International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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IJSTR Volume 2- Issue 1, January 2013 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Hossein Shahinzadeh, Mohammad Moien NajafAbadi, Mohammad Hajahmadi, Ali Paknejad

Abstract:- Electricity production is one of the country's economic strength foundations. Therefore, it has been considered to increase electricity production and its value-added in recent decades. In this respect, with the orientation and access to advanced technology, application and use of clean energy and renewable systems has considerable development for human energy needed. Ease of access and use of solar energy has placed it in proper position. The sun is the largest source of earth's energy supply which energy issued from it, is used by different ways to provide energy needed (fossil fuels and non-fossil). When we know that the solar radiation energy using photovoltaic systems directly and without intermediates is converting into electrical energy, it will be more important in the energy conversion systems. In this paper the during introducing of photovoltaic systems as a new energy systems, they are described types of photovoltaic cells and its applications. Also It examines the economic issues in the power supply in Isfahan Museum Park. Keywords

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Loubet Unyendje, Mustapha Mahfoud, Mohamed Barrada

ABSTRACT:- The inferior dislocation of the shoulder is rare injury that concerns only 1.01 %of shoulder dislocations of our research . The purpose is to broaden the knowledge about information and to determine the actual incidence rate .We report three cases of pure luxatio erecta seen at emergency service of IBN SINA hospital, collected between 2010 and 2011. We had two men and one woman whose average age was 44 years. The right shoulder was dislocated in two cases.The dislocation was unilateral and the indirect mechanism in all cases was reported: fall from a considerable height on the upper limb in great abduction or antepulsion. All cases presented with the typical attitude of liberty statue; arm in hyper abduction. The diagnosis was clinical and confirmed by radiography picture Treatment consists of a reduction in emergency under general anesthesia, a good immobilization and early re-education to promote good progress. No complications were reported after twenty two months. The functional long term prognosis is excellent. In all cases, the rehabilitation was full and six months after the injury they were returned to full activity.

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Dr. Puneet Batra

Abstract:- Factors that affect the management of maxillary defects are the presence of teeth, amount of remaining support area and defect characteristics. When these factors are not favorable and negatively impact the treatment outcome, then successful prosthetic management of the defect becomes more challenging. For good prognosis, sufficient retention of the prosthesis is a prerequisite. Simultaneously, the prosthesis should be comfortable to the supporting and surrounding tissues, which have undergone surgery. Moreover, these tissues exposed to oral environment are not used to it. So, the material used to fabricate prosthesis should be a flexible acrylic which is softer and more friendly to these tissues. This presentation describes a method of fabricating a obturator with a material called Lucitone FRS(Flexible resin system) Dentsply U.S.A, for a patient with acquired maxillary defect following surgery. Flexible material was used to improve retentive quality of the prosthesis along with convenience and comfort of the patient.

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Takesure Betah

Abstract:- Zimbabwe, once a breadbasket of Southern Africa, faced the worst financial crisis in 2008. This study critically examined the degree of corporate disclosure and transparency using annual reports of 2007 and 2008 of listed companies in Zimbabwe and analysed corporate disclosure practices as a function of specific firm characteristics. The analysis used the disclosure and transparency scores extracted from a survey instrument designed to rate disclosure practices of publicly listed companies by using the OECD Corporate Governance Principles as an implicit benchmark. The methodology utilised was mainly on quantitative research. The researcher constructed a corporate disclosure and transparency model. Undue influence on the model parameters was investigated using standardised residuals and Cook's distance measures. Since the diagnostics for the regression model used in this study is a good fit of the observed data, the results can be generalized to the wider population of Zimbabwean companies. This study indicates that Zimbabwean publicly listed companies have low levels of corporate disclosure and transparency. Overall, the empirical results show that Zimbabwean firms' are weakest in the role of stakeholders in corporate governance. Furthermore, the results indicate that the variability in corporate disclosure and transparency scores can best be explained in terms of accounting standards and total debt to total assets (leverage). The results are broadly consistent with the notion that good corporate governance leads to better corporate disclosure and transparency in less developed markets. The research findings in this study are comparable to similar studies during financial crisis of 1997 that swept through most of East Asia and to World Bank Group-ROSC of 2000.

