namely the presence of a situation where the user system implementing quality management information system to produce quality information

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11-15  



Leena Philip

The research paper mainly focuses on how the reader react to a particular recipe or food blog and what kind of a feedback do they give- suggestive, positive or negative. The aim of the research is to find out how many people actually read the blogs and give necessary feedback, be it positive, negative or anything suggestive. The time frame for this research is considered to be two months.

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16-18  



Jacinta S. Kimuyu

The emergence of computerized medical imaging in early 1970s, which merged with digital technology in the 1980s, was celebrated as a major breakthrough in three-dimensional (3D) medicine. However, a recent South African innovation, the high speed scanning Lodox Statscan Critical Digital Radiology modality, posed challenges in X-ray photogrammetry due to the system’s intricate imaging geometry. The study explored the suitability of the Direct Linear Transformation as a method for the determination of 3D coordinates of targeted points from multiple images acquired with the Statscan X-ray system and optimization of the scan range. This investigation was carried out as a first step towards the development of a method to determine the accurate positions of points on or inside the human body. The major causes of errors in three-dimensional point localization using Statscan images were firstly, the X-ray beam divergence and secondly, the position of the point targets above the X-ray platform. The experiments carried out with two reference frames showed that point positions could be established with RMS values in the mm range in the middle axis of the X-ray patient platform. This range of acceptable mm accuracies extends about 15 to 20 cm sideways towards the edge of the X-ray table and to about 20 cm above the table surface. Beyond this range, accuracy deteriorated significantly reaching RMS values of 30mm to 40 mm. The experiments further showed that the inclusion of control points close to the table edges and more than 20 cm above the table resulted in lower accuracies for the L - parameters of the DLT solution than those derived from points close to the center axis only. As the accuracy of the L - parameters propagates into accuracy of the final coordinates of newly determined points, it is essential to restrict the space of the control points to the above described limits. If one adopts the usual approach of surrounding the object by known control points, then the limited space with an acceptable accuracy potential for the L - terms would not be large enough to enclose an adult human body surrounded by suitably positioned control points. This shortcoming can be overcome by making use of two further observations made in the course of this investigation. These observations were firstly, that the best image orientation angles are 00 and 400 to 600, and secondly, that no significant improvement could be achieved when using more than two images. This observation contradicts the theory of adjustment and observations, and can be investigated in further research. The possible observation method deduced from this is as follows: First, a frame with well distributed control points with accurate 3D coordinates and of approximately the size of a human body is placed on the X-ray table and imaged with the X-ray beam in the 0 degree position. This makes it possible to determine L - parameters for this ray orientation; 2. The frame is removed; the patient is positioned in the control space; and an X-ray image of the patient is taken 3. The X-ray source is rotated to a new position between 400 and 600 and a second image of the patient is acquired and fourth, the patient is removed and replaced by the frame. A final image of the frame is now acquired. Steps 1 and 4 serve to determine the L-parameters for the two X-ray source positions, while steps 2 and 3 provide the image coordinates of the required object points on or inside the patient’s body. This approach can only then result in accurate point positions, if the patient remains motionless for the duration of steps 2 and 3. An alternative to this observation design would be simultaneous imaging from two X-ray sources, one with 00 orientations and the other with an orientation between 400 and 600.

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19-25  



Elimasni, Dwi Suryanto, Rosmayati, Luthfi A.M.Siregar

The aim of the research was to acquire resistance callus of Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) which was applied by UV-B radiation against the antrachnose disease. The study was designed by Factorial randomized design, consisting of two factors: UV-B light power; 10, 20 and 30 watts, and exposure time 30, 60 and 90 seconds. The Colletorichum filtrate added into medium (25-125 ppm) as resistant selection. Callus gained by selection were analyzed by peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity changing. Analysis of both enzymes activity showed decreased of protein levels at all samples. But after selection of Colletorichum filtrate, both enzymes showed increasing of theirs protein levels. The samples after selection showed more tolerant against filtrate compared to control, the highest value obtained in the treatment of UV-B radiation of 20 watts and exposure time of 30 seconds for peroxidase and 20 watt and 60 seconds for polyphenoloxidase. The lowest protein content for both enzyme found on control treatments.

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26-30  



Nyan Phyo Aung, Zaw Min Naing, Mo Mo Myint Wai, Hla Myo Tun

Wireless networked control systems (WNCS) are attracting an increasing research interests in the past decade. Wireless networked control system (WNCS) is composed of a group of distributed sensors and actuators that communicate through wireless link which achieves distributed sensing and executing tasks. This is particularly relevant for the areas of communication, control and computing where successful design of WNCS brings about new challenges to the researchers. The primary motivation of this survey paper is to examine the design issues, and to provide directions for successful simulation and implementation of WNCS. The paper also as well reviews some simulation tools for such systems.

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31-35  



Than Htike Aung, Su Su Yi Mon, Chaw Myat Nwe, Zaw Min Naing, HLa Myo Tun

The evolution of wireless sensor network technology leads to develop advanced systems for real-time monitoring. Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a major technology that drives the development of precision agriculture.By forming wireless sensor network,agricultural practicescan be made good monitoring systems.Various agricultural parameters like soil moisture, temperature, and humidity are monitored by monitoring units.The paper explains about how to utilize thesensors in agricultural practices and explains about routing protocols of wireless sensor network. In this paper, agricultural parameter of temperature will monitor with the use of LEACH protocol.

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36-40  



Aung Bhone Myint, Kyaw Soe Lwin, Hla Myo Tun

A data logger based on 8051 microcontroller has been implemented in this project to measure the solar radiation, temperature and charging current. Development of a low-cost data logger can easily be made and easily be used to convert the analog signal of physical parameters of various test or other purposes of engineering. By using a suitable program code it can be used to read the value digitally with a PC. Our aim is to provide with a module and a software package when installed in a computer, one can remotely acquire and monitor several numbers of the same or different types of signals sequentially at a time. Signals obtained from various sensors have been effectively conditioned. Now interfacing these signals using ADC with the Bluetooth module port of a computer satisfies the very goal of data acquisition. Proposed system provides better performance and has low cost, versatile, portable.

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41-42  



Hninn Nandar Aye, Aye Thin Naing, Hla Myo Tun

The visually impaired people need some aid to walk and move safety in their surroundings. The ordinary people cannot know how hard it is to live and move in daily life for the blindness, the visually impaired people and the old person who has poor vision. Although the sighted people cannot help the blindness to regain the eyesight, the visually impaired one can try to make easier the daily routine by using the assistive device that can detect the obstacles near the blindness and the visually impaired people, and warn the alert to the users before accidence. This assistive device like walking stick contains ultrasonic sensors, PIC microcontroller (Peripheral Interface Controller), LDR, vibrator, servo motor, buzzer and LED. Ultrasonic sensors are used for sensing and detecting the obstacles near the user to avoid the dangerous condition. Vibrator and buzzer are used for providing the alert to know that the obstacle is near. Servo motor is used for turning the wheel easily without effort. LDR and LED is used for lighting in low light room and at night to know the ordinary or sighted people where the walking stick is, so, this assistive device will be safe from the other people’s hit.

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43-48  



Htet Wai Kyu, Lu Maw, Hla Myo Tun

For road safety, traffic sign is essential for drivers by giving valuable safety and navigation information, pedestrians and even for the development of autonomous driver assistance system. Traffic sign can be classified by two methods can be approached. First approach is color base segmentation which is the region of traffic sign by using HSV color space (Hue, Saturation and Value) and the next approach is shape base segmentation using Hough Circle Detection. In thissystem, we use circle shape base detection for every traffic sign. At first, keypoints descriptor is extracted from each standard traffic sign image in database and then keypoints descriptor is taken from region of traffic sign extracted from Hough circle detection. After that, the nearest distance is matched keypoints descriptor between in each standard traffic sign image in database and extracted traffic sign image.

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49-52  



Kee Moe Han, Theingi Zin, Hla Myo Tun

Music is the combination of melody, linguistic information and the vocalist’s emotion. Since music is a work of art, analyzing emotion in music by computer is a difficult task. Many approaches have been developed to detect the emotions included in music but the results are not satisfactory because emotion is very complex. In this paper, the evaluations of audio features from the music files are presented. The extracted features are used to classify the different emotion classes of the vocalists. Musical features extraction is done by using (Music Information Retrieval) MIR tool box in this paper. The database of 100 music clips are used to classify the emotions perceived in music clips. Music may contain many emotions according to the vocalist’s mood such as happy, sad, nervous, bored, peace etc. In this paper, the audio features related to the emotions of the vocalists are extracted to use in emotion recognition system based on music.