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K. K. Sahu, Sourav Mishra, Satya S. Sahoo

ABSTRACT:- In this paper Upgraded Maximum Urgency First (UMUF) scheduling algorithm has been proposed. This algorithm is a further improvement in MMUF algorithm [1] and is a mixed priority scheduling algorithm which combines the advantages of both fixed and dynamic scheduling for better CPU utilization and throughput. The prime objective of this paper is to improve modified maximum urgency first scheduling (MMUF) using LPB (Laxity per Burst time) as the dynamic priority. UMUF algorithm is mainly suited for real time systems where meeting of deadlines is an important criterion for scheduling. This proposed algorithm improves the Modified Maximum Urgency First scheduling algorithm for real time tasks proposed by V.Salmani et.al [1] and the experimental analysis shows that the proposed algorithm(UMUF algorithm) performs better than MMUF [1] and MUF[6] scheduling algorithm by minimizing average turnaround time, average waiting time and maximizing the throughput. General Terms:- Earliest Deadline First scheduling(EDF), Upgraded Maximum Urgency First scheduling (UMUF), Least Laxity First scheduling(LLF), Modified Least Laxity First scheduling(MLLF), Maximum Urgency First scheduling (MUF), Modified Maximum Urgency First scheduling (MMUF), Scheduling

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Fakunle P. B, Ajibade A. J

ABSTRACT:- Neurohistological integrity of hippocampus when exposed to starvation was investigated in thirty adult wistar rats of average weight 200g . They were acclimatized for 2weeks on standard laboratory mouse chow and provided water ad libitum. They were subsequently randomly distributed into 3 groups (n=10) of Control C, Treatment T1 and Treatment T2. Treatments T1 and T2 animals were exposed to starvation periods of 3 and 14days respectively and sacrificed by whole-body intracardiac perfusion fixation under gravity for routine histological techniques. Statistical analysis showed significant body weight loss P0.05 in T1(Meanħsem, 194.8ħ6.1)g compared to the control section with Meanħsem,225.0ħ6.21g.Histoarchitecture of treatment group T2 revealed distinct hippocampal subfields of CA1,CA2,CA3 and the DG (Dentate Gyrus) with pyknotic pyramidal cells and scantily distributed glial cells compared to the control, these findings were less marked in the T1 cells while the control group cells appeared normal. Also, significantly(P<0.05) reduced neuronal population of 11%, 8% and 14 % in CA1, CA2 and CA3 subfields respectively for Treatment group T1 compared to the control group.The neuronal transverse diameter for the pyramidal cells revealed statistically significant(P<0.05) values MeanħSEM (1.20ħ0.01)µm was obtained in treatment group T1 compared to the control group.Long term starvation has severe and deleterious effects on the cellular integrity of hippocampus, it may thus underline problems associated with memory and learning.

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Imran Khan, M. Jakub Oleszko

Abstract:- Telecommunication traffic (voice, data etc.) is increasing day by day. So to meet the capacity demand, in this paper we have designed and verified a high capacity optical fiber communication system through simulation. We simulated a 40 Gbps single optical fiber link for telecommunication traffic transmission which could be possible to implement in developing countries with few modifications in their existing optical fiber transmission link. We used Rsoft-OptSim commercial software to simulate it. Designed single optical fiber link length was 1000 km and the bit error rate found was 4.29e-10. Next, we used 8 channels WDM system in this link to get higher data transmission capacity which was 320 Gbps and the center channel i.e. 1550 nm, bit error rate found was 2.7362e-12.

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Arul Xavier V. M, Angelin Jeyaseeli D

Abstract:- Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have recently used in many applications like surveillance, military applications, etc. In such applications, the sensor nodes are expected to be work long period of time without recharging their batteries. To extend the network lifetime, some sleep scheduling techniques always used, which may cause communication delay in large scale WSNs. In this paper, we present the challenges in the design of delay efficient sleep scheduling, comparison of different approaches in terms of performance metrics and future outlook of communication delay in WSN.

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Sandipon Saha, Md. Nasim Akhter, Mohammod Abul Kashem

Abstract:- Since the invention of the movable head disk, people have improved I/O performance by intelligent scheduling of disk accesses. Processor speed and memory capacity are increasing several times faster than disk speed. This disparity suggests that disk I/O performance will become an important bottleneck .Methods are needed for using disks more efficiently. Past analysis of disk scheduling algorithms has largely been experimental and little attempt has been made to develop algorithms with provable performance guarantees. Disk performance management is an increasingly important aspect of operating system research and development. In this paper a new disk scheduling algorithm has been proposed to reduce the number of movement of head. It is observed that in existing scheduling algorithms the number of head movement is high. But we proposed a new real-time disk scheduling algorithm that reduces the head movement therefore it maximizes throughput for modern storage devices.

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Syafruddin Amir

Abstract:- The influence of the ideology of neo-liberalism with a set of values such as individualism, materialism, secularism, hedonism, rationalism, materialism, the high of consumerism culture and the effect of market culture with the values of capitalism has hit the Indonesian national identity with a democratic political life, so that we as a nation of Indonesia almost forgotten the values of its own local culture and religion which we believe. In effect, values and local wisdom did not give color Indonesia education. However, more influenced by western values compared with the European community and the United States though. The author tries to present "Integrity Of Pancasila Philosophy As Character Education Nation Indonesia" which is expected to provide the best solutions for education in Indonesia is more colored by the values of the partial, not integrated, which will be presented by some of the experts of education in Indonesia.

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Adeigbe O.C, Ola-Buraimo A.O, Moronhunkola A.O.

ABSTRACT:- Palynological investigation was carried out on a sedimentary sequence of Emi- 1 well ranging in depth from 900-8000ft (247-2440m) with a view towards determining the lithological sequence, palynological zones, relative age and paleoenvironment of deposition.Three main palynozones were identified, these include Magnastriatites howardii/P680 zone characterized by quantitative base occurrence of Pachydermites diederixi and co-occurrence of Borteria sp, Magnastritites howardii and Racemonocolpites hians; dated Early Miocene; Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni/P700 zone 2 characterized by assemblage of Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni, Belskipollis elegans, Verrutricolporites rotundiporus, and Psilatricolporites crassus, dated Middle Miocene and Echitricolporites spinosus/P820 and Younger zone 3, characterized by co-occurrence of Multiareolites formosus, Anthocerus sp and Nymphae lotus, dated Late Miocene age. Paleoenvironmental deductions were based on the relative abundance of mangrove pollen to grass pollen, presence of environmentally diagnostic dinoflagellates and incursion of freshwater algae into the setting. The paleoenvironment varies from fluvial, swampy through marginal marine to open marine setting.

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Subhabrata Gangopadhyay, Uma Basu

Abstract:- The problem of scattering of capillary waves by a semi-infinite dock with a porous undulatory sea bed is attempted using perturbation technique. Two different eigen function expansions of the velocity potential function on the two sides of the surface discontinuity are constructed. An integral expression for first order reflection coefficient is arrived at involving the bottom shape function. The first order reflection co-efficient is graphically depicted in case of a sinusoidal bottom topography for various values of the porous parameter and selected values of the surface tension parameter.

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John Baptist Kirabira, Hillary Kasedde, Dominic Semukuuttu

Abstract:- The occurrence of Lake Katwe salt deposit in Western Uganda is well-known through the East African region. Production of salt from this saline lake has been practiced for decades following traditional methods; however the quality and yield of the products are poor. There are also risks of burns, as the workers get into direct contact with the brine. Detail assessment and evaluation of the mine has been done through field studies, raw sample materials analysis. Results indicate that the raw brine from the lake is rich in sodium, chloride, potassium, carbonates, sulphate ions with traces of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions. This motivates the aspiration to properly extract salts from such a rich source. The lake brines contain impurities such as organic matter and suspended solids. With increasing demand for usage of sustainable technologies for salt extraction, the present study calls for the improvement of salt extraction at Lake Katwe through optimizing the use of the current solar evaporation technique while integrating it with a mechanized chemical separation process. This would ensure better recovery and process efficiencies, low costs and simple brine pre-treatment procedures.