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53-56  



Khin Moe Myint, Zaw Min Min Htun, Hla Myo Tun

The more increase the number of industries in developing countries, the more require labourers or workers in that. To reduce the cost of labour force and to increase the manufacturing capacity of industries, the advanced robot arms are more needed. The aim of this journal is to eliminate the manual control for object sorting system.Robot arm design in this research uses two joints, three links and servo motors to drive. Microcontroller is used to generate required PWM signal for servo motors. In this research the position control of robot arm was designed by using kinematic control methods. There are two types of kinematic control methods which are forward and reverse kinematic methods. In forward kinematic method, the input parameters are the joint angles and link length of robot arm and then the output is the position at X,Y,Z coordinate of tool or gripper. In inverse kinematic, the input parameters are position at X,Y,Z coordinate of gripper and the link length of robot arm and then the output parameters are the joint angles. So, kinematic methods can explain the analytical description of the geometry motion of the manipulator with reference to a robot coordinate system fixed to a frame, without consideration of the forces or the moments causing the movements. For sorting system, Metal detector is used to detect the metal or non-metal. This position control of pick and place robot arm is fully tested and the result is obtained more precisely.

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57-61  



Khin Su Myat Min, Zaw Myo Lwin, Hla Myo Tun

We demonstrate serial-to-parallel conversion of 40 Gbps optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) signal to 4x10 Gbps wavelength division-multiplexed (WDM) individual channels by using Optical Fourier Transformation (OFT) method. OFT is also called time lens technique and it is implemented by the combination of dispersive fiber and phase modulation. In this research, electro-optic phase modulator (EOM) is used as time lens. As our investigations, simulation results and bit error rate (BER) measurements are expressed.

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62-65  



May Thaw Htet, Chaw Myat New, Hla Myo Tun

With the increase in world population and vehicle production, parking spaces and facilities are required. As the numbers of vehicles on the road are increasing day by day, parking problems which are increasing at an alarming rate in every major city cause driver’s frustration, traffic congestion and time wasting, especially during the peak business hours. Lot of researches was being done all over the world to implement better parking management system which reduces parking problems. SPARK (Smart Parking) is parking garage system that utilizes various technologies to implement best parking system. The proposed system is aimed to inform drivers about the number of available parking spaces without any parking difficulties. This system is designed for two- level parking slots with twenty six parking spaces and one aisle on each floor. The condition of parking slots is detected by IR sensors and is reported periodically to main controller via floor controllers and self controllers. PIC 18F4550 is chosen to be used as controllers because it is suitable for the proposed system. Each floor contains LCD display which will show available parking spaces of that floor. LCD display at the entrance gate will show overall available parking slots of two floors. In this paper, a new parking system called Smart Parking system is proposed to help drivers getting the real-time parking information and to find vacant spaces in a car park in a shorter time. This kind of system minimizes not only traffic congestion problems but also staff requirements to control the traffic in the car park.

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66-70  



Mya Su Kyi, Lu Maw, Hla Myo Tun

The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump, manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump on/off when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area falls 21º-58'-30" N Latitude and 96º-5'-0" E Longitude of Mandalay. The PV system sizing was made in such a way that it was capable of irrigation one acre of Asparagus plot with a daily water requirement of 25m³/day.

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71-75  



Nandar Oo, Kyaw Soe Lwin, Hla Myo Tun

This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart is also provided.

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76-79  



Nyi Nyi Lwin, Zaw Myo Lwin, Hla Myo Tun

In this paper, printed rectangular monopole antenna, which is basically printed microstrip patch antenna with partial ground plane, is designed for mobile base station. The substrate FR4 with a relative permittivity of 4.4 and thickness 1.8 is used in design. In addition, the printed monopole antenna is of low profile in appearance and suitable for most application. The proposed antenna can cover GSM1900 (1850¬¬¬-1990 MHz) and UMTS (1920-2170 MHz) bands. Design and simulation processes are carried out with the aid of FEKO software, which is used for the analysis of electromagnetic problems. Simulation results of the return loss, gain, and radiation patterns are presented.

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80-82  



Ohnmar Htwe, Myo Maung Maung, Hla Myo Tun

Wireless communication is the most popular in these days. Recently, people are trying to use the wireless communication systems in home appliances. In this system that is designed and development of a water level conditioning system using wireless, which is being used to control the water distribution system. The development system based on the wireless RF (Radio Frequency) technology which can be installed in industries, departments, domestics and so on. The level controller is used with ultrasonic sensors to sense the level of water in the tanks and a reservoir. The system used microcontrollers,thesecontrollers have the ability to detect the level of water in a Tank1, Tank2 and a Reservoir, and then display the status of water on LCD screen, and moreover the buzzer will be work depending on the condition of water level in a reservoir. The main objectives of this paper are to design and develop a wireless water level conditioning system using point-to-multi-point RF communication technology. It is reliable because it has no problems arising after installation such as a breakage of wire.

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83-87  



Paing Soe Oo, Zaw Myo Tun, Hla Myo Tun

Mobile phones are widely used nowadays, for different application such as wireless control and monitoring due to its availability and ease of use. The implemented system is based on "global system mobile (GSM)" network by using "short message service (SMS)". The design mainly contains a GSM modem and Arduino Uno. In this work, the system will be described how to manage and control home appliances using mobile phone, people can use this system to do things in their home from a far place before they reach home. For instance, user may control/manage his/her home lighting, door or water pump which needed in daily life in different area (House, Office, or factory, etc.) when they are away from home. The user can check the condition in the home that light is on or off, door is locked or unlocked, water pump is on or off and so on. If the time taken for this appliances to perform a task is known that can also be set, so that if the time elapsed the appliance will automatically switch off itself. The control is done by sending a specific SMS messages from smart phone to a SIM900 and Arduino Uno which is connected to the appliance, once the message is received the SIM 900 will send the command to a microcontroller in Arduino for controlling the appliance appropriately. Also feedback status of three devices can be requested in designed system.

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88-91  



Phyo Thant Thant Aung, Aung Soe Khaing, Hla Myo Tun

Various image segmentation methods are widely used for finding diseases and illness. Detection of any kind of brain tumors from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very important for radiologists and image processing researchers. This paper described a segmentation method based on region based active contour model using level set approach to be useful for region of interest (ROI) based image compression system. The brain tumors (ROI) may be anywhere in MR brain images. The aim of this paper is to segment an image into non-intersecting regions, region of interest and other than region of interest and background for region based medical image compression system. In this system, the initial mask is firstly created. The initial curve can be anywhere in the images and interior contours are automatically detected. This method performs two main steps, curve evolution and segmenting process. Curve evolution is done by using level set method and active contour model segments the region. The proposed method is applied on the different weighted MR brain images and this method is found to be very convenient for segmenting the region around ROI is wanted.

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92-97  



Sai Thu Rein Htun, Su Su Yi Mon, Hla Myo Tun

This paper is to implement monitoring and access control system based on RFID and Zigbee technology, which can be used at Parliamentary Campus. Nowadays, RFID technology is widely used for access control system because it is cheap, waterproof and easy to use as well as it contains unique EPC (electronic protect code) .In addition, Zigbee wireless module is cost-effective and can be reliable for security. So,this system consists of RFID tag, RFID reader, Arduino Uno and Zigbee. This system can also be used for industrial & commercial and security HVAC closures. This paper describes the results of point-to-point connection and point-to-multipoint connection using Zigbee and RFID technology.

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98-101  



Su Zin Zin Win, Zaw Min Min Htun, Hla Myo Tun

Technology is always evolves. Home security is essential for occupants’ convenience and protection. Security systems are being preferred over manual system. With the rapid increase in the number of users of internet over the past decade has made Internet a part and parcel of life, and IoTs is the latest and emerging internet technology. Home Appliances Control of Smart Security System using IoTs uses computers or mobile devices to control basic home functions and features through internet from anywhere around the world. This security system differs from other system by allowing the user to operate the system from anywhere around the world through internet connection. With the implementation of Arduino Mega microcontroller as an Embedded device, security system design was constructed with many sensors and web server database. The Arduino Ethernet shield is used to eliminate the use of a personal computer (PC). The motion sensing circuit, temperature and humidity sensing circuit, smoke or gas sensing circuit, door lock sensing circuit, light on/off circuit were designed to be connected with Arduino Mega microcontroller and Ethernet shield. This system can monitor the temperature and humidity values and the state of some sensors for intruder detection. It can also control the electric appliances like lights and door at home. Real time result was displayed on web server page via the internet.