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Prashant Rewagad, Nisha A Lodha

Abstract:- This paper based on research related Ad hoc networks does not rely on dedicated network devices. It relay or route messages from a source to a destination. As there is no global coordinator, nodes have to organize themselves to avoid scalability issues that may arise when the size of the network is growing. Virtual backbones, by selecting a subset of network nodes and / or communication channels, are a set of techniques mimicking the infrastructure in the classical network paradigm. Ad hoc virtual backbones however are not composed of dedicated devices but from regular network nodes which were selected to help relaying messages. The connected dominating set (CDS) has been extensively used for routing and broadcast in wireless ad hoc networks. While existing CDS protocols are successful in constructing CDS of small size, they either require localized information beyond immediate neighbours, lack the mechanism to properly handle nodal mobility, or involve lengthy recovery procedure when CDS becomes corrupted.

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Varsha Gupta, Prakash Bakre

Abstract:- Our aim to establish the metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn) levels of Mammalian scat samples deriving from sanctuaries of western Rajasthan and comaprision between the concentrations of Talchaper Blackbuck Sanctuary, Churu and Dhavadoli Protected Area, Jodhpur. Restrictions on the sampling because of Wildlife Protection Act (1972) prevents taking of samples of living tissues to analyse body burdens of contaminants that the wildlife may be carrying, fecal samples were analysed. According to our results the concentrations of metals (ug/g (ppm) dry weight) in fecal samples were higher in the samples of Talchaper then the Dhavadoli. They were in the range of 9.86 to 24.24 (Pb), ND to 0.49 (Cd), 2.45 to 6.62 (Cr), 12.19 to 22.69 (Cu) and ND to 12.61 (Zn) in Talchaper whereas in Dhavadoli, 0.76 to 1.55 (Pb), 0.72 to 1.26 (Cd), 1.14 to 4.71 (Cr), 12.21 to 17.7 (Cu) and 4.53 to 9.61 (Zn). Vegetation, soil, salt and water of Talchaper Blackbuck Sanctuary, Rajasthan showed good concentration whereas Dhavadoli samples showed background concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu & Zn).

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Basharia A. A. Yousef, Ahmed A. D. Elshareef, Mubaruk A. K. Ibraheem,Samer S. Alsayed

Abstract:- This study is to evaluate the effect of air conditioning type on indoor air quality (IAQ) of healthcare facilities. The study was conducted by visiting several hospitals in Khartoum that use different type of air conditioning system. The tools used for data collection include questionnaire, personal communication as well as individual observation during the visiting. The result showed that the indoor air quality depends on the used air conditioning system. Hence good ventilation can be provided by choosing the appropriate air conditioning type.

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Cobbina, S. J., Myilla, M, Michael, K.

Abstract:- Most people in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa are poverty stricken. They support their livelihoods by the exploitation of natural resources in their vicinity which often result in environmental degradation. This study was carried out in Datuku in the Talensi-Nabdam District in the Upper East region of Ghana to assess the effect of small scale gold mining on the quality of drinking water in the community. Water quality was based on physico-chemical analysis of samples collected from water source in the community. A total of seventy-two water samples were collected from surface and ground water sources in the study area for a period of six months and analysed. Generally many of the parameters analysed were well within the World Health Organisation's (WHO) recommended limits for drinking water quality. pH ranged from 6.72 to 7.95 (7.3), conductivity ranged from 204 to 1565 us/cm (666.5 us/cm), chloride ranged from 8 to 113 mg/l (44.13 mg/l), sulfate ranged from 4.7 to 428 mg/l (39.81 mg/l) and 0.018 to 19.41 mg/l (2.23 mg/l) for total iron. A few of the parameters were however, above WHO's limits. Turbidity, nitrate, cadmium, total iron, manganese and arsenic levels were higher than WHO's recommended limits for drinking water quality. Turbidity ranged from 1 to 447 NTU (55 NTU), nitrate ranged from 0.15 to 595 (47.1), cadmium ranged from 0.005 to 0.029 mg/l (0.014 mg/l), manganese ranged from 0.036 to 2.24 mg/l (0.66 mg/l) and 0.001 to 0.009 mg/l (0.003 mg/l) for arsenic.

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Heri Hidayat, Siti Aisah

ABSTRACT:- This article writing purpose is to analyze (correlation) the connection or relatedness among reading interest variable with student study performance in IPS subject grade IV in elementary School. It is used analysis method is quantitative analysis that is to look for a connection among read interest with student study performance. This research is conducted in SDN I Pagerwangi Lembang, with number of analysis unit as much as one subject, with research object (student) as much as 38 students. The research has shown that (1) student read interest of grade IV SDN I Pagerwangi Lembang is good enough. It is based on computing result of student answer category on read interest variable as much as 57.1%. (2) Student study performance of grade IV in IPS subject in SDN I Pagerwangi Lembang is good enough. It is based on computing result of student answer category on study performance variable as much as 48.6%. (3) There is significant connection among student study performance with read interest on IPS subject in SDN I Pagerwangi Lembang. It is based on computing result obtained significant rate (0.003) < significance level (0.05) with correlation coefficient of Rank Spearman (rs) as much as 0.485 is significant enough relation.

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Dhanalakshmi. T, Rajendran. S

ABSTRACT:- Water is the source and basis of all living things. The contamination of water is the major concern in the developing countries. In conventional wastewater treatment systems, chlorine have been used to disinfect the final effluent as it has several detrimental effects, replacement of chlorine is obviously necessary. Traditionally copper vessels are being used to treat and preserve the drinking water for house hold purposes. Therefore In this investigation attempts were made to study the possibility of employing copper micro particles to disinfect various water borne bacterial species. The result revealed that copper micro particles showed maximum inhibitory effect on E.coli, Salmonella and minimum on Shigella at the incubation time of 6hrs and the above. This finding indicated that copper containing antimicrobial properties and it can be used in the treatment of water borne pathogens.

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Y. Sravani, K. Rambabu, A. Ranjit Kumar

ABSTRACT:- Echo cancellation is one unavoidable module in any voice related communication systems such as telephone, mobile and VOIP. In several applications run time high speed echo cancellation can give better quality of service. Real time echo cancellation is an important feature for hands-free operation of telecommunication equipment like mobile phones. A desirable acoustic echo control should be capable of handling double-talk as well. In this paper, we successfully implement a novel hardware architecture that is based on a robust adaptive algorithm in combination with a two-path model to tackle the double-talk situation. The echo canceller is working in the frequency domain and is improved by bit-width optimization to enhance computational efficiency. In experiments, our implementation of the hardware acceleration of the echo-canceller is fast and outperforms common software implementations running on microprocessors: an implementation with 4 instances of the filter on a Xilinx XC4VFX60 FPGA running at 137MHz can run 40 times faster than software on a 3.2GHz Core 2 Duo Pc. Besides, the hardware acceleration also reduces 90% of the power consumption when compared to a pure soft-core implementation. Our results suggest that the employed hardware architecture is also very energy-efficient.

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Md Gaffar Hossain Shah

Abstract:- There has been significant growth and interest in Cause Related Marketing (CRM) over the past few years. An important element of cause related marketing is the level of customer awareness and involvement.Cause Related Marketing is simply marketing with a worthy cause. Together, these powerful alliances (not-for-profit organizations and companies) can successfully work together with unique marketing tools to influence change and create better solutions. CRM is a form of marketing that uses various strategies, tools and traditional advertising methods to change attitudes, perceptions and behaviors as they relate to social issues. Non-profit organizations and companies form alliances to market images, services and products. People have a more favorable view of a company that contributes or sponsors a cause that they think is worthy. For instance, people are more likely to be interested in a company that is contributing to cancer research than one that is contributing to insect research. Cause Related Marketing is an exciting concept where both business and charity (or good causes) can benefit. It also attracts new sources of funds, resources and support. It is an innovative and potentially powerful tool to improve the lives and well-being of individuals, create environments that support social objectives, re-orient social services to be customer-driven, develop social capital, lead to improved public policies, and ultimately, achieve social goals. This research paper focuses the practices of cause related marketing of some of the selected firms and how it affects the consumer in our country as a new policy.