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102-107  



Thandar Nwet Htun, Aung Soe Khaing, Hla Myo Tun

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphical record of bioelectrical signal generated by the human body during cardiac cycle. The duration, slope and amplitude between characteristic points of ECG signal are important for diagnosing of heart problems. In this paper, onset points of Q and P waves are detected for automatic diagnosis. These two points are critical points to get the important parameters such as PR_interval, PR segment, QRS complex and QT interval for analysing of ECG signal for medical doctors. Pan Tompkins algorithm is used for accurate detection of R peak position in normal ECG signal. In this paper, characteristic points of normal ECG signal are detected to provide the information of heart diseases.

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108-112  



Yee Nwe Htun,Chaw Myat New, Hla Myo Tun

Mobile health care is to provide health care services to anyone at anytime, overcoming the constraints of place, time and character.A huge number of people are suffering from Alzheimer’s disease or mental,chronically ill andCardiac disease. Moreover,Elderly increase gradually and they are only staying in their home.So,Patients can feel lonely and they are spare-men.But,the patient who use these system can get immediate medical attention, use their times outside freely and work for their family as much as they can and they feel more confident than the past.This system is designed heart rate puse sensor,GPS receiver and accelerometer sensor which are included in the patient’s senor node.And then, the smart phone analyses in real-time sensor’s data and determines whether the person needs external help or not.Moreover.it can automatically send current location andmedical information as a message topre- assigned people who could be the patient's family and friends, and call the ambulance of the emergency centre when a patient is faced in emergency condition.It also acts as the personal health information system and the psychological data ferom the patient store into mobile database.

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113-116  



Zar Ni Tun, Aye Thin Naing, Hla Myo Tun

This research paper describes a microcontroller based battery charger by using solar energy. Solar-powered charging systems are already available in rural as well as urban areas. Solar energy is widely used around the worldwide. This system converts solar energy to electrical energy and stores it in a battery. Photovoltaic panel is used to convert solar energy to electrical energy and stored in a 12V battery. Battery is the main component in solar charging system to store the energy generated from sunlight for various application. This system requires sensor to sense whether the battery is fully charged or not. Microcontroller is the heart of the circuit. Lead-acid batteries are the most commonly used power source for many applications. This system consists of voltage sensing, charging, controlling and display unit.

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117-120  



Zaw Htet Lwin, Su Su Yi Mon, Hla Myo Tun

This paper presents a compact planar inverted–F antenna (PIFA) design for WLAN operation in portable devices. The proposed design has size of 8 x 21 mm and provides peak directive gain of 5.78dBi with the peak return loss of -33.89dB and input impedance of 50.28Ω. It covers a 10dB return loss bandwidth of 410MHz (2.37GHz – 2.789GHz). Its VSWR varies from 1.96 to 1.93 within the antenna return loss bandwidth. As the dimension of the proposed antenna is very small, the antenna is promising to be embedded within the different portable devices employing Wi–Fi applications. This paper includes the return loss as a function of frequency with varying the different parameters, VSWR, input resistance, radiation pattern and current distribution of the proposed antenna.

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121-124  



Hnin Nu Thaung, Zaw Myo Tun, Hla Myo Tun

The use of smart home technology in the home or building offers significant potential for energy savings. In this paper, an energy management system based on wireless sensor networks. The proposed system is composed of two main components: a wireless sensor network and monitoring terminal. Wireless sensors are used for sensing and transmitting electricity data and remote monitoring and control of appliances are provided to users through computer. The system enables users to save energy by monitoring and controlling appliances through terminal. This paper gives an overview of sensor technology and wireless networks in the development of an intelligent energy management system for buildings. This technology has ample potential to change the way live and work. ZigBee is used as a communication medium in building intelligent energy management system in this paper. From the prototype setup, it is shown that ZigBee is a suitable technology to be adopted as the communication infrastructure in energy management system for buildings .The proposed system can be installed and maintained in residential environments with ease.

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125-129  



Lei Lei Hnin , U Zaw Min Min Htun, Hla Myo Tun

This research paper describes the fuzzy logic temperature control system of the induction furnace. Temperature requirement of the heating system varies during the heating process. In the conventional control schemes, the switching losses increase with the change in the load. A closed loop control is required to have a smooth control on the system. In this system, pulse width modulation based power control scheme for the induction heating system is developed using the fuzzy logic controller. The induction furnace requires a good voltage regulation to have efficient response. The controller controls the temperature depending upon weight of meat, water and time. This control system is implemented in hardware system using microcontroller. Here the fuzzy logic controller is designed and simulated in MATLAB to get the desire condition.

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130-134  



It Nun Thiang, Dr.LuMaw, Hla Myo Tun

This paper presents a simple and effective vision-based algorithm for autonomous object tracking of a low-cost AR.Drone quadrotor for moving ground and flying targets. The Open-CV is used for computer vision to estimate the position of the object considering the environmental lighting effect. This is also an off-board control as the visual tracking and control process are performed in the laptop with the help of Wi-Fi link. The information obtained from vision algorithm is used to control roll angle and pitch angle of the drone in the case using bottom camera, and to control yaw angle and altitude of the drone when the front camera is used as vision sensor. The experimental results from real tests are presented.

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135-139  



San Myint, Aung Soe Khaing, Hla Myo Tun

The image processing techniques are very useful for many applications such as biology, security, satellite imagery, personal photo, medicine, etc. The procedures of image processing such as image enhancement, image segmentation and feature extraction are used for fracture detection system.This paper uses Canny edge detection method for segmentation.Canny method produces perfect information from the bone image. The main aim of this research is to detect human lower leg bone fracture from X-Ray images. The proposed system has three steps, namely, preprocessing, segmentation, and fracture detection. In feature extraction step, this paper uses Hough transform technique for line detection in the image. Feature extraction is the main task of the system. The results from various experiments show that the proposed system is very accurate and efficient.

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140-144  



Su Myat Paing, Su Su Yi Mon, Hla Myo Tun

The most unwanted thing to happen to a road user is road accident. Most of the fatal accidents occur due to over speeding. Faster vehicles are more prone to accident than the slower one. Among the various methods for detecting speed of the vehicle, object detection systems based on Radar have been replaced for about a century for various purposes like detection of aircrafts, spacecraft, ships, navigation, reading weather formations and terrain mapping. The essential feature in adaptive vehicle activated sign systems is the accurate measurement of a vehicle’s velocity. The velocities of the vehicles are acquired from a continuous wave Doppler radar. A very low amount of power is consumed in this system and only batteries can use to operate. The system works on the principle of Doppler Effect by detecting the Doppler shift in microwaves reflected from a moving object. Since, the output of the sensor is sinusoidal wave with very small amplitude and needs to be amplified with the help of the amplifier before further processing. The purpose to calculate and display the speed on LCD is performed by the microcontroller.

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145-148  



Yin Mar Win Kyaw Myo Maung Maung, Hla Myo Tun

This system is an attempt to analyze Intelligent Driver Alert System Using CAN Protocol. CAN (Controller Area Network) offer an efficient communication protocol among sensors, actuators, controllers, and other nodes in real-time applications, and is known for its simplicity, reliability, and high performance. It has given an effective way by which can increase the car and driver safety. This system presents the development and implementation of a digital driving system for a semi-autonomous vehicle to improve the driver-vehicle interface using microcontroller based data acquisition system that uses ADC to bring all control data from analog to digital format. In this system, the signal information like temperature (LM35 sensor) if the temperature increase above the 60 o C and ultrasonic sensor is adapted to measure the distance between the object and vehicle, if obstacle is detected within 75cm from the vehicle, the controller gives buzzer to the driver, speed measure using RPM sensor if revolution increase up to 1200 per minute controller act and to avoid the maximum revolution and to check the fuel level continuously and display in the percentage if fuel level below 20 percent the controller also gives buzzer to the driver and distance, fuel level and temperature continuously display on the LCD.

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149-153  



Ahmadi Aidi

Efficient information systems when using fewer resources or minimal in achieving organizational goals are expected. Effective information system capable of completing the organization's objectives. Audit information systems necessary to know the needs of users, whether it is in line with the preparation of the decision-making process

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154-158  



Jade Ballado Tan, Korina Pinca-Legaspi

Student organizations manage their own funds and are given the autonomy and responsibility to spend these funds as the organization sees fit within the confines of university policies. A healthy financial structure is an important factor in student organization success and sustainability. Solid fiscal management creates a framework that allows organizations to work proactively to accomplish their goals and serve their communities with financially sustainable events and program. This study aimed at identifying the profile of the student organizations in terms of type, registration, and functions and designations of officers and advisers, also identify the financial practices of student organizations in terms of managing their finances, as well the problems encountered by student organizations in terms of financial management, and eventually come up with a student organization financial manual. A descriptive survey research design was used and with the aid of the questionnaire data were gathered through purposive sampling technique from the 47 student leaders and advisers of the different organizations of the University of Eastern Philippines. Data gathered were analyzed through frequency, mean and percentages. Findings of this study showed that almost all of the organizations have existing constitution and by-laws, however in terms of the functions of officers and advisers, the results revealed that some functions were not done by the officers who are suppose to do it. Generally, the financial practices of the organizations were considered to be excellent especially budgeting and cash receipts, but there are still important aspects that needs improvement and emphasis for a better financial management system. It was also revealed that the major concern of the organizations is the lack or absence of internal control policy manual and lack of proper turn-over of financial documents from the previous set of officers. The researchers conclude that the absence of the internal control policy manual resulted to lack of clear delineation of functions of the officers therefore violating the segregation of duties principle which is a key concept in an effective internal control system. Moreover, the financial management system of the student organizations could still be improved especially on the aspect of cash disbursements and recordkeeping if the officers are provided with adequate training and guidance.

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159-164  



Balgaeva Sh. A.

The given paper examines the problem of rural architecture and design as well as proposals for their further development.

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165-167  



Annisa Fitri Anggraeni

The aim of this research is to find out the correlation between Information Technology and Management Information System Quality. This research applies literature review from various theories and previously conducted research, where controversies between Information Technology and Management Information Systems. The result of this research shows that Information Technology is a part of Management Information System and supports the performance of Management Information Systems.

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168-172  



Ighodaro Ehika J, Lucas F.A, Imasuen O.I, Omodolor Hope E

One hundred and thirty six (136) side wall core samples gotten from the well were subjected to lithological description with the aim of determining the various lithofacies and hydrocarbon play elements in the well. Physical characteristics such as colour, texture, hardness, fissility, shapes/roundness of rock were noted. Four major lithofacie were typified by the lithologic model, they include; sandstone, shale, sandy shale and shaly sand respectively. The sedimentary succession penetrated reveals Eighty eight (88) lithozones from bottom to top. Mineralogical assemblages present are iron and mica. The lithologic model of the sedimentary succession penetrated reveals nineteen (19) potential petroleum reservoir rocks, Twenty three (23) potential source rocks and fifteen (15) caprocks. Lithozone - The probable reservoir rocks occupy Lithozones: 2, 3, 7, 9, 10, ,13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 27, 29, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 39, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55 56, 58, 62, 72, 86.; and potential source rocks occupy Lithozones: 1, 4, 5, 8, 11, 12, 14, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 31, 34, 40, L 49, 53, 57, 59, 60, 63, 65, 67, 71, 73, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 83, 85, 87, 88. The environment of deposition penetrated was parallic environment with the intercalation of sand and shale.

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173-183  



Eric Awere, K. B Micah Edu-Buandoh

Developing countries are faced with the problem of improper treatment and disposal of human excreta due to the use of unimproved sanitation systems. In an attempt to increase access to sanitation facilities, many governments have adopted public latrines. Field experience has shown that public latrines have the problem of high usage rate and the use of non-degradable anal cleansing materials leading to the filling up of the pits much faster than their design life. This research, therefore seeks to assess the usage and management practices excreta degradation and desludging rate of public dry on-site sanitation systems in the Cape Coast Metropolis. Thirteen (13) public Ventilated Improved Pit latrines located in the Cape Coast metropolis were selected. Structured interview was conducted to determine the usage rate, desludging frequency and user practices of the public latrines. The results show that the usage rate of public dry latrines in the Cape Coast metropolis is low (9 – 25 persons/squat hole) but the desludging rate is high (7 – 120 days). The high desludging frequency is attributed to the addition of non – biodegradable materials and less microbial activity due to the excessive use of disinfectants.

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184-189  



Aminath Adeela, Dr. Kay Seur

Under nutrition is a direct consequence of poverty with its’ characteristics of low socio-economic status, poor living conditions, poor maternal education, large family size, inadequate access to quality food, safe water and health services. Recently, there have been significant improvements in the overall health of the Maldivian population with an increase in life expectancy and a decline in maternal and infant mortality rates. However, infant under nutrition is still a concern. Field testing of WHO growth standards in 2006 in Maldives indicated that more than one third of children under five years were stunted and that children classified as tall hardly reach the WHO standard for mean height. Examining maternal characteristics that may contribute to under nutrition in Maldivian children will assist in designing/implementing population based public health interventions aimed at improving infant and childhood nutrition. This study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Maldives Demographic Health Survey (MDHS) 2009. The study results showed that height for age z-score was lowest from ages 6 to 29 months. Factors significantly associated with the rate of stunting included: size of child at birth, height of the mother, duration of breastfeeding, difficulties in obtaining money needed for medical help for mother, absence of a health service provider when obtaining medical help for mother, after adjusting for socio-economic factors.

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190-200  



Motab Raja Aljohani

America currently witnesses many healthcare challenges. One of those challenges is the rising rate of obesity. As a health risk obesity imposes both social and economic problems, as it involves high treatment costs and results in productivity loss in the labor market. Obesity also leads to many other health issues, such as blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, which in turn increases risks for the nation overall. To deal with the issue, the US government has incorporated various interventions to control obesity, which focuses on motivating people to adopt effective dietary practices and be physically active. The government has also implemented structured and all-inclusive healthcare policies, covering all spheres of the community, including schools, local communities and workplaces to lessen health risks associated with obesity. However, these policies have been criticized for being less effective in reducing healthcare costs along with other procedural loopholes, which demand further research in the field along with steps to resolve the limitations.

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201-203  



Syawaluddin S, Chandra Fajri Ananda, Asfi Manzilati, Arif Hoetoro

This study aimed to uncover the rational agent behavioral characteristics and dynamics of the relationship between the principal agent contract of zakah among muzakki (zakah payers), amil of zakah (zakah committee) and mustahik (zakah recipients) in zakah institution called Indonesia National Zakah Institution (BAZNAS INDONESIA). The research site is BAZNAS INDONESIA and the unit of analysis is the interaction of individuals in the governance process of zakah conducted by amil of zakah , muzakki and mustahik. This research uses descriptive analysis method with qualitative approach, data analysis methods used in this research is descriptive qualitative. Research results revealed that 1) the contractual relationships zakat between the institution of zakah (as amil) with the public (as muzakki) basically aims to improve adherence of Muslims to Allah and to improve the efficiency of the governance of zakat, 2) norms and cultural values appear to be more prevalent than economic value in the control mechanism, 3) Rationality is awakened in the organization is a form of mental constructs of agent that is based on social experience that is local and specific.

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204-210  



Fredrick Ojija, Hudson Laizer

This study was carried out to assess the water quality of Nzovwe stream using macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. Biological monitoring working party (BMWP) scoring system was the index used to assess the ecosystem health of Nzovwe stream. A total of 584 aquatic macroinvertebrates were identified from Nzovwe stream. They belonged to 22 families. The most abundant taxa were Odonata (35.959%), Hemiptera (25.514%), Coleoptera (18.493%), and Diptera (12.842%). Whereas the least abundant taxa were Ephemeroptera and Gastropoda, each constituting 1.028% of all macroinvertebrates. The most abundant macroinvertebrates were Dragonflies (27.226%), Water striders (13.185%), and Creeping water bugs (10.274%), whereas the least abundant were Giant water bugs (0.514%) and Backswimmers (0.514%). The BMWP score of Nzovwe stream was 115. Based on this score, the water of Nzovwe stream is neither very clean nor significantly altered aquatic environment. Hence the Nzovwe stream is moderately polluted due to non-point source pollution from several sources. Moreover, it was found that agricultural activities, washing and bathing could alter physico-chemical parameters of the stream and hence changing the abundance of macroinvertebrates as well as the quality of water. This study, therefore, recommends that the source of pollutants should be controlled and the stream regularly monitored by the relevant authorities. Additionally, biological indicators and their indices are suggested to be used in assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem.