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Enung Nurjanah

Abstract:- The purpose of this study was to determine the form and the modernization process, the goal of modernization of Islamic Education in Rural Family, the causal factors, as well as the barriers and benefits. This study uses descriptive analytic phenomenological approach. The methods and approach was chosen because of direct relevance to life, especially in the modernization of Islamic education in rural families. With a phenomenological approach, is expected to interpret the meaning and content of the description of the phenomena that occur in the field in depth. The measures taken include: observation, interviews, documentation, and literature. The research concludes that modernization has its own form. Forms modernization of Islamic education in rural families, the existence of thought towards a more extensive and progressive, the existence of more tolerant religious behavior and mutual respect among the members of society, no longer recognize the existence of hostility and strife

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Syed Enam Reza, Mou Mahmood, A. S. M Kaikobad, Ehasanul Kabir, Nahid-ur-Rahman Chowdhury

Abstract:- This paper covers the development of a new smart distributed DC Micro-grid system, especially in rural areas in order to utilize energy available from distributed, renewable generators. The proposed DC micro-grid system is hybrid in nature and it utilizes the proper use of renewable as well as fossil fuel resources. It is normally fitted for residential and small commercial applications as well as for powering sustainable rural communities where the electricity from main grid is not available. In dc grid system we can store the excess amount of power during the low load demand period which is economical compared to the ac grid system which needs to keep their inverters switch on all the time.

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Afshan Ilyas, Shagufta Jahan, Mohammad Ayyub

Abstract:- This paper presents a method for tuning of conventional PID controller. Simplicity, robustness, wide range of applicability and near-optimal performance are some of the reasons that have made PID control so popular in the academic and industry sectors. Recently, it has been noticed that PID controllers are often poorly tuned and some efforts have been made to systematically resolve this matter. Thus Fuzzy logic can be used in context to vary the parameters values during the transient response, in order to improve the step response performances. Simulation analysis has been carried out for the different processes by conventional and different defuzzification techniques and the results indicate that the values of percentage overshoot are reduced by using fuzzy logic mechanism.

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Ammar A. Yousif Mohammed, Inzarulfaisham Abd Rahim

Abstract:- Brake squeal is an example of noise caused by vibrations induced by contact forces. During brake operation, the contact between the pad and the disc can induce a dynamic instability in the system. The brake squeal which occurs in the frequency range of 1-20 kHz is investigated with the plate on disc as a new model that's presented in this paper to study the instability of the system. The squeal events treated in this paper were identified to be dynamic instabilities of the brake system. The ANSYS product finite element software in 3-D with Matrix27 as a contact element was used to simulate the behavior of the plate-disc system. Coulomb's friction was used at the contact surface with a constant coefficient value. The contact stiffness and the friction coefficient were changed during the simulation in order to analyze the occurrence of the squeal. For this application, temporal simulations showed that separation occurred between surfaces, confirmation of instabilities. It also showed that, the vibrations responsible for the instability were localized in the contact properties. The mode responsible for squealing was obtained by using the modal analysis of the plate-disc system and assuming that the interface was stuck. The result has shown that the maximum degree of instability appeared as a result of changing the contact stiffness effect rather than changing the friction coefficient.

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Atot Sugiri

Abstract:- This study is aimed at finding out the influence of implementing boarding house system towards the primary school students' development. The methodology used is qualitative approach, particularly phenomenology study. The findings suggest that there are some advantages and disadvantages of the boarding house system. The advantages include the habituation of prayings, good deeds, and learning optimization. On the other hand, the advantages deal with the student-parent disattachment, pattern of parenting, and boredom.