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211-222  



Mohammad Esmail Ahmad, Ali Jalal Hussian, Monem A. Mohammed

The instability in the world (and OPEC) oil process results from many factors through a long time. The problems can be summarized as that the oil exports don’t constitute a large share of N.I. only, but it also makes up most of the saving of the oil states. The oil prices affect their market through the interaction of supply and demand forces of oil. The research hypothesis states that the movement of oil prices caused shocks, crises, and economic problems. These shocks happen due to changes in oil prices need to make a prediction within the framework of economic planning in a short run period in order to avoid shocks through using computer techniques by time series models.

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223-230  



Mahbub Ullah Miyan, Abdus Salam, Md. Nuruzzaman, Sanjida Naznin

Environment pollution has become one of the biggest concerns for the educational institutions in Bangladesh. Thinking not yet starts that environmental pollution has a connection with educational institutions which requires investment. Educational institutions are paying huge amount of money in order to clean the academic atmosphere. Due to unawareness and unconsciousness, the environment of the institutions campus continuously polluting in many ways. This paper provides an outline of how different environmental pollution occurred in the educational institutions, costs to minimize that pollution and finding some ways to improve it.

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231-234  



Abdullah Almutairi

The effects of OA on individuals and the society extend far beyond forced changes to their lifestyles. Currently, thirteen percent of all adults and thirty-three percent of those older than sixty-five years live with OA. This amounts to twenty-seven million Americans (CDC, 2015). In Chester County, twenty-six percent of adults have a certain form of arthritis, of which OA is most likely to be the most common variant (Pennsylvania Department of Health, 2011). These figures indicate that OA currently affects a sizeable portion of both the populations of the US and Chester County. There are risk factors identified, various issues related to an individual’s society and culture contribute to the emergence of OA.

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235-237  



Sulaeman Rahman Nidar, AA Gunawan

This study is an explanatory study to determine the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable. As the dependent variable is the dividend payout ratio. Meanwhile, the independent variable is the variable that is measured by the growth of the company's capital expenditure ratio proxy, state ownership, firm size, profitability, cash flow, and the ratio of dividends last year as a control variable. The study uses panel data with a sample of 46 state-owned companies in the form of a limited liability company engaged non-financial sector with the financial period 2005-2009. The sample selection was purposive sampling that samples deposited SOE dividends during the study period. Hypothesis testing using a fixed-effect regression analysis models. As for overcoming heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation using the method of generalized least squares (GLS). The results found that the company's growth variables and firm characteristics variables simultaneously significant effect on dividend policy. To model the dividend policy, partial, variable capital expenditures, capital structure, firm size, and cash-flow negative and significant to dividend payout ratio, while profitability and state ownership variables having an positive and significant to dividend payout ratio. The study also found that non-listed state-owned companies have an average dividend payout ratio lower than the listed SOEs.

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238-242  



Joshua, E. O, Mokuolu, A. O

Electrical Resistivity (ER) survey was conducted on a Sandy-loam soil with a view to evaluate some selected soil properties. Electrical Resistivity was measured from the soil surface at 0 – 0.3 m (ER30) and 0 – 0.9 m (ER90) soil depths using multi-electrode Wenner array and Miller 400D resistance meter. Soil samples were collected to a depth 0.3 m at points where ER was measured, and analyzed for properties such as Organic Matter (OM), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), Soil Water Content (SWC), Sand, Silt and Clay contents using standard methods. The results indicated that lower ER areas exhibit higher content of soil properties than higher ER areas. The ER90 correlates insignificantly to the soil properties while ER30 correlates significantly to the soil properties, except clay (r = 0.63 - 0.75). The relationship between ER30 and soil properties were best fitted to multiple linear regression (R2 = 0.90) and Boltzmann distribution (R2 = 0.80 - 0.84). The study indicates the ability of ER to delineate some soil properties influencing yield on sandy-loam soil. This will help farmers take decisions that can improve yields.

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243-249  



Parth V. Parikh, Bhinjan A. Dalwadi, Ghanshyam D. Zambare

Image processing requires extensive calculation. Image processing is conventionally done on CPU. Image processing on CPU is slow due to its sequential processing method. However FPGAs can be seen as an option to speed up image processing without increasing the clock speed because they allow parallel processing. In this project FPGA is used to implement the edge detection operation on image. The Sobel algorithm is used to detect the edges in an image. The Sobel algorithm is implemented on Artix®-7 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) from Xilinx® using Hardware Description Language (HDL) and Intellectual Property (IP) cores.

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250-253  



M. Husein Maruapey

Experts in political science and the state of national leadership position as an important factor that is often discussed in all good perspective perspective on local wisdom and teachings of Islam. If researched and studied carefully, the teaching guidelines for indigenous people live or Java with the teachings of the Qur'an and the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad., analysis, that the philosophy of the Javanese, the teachings of the Qur'an, and the Sunnah of Rasul has vertical and horizontal relationships inseparable and indisputable that both synergistic. Both of these components affect public policy in the election of the national leadership until now. The ancestral philosophy applies continues throughout life. Javanese cultural heritage of thinking is even able to broaden one's wisdom. Leadership is one of the urgent problems which disappeared from our people today. Crises in various fields that happen to us due to the absence of clear national goals as our orientation, that is the goal we want to accomplish together that should unite our plans and provide rationality and harmony. Formation of leadership is the problem of the people.

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254-258  



Ria A. Sagum, MCS

Conversation between the agent and client are being evaluated manually by a quality assurance officer (QA). This job is only one of the responsibilities being done by a QA and particularly eat ups a lot of time for them which lead to late evaluation results that may cause untimely response of the company to concerns raised by their clients. This research developed an application software that automates and evaluates the quality assurance in business process outsourcing companies or customer service management implementing sentence similarity. The developed system includes two modules: speaker diarization, which includes transcription and question and answer extraction, and similarity checker, which checks the similarity between the extracted answer and the answer of the call center agent to a question. The system was evaluated for Correctness of the extracted answers, and accurateness of the evaluation for a particular call. Audio conversations were tested for the accuracy of the transcription module which has an accuracy of 27.96%. The Precision, Recall and F-measure of the extracted answer was tested as 78.03%, 96.26% and 86.19% respectively. The Accuracy of the system in evaluating a call is 70%.

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259-262  



Galuh Tresna Murti

This paper is aimed at investigating the correlation between management information system and accounting information system to gain better understanding of each system.After conducting reviews on available literatures, it is concluded in this article that arguments among experts still clearly prevail about both system. Different arguments are not to be eliminated as each argument is supported by adequate literatures, and difference in system is a common thing due to differences in experiences, point of views, and interests of the experts.This paper argues that since management information system is available in every part of an organization, therefore accounting information system is the sub-system of management information system which main objective is to use organization information system effectively.

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263-265  



I Ketut Budaraga, Arnim, Yetti Marlida, Usman Bulanin

This study aims to determine the antioxidant properties of liquid smoke derived from a combination of purification and concentration of different liquid smoke. This study was conducted experimentally using factorial design in completely randomized 8 (eight) x 6 (six) treatment with 3 replications so that there are 144 experimental units. Treatment of purification include purification by distillation temperature of 100 ± 10 ° C; purification by distillation temperature of 140±10°C; purification using activated charcoal, purification using activated charcoal and zeolite mixture (50:50), purification by decantation for 1 day, 2 days and decantation decantation 3 days. Treatment includes the concentration of 1 ppm, 10 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm. Variables observed consisted of the levels of antioxidants in the form of a percentage of inhibition (inhibition). The results showed a highly significant interaction (P <0.01) in the combination of purification with different concentrations of liquid smoke to the percentage of inhibition. The antioxidant activity of liquid smoke of 8 (eight) treatment purification and they are all strong because the IC 50 of 55.92 ppm. Liquid smoke antioxidant levels of 6 (six) different concentrations of liquid smoke are all relatively weak as a result of activity antioxsidant IC50 of 3589.7 ppm. In the combined treatment of 8 (eight) purification with liquid smoke concentration of 1500 ppm produced IC 50 of 43.12 ppm belonging to produce a potent antioxidant activity while the combination of other treatments less antioxidant activity. Based on these results it can be concluded that the antioxidant activity using different purification at a concentration of 1500 ppm liquid smoke is better used than other purification.

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266-273  



Christine Dwi Karya Susilawati

The purpose of this research is to find role of environmental uncertainty on the quality of management information system with the literature review. Environmental uncertainty is the inability of the individual to capture the environmental factors from outside the company who are not sure which affect the companies that will impact on the quality of management information system application, when it lowered the individual's inability to capture the environmental factors from outside uncertain it will improve the quality of management information system application.

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274-277  



Suwandi, Yohanis Robbi Duwiri

The various problems in regional spatial planning in Waropen District, Papua, shows that the Spatial Planning (RTRW) of Waropen District, Papua, drafted in 2010 has not had a positive contribution to the settlement of spatial planning problems. This is most likely caused by the inconsistency in the spatial planning. This study tried to observe the consistency of spatial planning as well as its relation to the regional development performance. The method used to observe the consistency of the preparation of guided Spatial Planning (RTRW) is the analysis of comparative table followed by analysis of verbal logic. In order to determine if the preparation of Spatial Planning (RTRW) has already paid attention on the synergy with the surrounding regions (Inter-Regional Context), a map overlay was conducted, followed by analysis of verbal logic. To determine the performance of the regional development, a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was done. The analysis results showed that inconsistencies in the spatial planning had caused a variety of problems that resulted in decreased performance of the regional development. The main problems that should receive more attention are: infrastructure, development growth, economic growth, transportation aspect and new properties.

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278-281  



Zineb Souhaili

Cystoseira tamariscifolia is a brown alga which represents an important natural biomass on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. Study of the acute toxicity of this species was carried out on Swiss albinos mice. The LD50 was determined through the Spearman-Karber method by injecting the aqueous algal extract to 36 mice organized in lots of 6 animals each for 6 concentrations and the experiments were conducted in triplicates. A dose of 0.5ml of each concentration of the aqueous extract were injected to the mice intraperitonally while the 0.5 ml of saline at 0.9% was injected to the control lot. The anticancerogenic effect study was carried out on murin myelom cells P3/X63-Ag8.653, using different concentrations of the aqueous extract of the alga. The results obtained show a toxic effect of the alga on the mices with LD50 of 738.61±34 µg of alga/ g of body weight. A significant anticancerogenic effect of the extract was also detected on myelom cells; it is propotionnel to the used concentrations.

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282-286  



Benyamin Batmomolin, Endang Yuli Herawati, Guntur

This research was conducted to clarify whether plankton as the primary food source and fish in Inner Ambon Bay (TAD) could accumulate saxitoxin in PSP (Paralylic Shellfish Poisoning) so the information acquired from this research could be used as a basic reference on oceanography studies especially in Ambon Bay, environmental toxicology, environmental bioremediation and a reference on Ambon Bay sustainable water management concept formulation. The research was conducted in East season (June-August 2015) and West season (December 2015 – February 2016). The method used was descriptive method, in situ sampling and enumeration. Hydro-oceanography parameters measured were temperature, salinity, DO (Dissolved Oxygen), pH, phosphate, nitrate and transparency. Dinoflagellate abundance in east season is higher than in west season. It is followed with abundance of dinoflagellates in anchovy fish (Stolephorus heterolobus) gizzard so saxitoxin level in the fish is also higher. Dinoflagellates species found Alexandrium, Protoperidinium, Genyoulax and Dynophysis. ELISA test result on saxitoxin level in anchovy fish was 12.415 μg (east season) and 5.13μg (west season), the concentration was still below saxitoxin toleration level, 80 μg.

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287-291  



Moza Al Hammoudi

The purpose of this research is to analyze the character of Lee Brightman from both literary and psychological perspective. Lee Brightman is a main character in Elizabeth Haynes’s novel Into the Darkest Corner. Lee has psychopathic traits, which fall under the dark triad personalities: narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. After Catharine Baily falls in love with him, he starts to change his attitude towards her. Lee uses emotional, psychological, and physical abuse against Catharine. This research helps to uncover the reasons behind Lee Brightman’s domestic violence. In addition, this research serves as a case study of someone who has psychological problems.

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292-295  



Budiman Rusli, Tora Akadira

Policies Minimum Service Standards for Basic Education has rolled out since 2002 by the minister in accordance with the Decree No. 129a / U / 2004 About Minimum Service Standards Education is continually updated and lastly, Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 23 of 2013. All of the district government / town should achieve the target of achieving 100 per cent in each of the indicators listed in the minimum service standards for the end of 2014. achievement pad on each indicator is just one measure of the performance of the local government (department of education). Unfortunately from the announced target for 27 indicators that exist, almost all regions, including local governments do not reach Tangerang Regency. It is necessary for measuring the performance of local authorities (particularly the education department). One performance measure modern enough that measurements can be done that The Balance Scorecard (BSc). In the Balanced Scorecard is a management tool contemporare complete measure company performance not only of the financial perspective but also non-financial performance, such as: Customer Perspective, Internal Business Processes, and Learning and Growth. This approach is actually ideally suited for multinational companies, because this approach requires very expensive, but can be used to measure the profit performance of the company, in addition to the combination of a long-term strategic and short-strategic. Balanced Scorecard it can also be done in measuring the performance of public sector services as well, by modifying a few things, so it can be used to measure the performance of the public sector including the Performance Measurement Minimum Service Standards for Basic Education.

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296-300  



Anirut Pipatprapa, Hsiang-Hsi Huang, Ching-Hsu Huang

Environmental performance (EP) is a comprehensive sustainable development concept. Thus, determining the suitable EP indicator is an important process. This study combines structural equation modeling (SEM) and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) to identify the priority weight of factors for assessing the EP of Taiwan’s food industry. A SEM approach was used to develop and define EP factors and sub-factors using a questionnaire designed to gather data from 163 managers in the food industry. A FAHP approach was employed to prioritize the scores using a questionnaire to interview 21 experts regarding the different aspects of EP. The SEM results indicate that market orientation (MO), quality management (QM), and innovation capability (IC) have a positive and significant effect on EP. The FAHP results illustrate that quality policy, quality assurance, competitor orientation, and quality control are most important in assessing EP. The findings of this study provide alternative ways to assess EP in the food industry, and assist manager decision-making to reduce the environmental effects of the industry.

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301-305  



Nwidembia, C.V., Odikamnoro, O.O., Nnachi, A.U., Egwuatu, C.C., Nwinyimagu, A. J., Aghanya, I.N., Achi, E.C.

Lack of good drinking water due to contamination by chemicals has been a global menace. It is one of the most serious environmental problems that have greatly impacted human health. Basic quality parameters of domestic water sources in Ebonyi Local Government Area were studied in the months of September, 2014 and October, 2014. Samples were randomly collected from common water sources (well, stream, borehole, and pond) across four communities in the Local Government Area. The physicochemical characteristics of the collected water samples were investigated using standard procedures. The results showed mean pH values of 7.3, 7.8, 6.8 and 7.0 for well, stream, borehole and pond water samples respectively. The colour examination showed: 13 HU, 11 HU, 13 HU, and 16 HU for well, stream, borehole and pond water samples respectively. The turbidity were recorded as 103 NTU (well), 90 NTU (stream), 0.8 NTU (borehole) and 92 NTU (pond). Total dissolved solids (TDS) showed a record of 595 mg/L, 386mg/L, 76 mg/L, and 563 mg/L for well, stream, borehole and pond respectively. Well water recorded 78 mg/L, stream (112 mg/L), borehole (42 mg/L), and pond (795 mg/L) for Total Suspended Solids respectively. Also, the total hardness showed 525 mg/L, 779 mg/L, 44 mg/L, and 837 mg/L for well, stream, borehole and pond water samples respectively. The results show that most of the common sources of water in the studied areas are not good for drinking since the physicochemical variables evaluated mostly exceeded WHO permissible limits. We therefore recommend that water treatment should be paramount as alternative sources of drinking water in the communities should be considered.

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306-311  



Ogueche, P.N,Ogbu, A.E, Dike, C.C, Ugwu, C.E, Okonkwo, C.O.

Toxic metals are widely found in our environment and humans are exposed to them via water, contaminated air, food and soil. Aluminum (AL) belongs to this group of toxic metals. Its neurological effects are well documented but effects on acid and alkaline phosphatases are poorly studied and this the essence of this study. Toxicity of aluminum was investigated based on the elevation of acid and alkali phosphatases in serum of male Wistar albino rats after days 7 and 14 of aluminum (0.38, 3.8 and 38mg/kg body weight) administration respectively. The results showed significant increase (p<0.05) in serum acid phosphatase in the test animals given 38kg/kg after days 14 while serum alkali phosphatase increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the test animals given 3.8 and 38 mg/kg after days 7 and 14 when compared to the control animals. However, lower dose (0.38mg/kg) showed increase in both serum acid and alkali phosphatases respectively but were statistically non-significant (p>0.05) at 7 and 14, as compared to control animals.