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Fahd A.Q. Al-qaraafi, Yao Guangqing

Abstract:- Problem statement: The study area is located between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The area was subjected to many tectonic movements that led to the formation of a complex structural environment. The present work is to study the different structural features of folding and faulting. Approach: The study evaluated the tectonic settings from previous studies and developed a three-dimensional structure model using petrel software and through the analysis of core samples. Result: Tectonic movement is the main reason for the deformation of the sedimentary basin and for the division of the basin from north to south. Moreover, the Yanshan and Himalayan movements have led to the division of the basin system into Yanqi uplift, static depression, and the Bohu depression. The Yanshan (Early Jurassic) movement is also responsible for the folding of the sedimentary layers because of the southwest (SW)-northwest (NW) pressure resulting from the subduction of the Indian plate beneath the Eurasian plate. Due to the inhomogeneity of the movement force, the compression force in the middle of the fold is much greater than at the peripheries. The axis of this folding extends from northsouth (NS) to southeast; therefore, the resultant fold axis is in the NS of the southern part. The northeast (NE) limp dips 45° while the SW limp dips 11°. This folding is accompanied by the formation of a series of complex faulting. This series of faulting is divided into three groups according to location, comprising NE, NW, and central parts. The biggest fault is F1, which extends for 7 km. Most of the faults are parallel to the fold axis.

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Dr. Bawa Demuyakor, Dukrog T. M., Chikpah S. K

Abstract:- As part of research towards building a data base for the study of yam germplasm in Ghana, a baseline study was carried out to ascertain the storage properties and challenges faced in the protection of yam biodiversity. The survey was conducted in six districts of the Northern region of Ghana which are the major yam production areas. Questionnaires were administered to yam farmers and sellers in each of these districts to elucidate information on harvesting, and storability of available yam varieties. Forty-six (46) varieties were encountered. The yams were largely characterised as short storage and long storage types. Short storage varieties were early sprouting, early maturing, and prone to yam rot. They include lariboko, kpuna, yiri, kulunku, sangaguo and gunguma. Long shelf life varieties were late sprouting, late in maturing, and more resistant to rot. They include olondo, mpuano, akaaba, kparinjo, limo, fugura and kparinsi. Varieties noted to be nearing extinction were kinima, nimo, kunkuma, pupu, chamba and sung. Some of the factors contributing to their nearing extinction or being limited in cultivation included unavailability of setts, poor yield, and low market value.

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Fahd A. Q. Al-qaraafi, Yao Guangqing

Abstract:- Problem statement . The Yanqi Basin is located in the xinjaing district NW of China, Sangonghe formation (Early Jurassic) consists mainly of several layers which are characterized by a complex geological landscape. The aim of the research is the characterization of sand Sequence stratigraphic for III member in Sangonghe Formation .Method Through create thickness maps which are essentially information well logs with data well , and using petrel software was introduced information for a number 124 wells in the study area and by identifying the limits of sand vertical (top and base) per lithology unit In each well, then investigate a correlation between these wells and then build maps sand thickness of the III member part in Sangonghe Formation. Result determines the five layers of small sand which clearly show the well logs curves return to main classes sand layers III1 and III2 that make up this part of the sangonghe formation. Characterized layer III11 continuity good cover most of the study area and up to a maximum thickness of have to 32 m. Also layer III12 covers most of the study area up to a maximum thickness of have to 48 m while the layer III13 is composed of two parts of the first located in the north of the study area and up thickness to 32 m and the second part in the south have a maximum thickness of 20 m, up to a maximum thickness III21 to 26 m also III22. Overall, All layers of sand accounts for 90% of the total content of classes that make up the third part of the composition of sangonghe formtion. the difference rapid levels thickness caused by the presence of a series of faults affected the structure of synthetic layers. That a gradual decrease in the thickness of the layers of sand and down the thickness to zero or nearly it suggests that the direction of flow of the river will be mainly from the northeast toward the southwest.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2022 - Volume 11 Issue 1