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312-315  



Ogueche, Nnamdi.Peter, Ikwuagwu, Emmanuel. Ogbonnaya, Onah, Benjamin. Emenike, Ugwu, Melvin Nnaemeka, Ogbu, Ambrose E.

Lipase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds in substrates such as phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. Lipase (E.C. 3.1.1.3) was extracted from the 5 days germinated bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterrenea) using 0.1M phosphate buffer pH 7.8. The enzyme was purified using 60% ammonium sulphate saturation via precipitation followed by dialysis and column chromatography using carboxymethylcellulose. The partially purified lipase showed optimum activity at pH 10.0 and temperature of 600C. The Km and Vmax were observed to be 6mm and 1120 U/L respectively. Lipase from germinated voandzeia subterrenea has various industrial applications following its stability.

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316-320  



Ian Phil M. Canlas, Rosario M. Canlas, Ma. Victoria D. Naboya, Nancy A. Coton

This study attempted to find out the sense of connectedness to nature of selected Filipino learners. About 381 respondents from Year 4 to Year 12 coming from public central school, national high school, vocational school and a state university located in the central part of the Philippines took the Connectedness to Nature Scale. Computed weighted mean were compared across levels, ages and genders. Results were positive in the elementary and secondary level but disjointed for Year 11 and 12. A difference in the weighted mean was also recorded across genders.

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321-324  



Wisnu Istanto, Syamsul Arifin, Evy Diah Woelansari, Ocky Dwi Suprobowati

Radiation is one of natural phenomenon that often discussed in light, atomic reaction, nuclear application and electromagnetic wave (especially in gamma ray, X ray, and UV light). Commonly, we usually think that they are negative, deadly, and dangerous for living creatures. Radiaton may be correlated with thermal phenomenon, but this reasearch was applied to get audio phenomenon and radiation, especially ultrasonic radiation. Sound is a particle of vibration that propagates through medium and transmitted as longitudinal wave in which the displacement of the medium is parallel to the propagation of the wave. Radiation is the emission of waves in all directions in space, by vibratory sources (transducers) form small balls or knob [2][3][4], this study were irradiating (exposing) to bulk cooking oils. The bulk cooking oil was treated by the ultrasonic exposure (1.5 hours and 3 hours) and 24-hour incubation that it showed no aerobic colony. And besides, the untreated bulk cooking oil showed a few aerobic colonies. And also, the untreated used bulk cooking oil showed more some aerobic colonies. The research results shows that ultrasonic exposure at 48 kHz for 1.5 hours can enhance the microbiological quality of bulk cooking oil for 10 day storage.

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325-327  



Gour Chand Mazumder, Partha Ranjan Biswas, Nasif Shams, Saiful Huque, Md. Habibur Rahman

this paper is about a development work of I-V-Curve tracing system. The system is automatic and replaces manual procedure of conventional I-V-Curve tracing method for Photovoltaic Solar Cell or Panel. This system is basically a combination of several blocks consisted by electronic devices and instrument groups. Some blocks are developed for measurement requirements and some are proprietary. This instrument can be used at solar module assembling industry for panel testing. In recent years there are significant rises on the counts of these types of business in developing countries. As this particular requires much lesser cost in comparison to other such type, it is expected that this device may contribute to solar industry to help manufacturing process and quality control. Universities and laboratories may also find this suitable for their purpose. Although there are some little fluctuations in the acquired data, the system can analyze the module characteristics properly.

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328-333  



Dadan Soekardan

This research discusses how the importance of adopting activity-based costing for the company in order to carry out its business strategy. One objective is to implement activity based costing cost efficiency by cutting costs incurred for non-value added activity. But the phenomenon shows that there are still many companies / organizations are not interested in adopting the activity based costing. This article also outlines the advantages and limitations in adopting activity based costing for the company.

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334-339  



Simplice Prosper Yandia, Christophe Bernard Gandonou, Semballa Silla, Innocent Zinga, Dominique Dambier, Fatiou Toukourou

In order to obtain Friable Embryogenic Callus (FEC) for protoplast isolation, we have evaluated in this research the competance for Friable Embryogenic Callus (FEC) of four cassava cultivars M61/033, Rendre, Yalipe and Six-mois in media containing MS supplemented with 8mg/l 2,4-D; MS supplemented with 10 mg/l BAP and GD supplemented with 12mg/l picloram using apical bud (AB) and immature leaves lobes (ILL) as explants. In general, in the medium GD+12mg/l picloram, the highest efficiencies of FEC ranged from 58 % to 87 % and the highest score of FEC ranged from 4.2 to 5.4 with explants AB, however we have observed with explants ILL, the efficiencies of somatic embryos ranged form 41% to 75% and the score ranged from 4.1 to 4.4. The mediums MS2+8 mg/l 2,4-D have induced with explants AB, the efficiencies of FEC ranged from 43% to 57% and the score ranged from 3.1 to 3.8, however with ILL explants the efficiencies of FEC ranged from 39 % to 49 % and the score ranged from 2.9 to 3.7. The least FEC were observed in the medium MS2+10 mg/l BAP with BA explants, however the efficiencies ranged from 6% to 11% and the score ranged from 1.1 to 1.8. Whereas the efficiencies of FEC with ILL explants ranged from 4% to 7 % and the score ranged from 0.5 to 0.8. All of four cultivars showed capability of producing FEC although their efficiency varied according to gonotype donors explants and medium taking into acount. Abbreviations : GD : Gressoff and Doy, MS : Murashige and Skoog, 2,4-dichloro phenoxyacetic acid, BAP : Benzylamino-purin-Acid , AB : Apical Bud, ILL : Immature Leaves lobes

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340-345  



Rahimov Laziz Abduazizovich

this report illustrates about Humayun architecture. Since Baburid style architecture has started in 1526 in India, he had put so much effort to change to his own Baburid style, which was adopted, from Timurid Tradition. However, Babur’s sudden death did not allow him to develop as he has planned. Therefore, his architecture style was not developed in India. Furthermore, Humayun was inspired from Baburid architecture from what he has done during for four years, although, Humayun is sightseeing was very different compare to Babur. He has brought in architectural sphere extraordinary philosophy. He has ruled over India for some years, during those years he has developed many new styles and he has put so much effort to change past architectural style. Unfortunately, Afghans ruler Sher Shah has attacked India for the reason Humayun had to escape to Persia. The purpose of this report is to identify to which of this rulers belongs misconceptions of those buildings in India.

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346-349  



Demisse Dakone, Awoke Guadie

Pharmacological properties of medicinal plants and various natural products of plant origin lie in the chemical constituents they contain. Thus, in most cases, the principal aim of phytochemical analysis of plants and natural products is to detect, isolate, characterize and identify these chemical substances. This paper reviews scientific works carried out on the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Solanum incanum L. It was understood that various parts of this plant were traditionally used to treat various types of ailments. A study of literature reveals some notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as antimicrobial activity, antimalarial activity, the antinociceptive effects, antioxidative property, immunological effects and many more medicinal values. Various phytochemical analyses carried out on the plant also revealed the presence of vast array of phytocompounds which were medicinally important. There for this paper was reviewed and provided some of the up to date scientific works carried out on this important traditional medicinal plant.

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350-354  



Khaled Hossam, Dr. Adel R. Mikhail, Dr. Ismail M. Hafez, Dr. Wagdy R. Anis

knowing that Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile network, the economical problem of providing electrical energy to mobile BTS stations may be solved to a great extent if renewable energy sources are used. In remote areas, where electric utility is not available, photovoltaic (PV) stand-alone system using storage batteries represent a good solution although it is costly. It is also possible to have a hybrid stand-alone system using diesel generator combined with PV to supply BTS stations in remote areas. In urban areas, PV on grid system is an economical solution. In such a system, during sunshine hours PV system delivers part of its generated energy to BTS station and the rest to grid utility, whereas during night BTS station is supplied by grid to get back what was supplied to the grid during day. The economics of the different proposals is the criterion of optimization i.e. the cost per generated Kwh is the crucial objective function to be minimized. In this work we optimize both stand-alone PV system and PV on grid system to supply remote and urban, indoor or outdoor BTS stations.

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355-363  



Pallavi A. Gade, Roshan G. Chavan, Dhananjay N. Bhavsar

Life is a race if you don’t chase it someone is definitely chase you and will go ahead. Hence to survive in today’s business world every manufacturer has to have some idea and plans for their betterment. Market scenario has nearly change after 1990’s that every manufacturer must go through the global competition, demand for short lead time, demand for variety, small lot sizes and also proliferation of OEM’s. If we have to increase the frequency of delivery without compromising the quality Single Minute Exchange of Dies is the answer. Single Minute Exchange of Dies is not only apply to bottleneck machines it is to be implemented company wide and aim must be to bring all setup time to less than ten minutes in this paper some techniques, basic procedure, problems faced by companies are discussed and solution for them are suggested.

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364-366  



S. Kanchana, J. Faney

The safety management is very important in the process of construction .The traditional methods of construction safety control cannot meet the construction of big project. To ensure the safety of construction and reduce accidents in the process of construction, the current situation and problems we face in construction safety management should be studied first. And then the project risk warning mechanism based on the GIS is constructed according to the problems we faced, to achieve visual monitoring and warning of construction safety risk management and to provide decision support for construction. This project aims to develop a web-based spatial decision support system model for proactive health and safety management in linear construction projects. [5] Currently, health and safety management is usually performed reactively instead of proactive management since hazard identification and risk assessment is mostly performed on paper based documents that are not effectively used at site. An information system relates to a chain of operations lead to planning the observation and collection of data, to storage and analysis of data, to the use of derived information in decision-making processes. To create a web-based, free and open sourced GIS that can work with different data formats by exchanging and presenting data as a real-time map on web.

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367-370  



Abulfazl Akbari, Ahmad Taghavi Moghadam, Hadi Rabiee

In this study 500 specimen of Hemiscorpius persicus scorpions were hunted from South-eastern parts of Iran after morphological diagnosis of samples under stereomicroscope using diagnosis key. The scorpions were milked by electrical stimulation and the venoms were freeze dried. The average of 0.25 mg dry venom was obtained from each scorpion. The amount of soluble protein in the venom after removal of mucus was 96.4 ±2.3 % of crude venom. The toxicity(LD50) of crude venom was 135.33±6.25 µg for each 18-20 gr Albino mice. The SDS-PAGE of the venom revealed 12 proteinic bands with molecular weight ranging from 3.5 to 160 kilo dalton. Phospholipase activity of the venom was determined by using egg yolk as a substrate, found to be 122 unit/mg. the neutralization test was carried out by using Razi polyvalent scorpion antivenom which revealed that 2 mg/ml of antiserum was able to neutralize the Hemiscorpius Persicus venom equivalent to 15 LD50/ml. the immunodiffusion test of antiserum versus H.P venom showed some precipitation lines which confirms the effectiveness of Razi polyvalent scorpion antivenom against the venom of H.P scorpion.

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371-375  



Jacinta S. Kimuyu

The methodology was designed to employ two positioning techniques in order to determine the three-dimensional control space of target points on static metal frame model to be used as space control data in 3D reconstructions in Statscan digital X-Ray imaging. These techniques were digital close-range photogrammetry and precise theodolite positioning method. The space coordinates for the target points were determined 3D using both techniques. Point positioning accuracy 0.5mm in root mean square error of X, Y and Z space coordinates was achieved. The outcome of the comparison of the results obtained from both methods were of satisfactory accuracy hence further use of the control space data in Stastcan imaging and 3D reconstruction.

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376-383  



Sulhan, H.M. Said Karim, Syamsul Bachri, Muhadar

The application of criminal law in Indonesia is quite dynamic and attract public attention because of criminal law at least has a pattern of punishment that are depriving the perpetrators of human rights, such as imprisonment or the death penalty. Criminal law essentially regulates the crime, offense (criminal), and punishment of the perpetrators of crimes and violations. Universally, criminal law in the various countries have to recognize and organize a wide variety of crimes, both crimes that are conventional, such as murder, theft, fraud, and embezzlement; that are extra ordinary crimes such as terrorism, corruption, criminal acts of narcotic and psychotropic substances; as well as criminal acts that are white collar crime as the crime of banking and money laundering.

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384-389  



Majdah M. Zain, A. Abd Rahman Syafar, Lasumange, Fatmawati

This study generally aims at assessing the competitiveness of rice commodities in South Sulawesi, in particular this study is directed to analyze the comparative advantages of rice commodity in South Sulawesi, Inter-island rice trade performance, marking efficiency, and supporting factors of the inter-islands rice trade by the by the strengthening the farmer institutional based on agricultural business. This study was conducted in South Sulawesi using survey method, in which the survey locations (primary data source) are in five regencies of the rice production center and some areas in ports between islands, such as Watangpone (Bone Regency) and Siwa (Wajo Regency) for east and Pare-pare, Pangkajene, and Pinrang for west coast areas. The data gathered are about the farmer group and the farm management, margin and marking cost structure, as well the rice trade pattern between islands in South Sulawesi. In addition, secondary data used is the data of rice production series in South Suawesi and Indonesia (2008-2013), inter-island rice trade data (2012-2014), rice price data (2008-20013). Data was analyzed using Location Quotient (LQ) method, Market Share (MS), Market Concentration Index (IKP), the market integration model and the Kawagoe model measure marking efficiency, and Gravity Model to analyzed the factors that support the rice trade between islands. In the second year there is a production of group-based rice farm management. It ranges from good cultivating process this able to provide the good quality of grain and rice so that the competitiveness of the rice increases to gain bargaining power in marketing. Thus the cultivating system is done based on agricultural business.

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390-393  



Devashish Vikas Gupta

This paper discusses about the momenta of photons in dielectric media. It is one of the unsolved problems in physics, especially optics. The problem took shape when, two scientists came up with two theories, mutually contradicting, with both of them supported by opposing experimental data. How can behaviour of light change in different experimental conditions? What have we missed? Shall we zoom in to the quantum level to explain this phenomenon? Or is it possible to explain it classically? I shall try to explain the variation of momentum with the help of curvature of the wave-front of incident light. We will discuss about the properties of curvature dependence of radiation pressure in media with higher refractive indices than vacuum. We will also derive a formula that accounts both for momentum and curvature, and also introduce the notion of ‘Transition Constant’. It will explain the transition between kinetic and canonical momenta of photons in experiments.

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394-398  



Ahmed Kalaja

The religious tolerance is one of the rarest values of the tradition of the Albanian people. It is widely accepted that Albanian people are well known about these values, about an excellent coexistence among the believers of different religious communities that are in Albania, mainly Muslims and Christians. In this study we bring the essentials of this phenomenon, promotional roots of these values, while viewed from a previously untreated point of view, and in an attempt to answer the questions: Where does it stem from the religious coexistence in Albania? What are the main promoters of this phenomenon? What has been the attitude of the religious clergy in Albania? Have they been and are the imams and priests, the promotion of tolerance and religious coexistence in Albania? These are some of the questions answered in this modest study, focusing on how nice and with how much delicacy the lectures of the Clergy have addressed this issue to the faithful or to the world in general. Since they enjoyed undisputable reputation and influence in the majority of the population, in the most critical moments of national history, the leaders of Muslims believers, not only have promoted tolerance and religious coexistence, but they have considered the believers of other faiths as “brothers” preaching this conviction in front of their Muslim believers. These preaching’s were firstly begun by VehbiDibra, who was the first Chairman of the Muslims and all clerics without exception to this day. Also unforgettable are the sermons of priests like: Fr. GjergjFishta, Fr. ShtjefënGjeçovi, or Metropolitan VisarionXhuvani to conclude with pearls of Orthodox priest, Fan S. Noli, who amazed the world with his three speeches in front of world leaders, the League of Nations, being representative of all Albanians, although Orthodox believers were only 20% of the population.

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399-403  



Nur Zeina Maya Sari,SE,MM

Abstract: Management Information System growth cause change of role from all manager in decision making the information technology. While prima facie reason for the usage of information technology in business to support, such a manner so that information system may operate better ( O'Brien& Marakas, 2004). Its meaning with existence of information tekhnology in management information system (SIM) company management decision making which initially often pursued by many factor of non technical become accurately is, relevant, complete and on schedule

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CURRENT PUBLICATIONS
ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - December 2017 - Volume 6 Issue 12